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Flashcards in Pericardial Effusion Deck (29)
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1

What is pericardial effusion?

Pericardial space filled with excessive fluid

2

What results from pericardial effusion?

Decreased/inadequate cardiac output

3

What dictates the onset and severity of clinical signs assoc. w/pericardial effusion?

Amt of fluid and rate at which the pericardial space fills

4

Intrapericardial pressure equals or exceeds R atrial pressure resulting in CV and hemodynamic compromise

Cardiac tamponade

5

What emergency/life-saving procedure can also be used as a diagnostic procedure to evaluate pericardial effusion?

Pericardiocentesis

6

Where is the pericardial space located?

Between parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardium

7

Why does cardiac dysfunction result from pericardial effusion?

Too much pressure for the heart to expand and fill

8

A form of cardiogenic shock that develops when the intrapericardial pressure equals or exceeds R atrial pressure

Cardiac tamponade

9

What cardiac parameters are impaired with cardiac tamponade?

Venous return, ventricular filling, SV, and CO

10

What is the most common neoplastic cause of pericardial effusion in the heart of a dog?

Hemangiosarcoma (RA/auricle)

11

What toxicity can cause coagulopathy that leads to pericardial effusion?

Rodenticide toxicity

12

Which side of CHF can cause pericardial effusion in dogs?

R-CHF (either in cats)

13

What is the most common neoplasm of the heart in a cat?

Lymphosarcoma

14

What infectious disease of cats can cause pericardial effusion?

FIP

15

What is the most common cause of pericardial effusion in a horse?

Idiopathic

16

What is the most common cause of pericardial effusion in a cow?

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis (Hardware dz)

17

What are clinical signs of pericardial effusion?

Muffled heart sounds, poor pulse quality, jugular vein distension

18

What will you see on rads of a pericardial effusion?

Round cardiac silhouette, large caudal vena cava, hepatomegaly

19

Pattern of alternating variation in R-wave amplitude

Electrical alternans

20

What will you see on an ECG of a pericardial effusion?

Tachycardia, VPCs, electrical alternans

21

What is the gold standard for diagnosing pericardial effusion?

Echo

22

What type of fluid is most frequently retrieved from a pericardial effusion?

Hemorrhagic

23

What clinicopathologic findings are assoc. w/pericardial effusion?

Anemia, pre-renal azotemia, pulsus paradoxus

24

Exaggeration of the normal inspiratory decrease in systolic blood pressure

Pulsus paradoxus

25

How do you treat pericardial effusion in small animals?

Pericardiocentesis, pericardectomy

26

What is the treatment of choice for idiopathic pericardial effusion in small animals?

Pericardectomy

27

What are complications of a pericardiocentesis?

VPCs, laceration of the coronary artery, sudden death

28

How do you treat idiopathic pericardial effusion in horses?

Indwelling chest tube + drainage and lavage

29

How do you treat TRP in cattle?

Usually PTS if severe, magnet in reticulum