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Flashcards in cardio 3 Deck (172)
1

white clot syndrome, associated with increased use of heparin,

heparin induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis

2

what does the spleen do with blood

removes old and defective RBCs from circulation, returns iron from Hgb to bone marrow for reuse, storage for platelet mass (30%)

3

malignant change in lymphocytes causing tumors in lymphoid tissue

lymphoma

4

disease in which gastric mucosa is not secreting IF bc of antibodies being directly against the gastric parietal cells and or IF itself

pernicious anemia

5

what populations are affected by iron deficiency anemia

pregant, menstrating women

infants, children adolescents

those with poor diets

6

cardiac output =

stroke volume x HR

7

one of the most common hematological disorders world wide

iron deficiency anemia

8

what begins the clotting process

platelets

9

disease confined to only one lymph node or region

Stage I

10

thr force exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels

blood pressure

11

painless moveable enlarged lymph nodes on one side of the body

hodgkins lymphoma

12

if a pts hemoglobin is below 8 what must be done

place pt on 3 liters via NC

13

what blood product would you need to control or prevent bleeding caused by thrombocytopenia

(30-50ml bag infused over 30-60 minutes)

platelets

14

carry fluid to lympatic duct or thoracic duct

lymph capillaries

15

what system works through diffusion and carries fluid from interstital space to blood, preventing edema

lymph system

16

known as "silent killer"

HTN

17

filter bacteria and foreign particles

lymph nodes

18

how do the kidneys assiste with BP control

by regulating sodium and fluid volume

19

charcterized by debilitating fatigue with a variety of complaints

chronic fatigue syndrome

20

abnormal destruction of circulating platelets

immune thrombocytopenia puroura

normal lifespan is 8-10 days with ITP 1-3 days, destrucion exceeds production

21

what is given for Lymes disease

amoxicillin po 2-3 weeks

22

normal WBC count

4-11

23

Rh+ can

receive any blood

24

the spleen produces what during fetal development

RBCs

25

drains into subclavin vein

lymph duct

26

arterial BP =

CO x systemic vascular resistance

27

when you have a HTN emergency what do you not want to do

lower BP too quickly, decrease mean arterial pressure by no more than 25% inone hour

28

over production and accumulation of functionally inactive lymphocyte due to genetic mutation

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

29

Rh-cannot recieve

+ blood

30

normal hematocrit

women 38-47%

men 40-54%

31

what blood product whould you need to increase O2 carrying capacity without volume (most common)

RBC

32

occurs in bone marrow, liver and slpeen.

hemolysis, erthrocyte destruction

33

what is associated with under production of RBCs and decrease of survival of the RBCs

anemia of chronic diseses, RBCs survive less than 120 days

34

group of disorders characterized by large and abnormal RBCs

megaloblastic anemia

35

what is the most common site for a bone marrow study

posterior iliac crest

36

Hgb 6-10

moderate anemia

tachycardia, dyspnea, diaphoresis, pallor

37

if you have a decrease in BP that activates what

sympathetic nervous system

38

excessive bone marrow production of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets which results in increased blood viscosity and volume

polycythemia

39

megaloblastic anemia is due to

vitamin deficiencies such as Vit B 12 and folic acid

40

signs and symptoms of polycythemia

pruitus, increased clotting, enlarged liver and spleen, bleeding, GOUT, CVA

41

the reduction of platelets below level needed for normal blood clotting (below 150,000)

thrombocytopenia

42

what WBC is first to arrive at the injury site, an increase of these could mean infection or tissue injury

neutrophils

43

if you are Rh+ you can donate to and receive from?
 

donate to RH+

recive from Rh+, Rh-

44

usually ABO incompatibility

acute hemolytic

45

Hgb less than 6

severe anemia

hypotension, heart failure

46

immature RBC

reticulocyte, they mature in 48 hours to a erythrocyte

47

what is the dagnosis of hodgkins

biopsy with reed sternberg cells

48

how is lymphoma staged

with roman numeral I-IV (which reflects location and extent) and with A or B ( either absence of or symptoms present)

49

enlarged spleen, decrease of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

splenomegaly

50

folic acid deficiency is very common and folic acid is needed for what

normal DNA synthesis of erythropoiesis

51

lymohangitis

inflammation of one or more lymphatic vessels, often seen in arms or legs

52

what gives protection from invading organisms

WBCs (leukocytes)

53

what are the two major compoents of blood

plasma, blood cells

54

blood administration process

baseline VS (within 15 minutes)

check PT ID

begin slowly (50ml/hr for 1st 15 min then incrsae to 125ml/h)

monitor pt q15initially then once/hr

transfuse in less than 4 hours

flush line with ND & d/c

complete paperwork

transfusion report to blood bank

55

relaxes vascular smooth muscle producing vasodilation

vasodilators

56

what WBC is formed during allergic response to allergen

eosinophils

57

what WBC  is responsible for immune response, B cells and T cells

lymphocytes

58

what is the most characteristic sign of lyme

erythema migrans (bulls eye rash)

59

impaired production of RBCs, bone marrow is severly hypocellular, pancytopenia develops

aplastic anemia

60

decrease in total WBC count

leukopeina

61

what medication for HTN is not prescribed for patients with respiratory disorders

non selective beta blockers

62

what is the most commonly occurring hematologic cancer

non hodgkins lymphoma

63

sustained elevation of BP over 140/90 or use of anti-hypertensives in adults over 18y, average of 2 or more BP properly measured while sitting on at least 2 visits

HTN

64

what does the RAAS (renin angiotensin aldosterone system) do

decreases blood flow thorugh kidneys (holds onto sodium and H2O which increase blood volume and increase cardiac output

65

reticulocyte count measures

the rate at which RBCs appear in circulation

66

diease involving node on both sides of the diaphragm

Stage III

67

pancytopenia

low count of RBC, WBC and platelets

68

in the endocrine system, the stimulation of the SNS stimulates the release of epi/norepi which does what

increases HR & myocardial activity (CO) and causes vasoconstriction

69

what disease is the spread unpredictable, can originate outside of the lymph nodes and has a poor prognosis

non hodgkins lymphoma

70

what blood product would you need for treatment of massive blood loss, bc of the O2 carrying capability and volume

whole blood

71

if you are Rh- you can donate to and receive from?
 

donate to Rh-

reveive from Rh-

72

signs symptoms of anemia

pallor, pruitus, jaundice, glossitis (enlarged shiny tongue), tachycardia, increase RR, HA, vertigo, bone pain

73

what is the % of ingested iron is actually absorbed

5-10%

74

what is the function of the lymph system

lymph vessels transfer lymph -excess fluid from tissues

75

what WBC is a potent phagocytic cell tha tengulfs bacteria, dead cells, tissue debris and defective RBCs and is the 2nd type of WBC to arrive at the injury site

monocyte

76

where is the spleen located

LUQ

77

when giving blood products what must happen

2 nurses must sign transfusion record, only NS can be used to prime blood tubing before blood arrives

78

blood cell production

hematopoiesis

79

what is the most common vector born disease in the US

lyme

80

lymphadenitis

inflammation of one or more lymph nodes

81

ACE inhibitors blocks what

RAAS

82

possible signs and symptoms of lyme

bulls eye rash, chronic arthritic pain, HA, bells palsy

83

increase in total # of WBCs due to acute infection, tissue damage/dath leukemias

neutrophilia (leukocytosis)

84

normal range for hemohlobin

women 12-16

men 13.5-18

85

what test is used for the Rh factor

coombs test

86

if you are B you can donate to and receive from?
 

donate to B, AB

receive from O, B

 

87

becomes red with combined with O2, made of iron (heme) and protein and amino acids (binds with O2 and CO2)

hemoglobin

88

what is a sign of hemolytic aneima

enlarged spleen and liver

89

what is a symptom of HTN emergency syndrome

epistaxis

90

total blood flow through the systmeic or pulmonary circulation each minute

cardiac output

91

transmitted by bite of infected deer tick

lyme disease

92

what are the 3 main causes of anemia

blood loss

decresased productoio of erythrocytes

increased destruction of erythrocytes

 

93

normal BP

less than 120/80

94

endotheila cells line the intima of the blood vessels and generage vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide, endothelin and prostacyclin

vascular endothelium

95

whan an acute transfusion reaction occurs you should

stop transfusion

hang hew tubing NS kvo

VS q15 min

notify MD ASAP

notify blood bank, save all supplies and give to them

96

netropenia

reduced netrophil count of less than 1,000

97

intrinsic is

extrinsic is

hereditary

acquired (more common) trauma, infectious agents, iso-autoimmune reactions

98

platelets clump in capillaries, medical emergency bc bleeding and clotting occur simultaneously

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

99

lymphadenopathy

disease of lymph nodes

100

what kind of patients will most likely have thrombocytopenia

chemo pts

101

blood products have to be hung within _____ and transfusion must be complete within _____

30 minutes

4 hours

102

what diagnosis's lyme

lyme titer

103

prevents angiotensin II fro binding to receptor site on wall of blood vessel

angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs)

104

if you have an increase of diameter of a blood vessel you have a _______ of pressure

decrease

105

what are causes of iron deficiency

inadequate diet, malabsorption, blood loss

106

when hemoglobin is destroyed its parts are reused how?

heme is broken to bilirubin and iron (recycled), and globin breaks down into amino acids to build proteins

107

what is the only accurate way to measure BP

intra arterial catheter

108

how do neutropenic pts get most of their infections

health care providers, so wash your hands!

109

cheilitis

inflammation of lips (can happen with iron deficency)

110

leukopenia

less than 4,000

111

erythrocytes

o2 transport

112

what do you do with someone disgnosed with heparin induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis
 

discontinue heparin (heparin and lovonox are now allergies), give protamine sulfate

113

what WBC releases heparin, serotonin and histamines, and is a allergic and inflammatory reaction

basophils

114

what is the most common symptom of HTN

asymptomatic

115

Rh+ has

D antigen on RBC, Rh- doesnt

116

epistaxis

nose bleed

117

if you are AB you can donate to and receive from?
 

donate to AB

recieve from A, B, O, AB

118

the life span of a RBC is

120 days

119

what do macrophages do

remove abnormal, defective and damaged RBCs from circulation

120

what is a treatment for GOUT

allopurinol

121

leukocytes

infection protection

122

thrombocytes

promote coagulation

123

leukocytes are

WBCs

granulocytes

*neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils

agranulocytes

*lymphocytes, monocytes

124

what mechanisms regulate BP

cardiac output

systemic vascular resistance

125

blood product needed to increase level of clotting factors in pts with a deficiency

fresh frozen plasma

126

where is the liver found

RUQ

127

excess circulating platelets, may lead to clot formation, caused by elevated platelet production in bone marrow

thrombocytosis

128

where is vitamin K stored and what does it do

stored in fatty tissue  and in liver

assists in coagulation

129

what is the unerversal donor blood type

O-

130

sensitive to leukocytes in blood, seen in multiple transusions

febrile non hemolytic

131

PTs with cobalamin deficiency (Vit B 12) are at a high risk for what and what must they doas a life time therapy

gastric cancer

life long monthly B12 injections

132

anemia of acute blood loss is a result of

sudden hemmorrhage, major comlication is shock, body needs 2-5 days to replace loss

133

red marrow produces

hematopoietic stem cells that mature to become erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets

134

blood clotting maintains the integrity of the body when there is injury

hemostasis

135

what is the most common symptom of thrombocytopenia

bleeding

136

study of blood and blood forming tissue

hematology

137

what is netropenia commonly caused by

chemo and immunosuppressive Rxs

138

in order to be diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome you must meet what criteria

have unexplained chronic fatigue

not due to ongoing exertion

not alleciated by rest

results in reduction of activities

plus 4 other complaints such as, short term memory loss, sore throat, musle pain, jopint pain, HA

139

extra nodal disease, usually liver or bone marrow

Stage IV

140

destruction or hemolysis of RBCs at a rate that exceeds production

hemolytic anemia, caused by intrinsic or extrinic reasons

141

RBC function

tranport o2 and CO2 and assist in acid base balance

142

what are the 2 main actions of HTN Rxs

reduces SVR, reduces volume of circulating blood

143

the force opposing the movement of blood

vascular resistance

144

what is the universal recipient for blood

AB-

145

If you are O you can donate to? and recieve from?

donate to A, B, AB, O

recieve from O

146

disease confined to 2 or more nodal regions onthe same side of the diaphragm

Stage II

147

what blood product is used for hypovolemic shock and hypoalbuminemia

albumin

148

what is needed after a splenectomy

pneumococcal vaccine, monitor for hemorrhage and shock

149

anemia of chronic blood loss occurs because of

the iron stores are depleted

150

what dont you do for someone with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

give platelets

151

what size needle is needed for blood transfusion

20 gauge or larger

152

group of hematologic disorders characterized by change in quantity and quality of bone marrow elements

myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)

153

treatments for thrombocytopenia

corticosteroids (for unknown) platelet transfusions, neumga (platelet growth factor)

154

Hgb 10-14

mild anemia

may have no complaints or C/O palpitations, dyspnea, fatigue

155

average SBO greater to or equal to 140 coupled with an average of DBO less than 90, loss of elasticity in arteries

isolated systolic HTN

156

what are the three major functions of blood

transportation (o2, nutrients, waste products), regulation (fluid, temp) and protection (clotting, combat infection)

157

if you have a decrease of diameter of blood vessel you have a ________ of pressure

increase

158

what does the liver do with blood

stores iron, produces procoagulants essential to hemostsis and blood coagulation

159

deficiency in # of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, volume of packed RBCs

anemia

160

symptoms of HA, N?V, seizuers, confusion

HTN ecephalopathy

161

what stiulates bone marrow to increase RBC production

erythropoiesis

162

what aids in clotting bloot, and is activated at site of any tissue or vessel damage

platelets (thrombocytes)

163

increase of iron, liver enlarges and develops cirrhosis

hemochromatosis

164

normal platelet count

150,000-400,000

165

what is the average amount of blood you should have

5-6 liters

166

can lab tests diagnosis chronic fatigue syndrome

no

167

what medications are given for HTN

diuretics, adrenergic inhibitors, vasodialtors, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin inhibitors

168

blocks movement of calcium into cells of blood vessels

calcium channel blockers

169

radiologic visualization of the lymph system after injecting contrast medium

lymphangiography

170

what blood product is removed from FFP and contains clotting factors

cryoprecipitate

171

purpura

clumping of petechiae

172

if you are A you can donate to and receive from?

donate to A, AB

recieve from O, A