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Flashcards in Hx and PE Findings Deck (52)
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1

Exercise intolerance, decr. growth, and muscle wasting suggest what type of problem with the heart?

Compromised forward output

2

Ascites and pleural effusion causing dyspnea/tachypnea suggest what problem with the heart?

R-CHF

3

Coughing and exercise intolerance 2* resp compromise suggest what problem with the heart?

L-CHF

4

How can L-CHF cause coughing?

Enlarged L atrium compressing L bronchus

5

What is a common PE finding in cats with CHF?

Low core temp

6

Systemic hypertension may present with what non-cardiac clinical signs?

Ocular lesions/sudden blindness, neuro signs

7

How is BP usually measured in small animals?

Doppler, oscillometric

8

What is normal systolic BP in dogs?

120-150mmHg

9

What is normal systolic BP in cats?

110-140mmHg

10

What is the first (S1) heart sound heard on auscultation?

AV valve closure

11

What is the second (S2) heart sound heard on auscultation?

Semilunar valve closure

12

If you hear a split S2, what does this indicate?

Pulmonic valve closes later than aortic valve, R-CHF

13

When does a systolic click occur?

Between S1 and S2

14

What does a systolic click indicate?

Valve prolapse (often first sign of MVD)

15

Is a gallop rhythm a systolic or diastolic sound?

Diastolic

16

With what heart problems is S3 heard in small animals?

DCM or LV volume overload

17

With what heart problems is S4 heard in small animals?

Atrial kick, non-compliant ventricle

18

Rapid passive filling causes what heart sound?

S3

19

Which gallop sound is the "gallop of heart failure"?

S3

20

Are S3 and S4 normal or abnormal in large animals?

Normal

21

What is the most common cause of a diastolic murmur?

Aortic regurg (older horse, valve degeneration)

22

What is the most common cause of a holosystolic murmur in dogs?

Mitral regurg

23

Where will you auscult a mitral regurgitation?

L apex

24

In small breed dogs with mitral regurgitation, what is the pathogenesis of the condition?

Mitral valve degeneration

25

In large breed dogs with mitral regurgitation, what is the pathogenesis of the condition?

DCM

26

If a younger animal has mitral regurgitation, what is the likely cause?

Mitral valve dysplasia

27

What causes mitral regurgitation in cats?

Mitral valve dysplasia, systolic anterior motion (SAM)

28

Where will you best hear a tricuspid regurgitation?

R apex

29

Why is a tricuspid regurgitation usually lower intensity than a mitral regurgitation?

Lower pressures in the R heart

30

What is the most common cause of tricuspid regurgitation?

Endocardiosis