Unit VII part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit VII part 2 Deck (166)
1

Neurovascular checks

Pain
Pallor
Pulse
Parastasis
Paralysis

2

Kyphosis

Round back, forward bending of spine
Hunchback

3

Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine

4

Genu valgum (valgus)

Outward turning of foot
Knock knee

5

Genu varum (varus)

Outward turning of foot
Knock knee

6

Effusion

Escape of fluid into a body part

7

Atrophy

Muscle wasting

8

Ankylosis

Scarring of joint

9

Contracture

Resistance to movement of a muscle or joint

10

Measurement of the degree of heat radiating from the skin surface

Thermography

11

What's the #1 priority post procedure

Check neurovascular status on that extremity

12

What is the most common dx to assess muscular skeletal system

X ray

13

Views of specific planes & tissue depth

Tomogram
CT

14

Used to visualize spinal column & subarachnoid space

Myelography

15

Joint aspiration

Arthrocentesis

16

X ray of cervical or lumbar discs

Discography

17

IV injection of radioisotope that is taken up by the bones

Bone scan

18

Measures the electrical activity of muscles via needle electrodes

Electromyography

19

Measures the time it takes for a muscle to respond after the nerve to that muscle has been electrically stimulated

Nerve conduction velocity

20

Recipe

Rest
Elevate
Compression
Ice
Proper exercise
NSAIDS

21

Displacement of part , usually above, from it's normal anatomical position within a joint

Dislocation

22

Partial or incomplete displacement of the joint surface

Subluxation

23

Most frequent dislocation joints

Fingers
Elbow
Shoulder
Hip
Knee

24

Signs and symptoms of joint and soft tissue injuries

Pain
Decrease ROM
Tender
Edema
Ecchymosis

25

Transitory muscle contractions by spontaneous stimulation of a single muscle fiber

Fibrillations

26

Severe burning pain from PN injuries

Causalgia

27

What nerve is damaged by incorrect usage of crutches

Brachial plexus

28

Muscle excitation

Muscle spasm

29

Bruise without break in skin

Contusion

30

Collection of blood

Hematoma

31

Inflammation of a tendon sheath & synovial sac

Tendosynovitis

32

Pain over lateral epicondal of humerous radiating to outer side of arm & forearm

Tennis elbow

33

Entrapment syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome

34

Occurs when s/s reappear by tapping the median nerve at the wrist

+ tinels sign

35

Flex the wrist for one minute

+ phalens sign

36

Cystic structure adjacent to a joint or tendon

Ganglion

37

Contracture of Palmer fascia causing ring finger and pinky to bend into the palm

Dupuytrens contracture

38

Injury to the intra articular cartilage padding that attaches on sides & top of tibia

Meniscus injury

39

Injury to ligament between tibia & femur

Anterior cruciate ligament

40

Cyst containing synovial fluid communicating with synovial fluid of a joint

Popliteal cyst

41

Sudden knife like pain, bulge in calf

Achilles tendon rupture

42

Deformity of the 2nd toe

Hammer toe

43

Deformity of great toe

Bunion

44

Hallucinating valgus

Bunion

45

Localized thickening of skin

Corn

46

Same as corn but larger

Callus

47

Function of skeletal system

Support
Protection
Movement
Mineral storage
Hematopoiesis

48

Mature cells
Maintain structure

Osteocytes

49

Bone forming cells

Osteoblasts

50

Cells that reabsorb bone

Osteoclasts

51

The process by which intra cellular material is formed & hardening minerals are deposited into the bone

Ossification

52

Space in diaphysis

Medullary or marrow cavity

53

Where diaphysis joins epiphysis

Metaphysis

54

Dense white fibrous covering around bone
Except at joint surfaces

Periosteum

55

Thin layer of hotline cartilage covering the epiphysis where bone forms a joint with another bone

Articular cartilage

56

Junction between two or more bones

Joints

57

Synarthroses

No movement

58

Amphiarthroses

Slightly movable joint

59

Freely moveable joint

Diarthroses

60

Concave surface fits into a convex surface

Hinge

61

One surface rotates around a peg or pivot

Pivot joint

62

Joint that permits full freedom of movement

Ball & socket
Hip/shoulder

63

Joint where both articular surfaces are flat

Gliding
Ex. Between carpal/tarsal bones

64

An oval condyle fits into an elliptical cavity

Condyloid/ellipsoidal

65

Concave end fits onto a convex surface of another bone

Saddle joint
Ex. Metacarpal joint in thumb

66

Moving a part forward

Protraction

67

Moving a part backward

Retraction

68

Toes toward head

Dorsiflexion

69

Point toes say from body

Plantarflexion

70

What is the function of cartilage

Support soft tissue
Provide articulating surfaces for joint movement

71

Nourished by diffusion from capillaries

Avascular

72

Types of cartilage

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

73

Most common type of cartilage

Hyaline

74

Made of moderate amt of collagen fibers
Ex. Bhronchi, nose

Hyaline

75

Contains collagen & elastic fibers
Ex. Larynx

Elastic

76

Contains collagen & elastic fibers
Ex. Larynx

Elastic

77

Mostly collagen
Tough tissue
Functions as shock absorber

Fibrocartilage

78

Type of muscle found in heart
Involuntary

Cardiac

79

Muscle found in the walls of hollow structures (bladder, blood vessels) involuntary

Smooth

80

Muscle that is voluntary attached to bones

Skeletal muscles

81

Contractile unit of the myofibril

Sacromere

82

Arrangement of thick & thin filaments in the sarcomere

Banding

83

Cell membrane

Sarcolemma

84

Cytoplasm with in these cells

Sarcoplasm

85

Junction between the nerve cell & muscle cell it supplies

Neuromuscular junction

86

Point of attachment on the bone closest to trunk

Origin

87

Point of attachment farthest from trunk

Insertion

88

Contract to produce movement

Prime movers

89

What relaxes the muscle

Antagonist

90

Contract to stabilize the area involved

Synergist

91

What is needed for muscle contractions

ATP

92

Muscle cells require what to generate power

Oxygen
Glucose

93

Does not produce movements, holds muscle in position

Tonic

94

What produces movement, muscle shortens

Isotonic

95

Increase tension in muscle but doesn't produce movement

Isometric

96

A quick jerky reaction to a single stimulus

Twitch

97

Sustained twitch, series of stimuli in rapid succession

Tetany

98

Asynchronous contraction of individual fibers

Fibrillation

99

Abnormal uncoordinated tetnic contractions in varying muscle groups

Convulsions

100

Attach muscle to bone

Tendon

101

Connect bone to bone

Ligaments

102

Layers of connective tissue, separates one muscle from another

Fascia

103

Small sacs of connective tissue located wherever pressure is exerted over moving parts

Bursae

104

Disruption or break in the continuity or structure of the nine

Fracture

105

Complete separation of the bone into 2 fragments

Closed fracture

106

Break in the skin
Bone may or may not stick out

Open
Compound

107

Line of fx extends across the bone

Complete Transverse fx

108

Line of fx extends in a spiral direction
Twisting of bone

Spiral

109

Fx in 3 or more fragments

Comminuted

110

A bone fragment is forced into another fragment

Impacted

111

Spontaneous fx usually caused by a disease process or neoplasm

Pathologic fx

112

Fx seen in children in which only partial thickness of bone is broken

Incomplete or greenstick

113

Hairline fx
Difficult to dx in x ray

Stress fx

114

Fx of bone resulting from a strong pulling effect of tendons or ligaments at the bone attachment

Avulsion fx

115

s/s fx

Pain
Edema
Muscle spasm
Deformity
Crepitus
Loss of sensation
Excessive motion

116

Bone healing stages

Hematoma formation
Cellular proliferation
Callus formation
Ossification
Consolidation
Remodeling

117

Excess cells reabsorbed & union complete

Remodeling

118

Decrease distance between bone fragments until closed

Consolidation

119

Formation of new bone 3-10 weeks

Ossification

120

Osteoclasts destroy old bones and new bone formed by osteoblasts
Occurs 6-10 days after injury

Callus formation

121

Fibrin mesh work formation phagocytosis of necrotic tissue

Cellular proliferation

122

Hematoma surrounds ends of fragments

Hematoma formation

123

Factors that enhance bone healing

Immobilization of fx
Maximum bone fragment contact
Sufficient blood supply
Proper nutrition
Exercise
Electric potential across fx

124

Factors that inhibit bone healing

Edema
Bone loss
Inadequate immobilizer
Space between bone fragments

125

Overall goals of fx treatment

Anatomical realignment of bone fragments (reduction)

126

Non surgical
Manual realignment

Closed reduction

127

Correction of bone alignment through a surgical incision

Open reduction

128

Short term traction

Skin traction

129

Long term traction

Skeletal traction

130

What fractures heal quickly

Flat bone fractures
Pelvis, scapula

131

Immobilization & support of spinal injuries of thoracic or lumbar spine or after spinal surgery

Body jacket casts

132

Weights used to suspend the part correctly & continuously

Balanced suspension

133

Planning overall goals

Physiological healing with no associated complications
Pain relief
Achieve maximal rehabilitation potential

134

Stiff claw-like deformity of the arm & hand
Caused by super condylar fx of humerous

Volkmann contracture

135

what is essential to prevent permanent deficits

early detection

136

lactic acid released by necrotic tissue

metablic acidosis

137

damaged muscles cells release K+, possible heart damage

hyperkalemia

138

excessive myoglobin in circulation, clogs the renal tubules

renal failure

139

ruslut of prolonged continuous pressure on large muscles

crush syndrome

140

myoglobin released from skeletal muscle into blood stream

rhabdomylosis

141

characterized by the presence of fat globules in tissue & organs after a traumatic skeletal injury

fat embolism syndrome

142

what are some predisposing factors for fat embolism syndrome

fractures, burns, DI, alcoholism, shock, sepsis

143

what tissues are most often effected from fat embolism syndrome

lungs

144

what is the first sign of fat embolism syndrome

mental status change
12-72 hours after injury

145

tiny, flat red spots located on neck, chest, axillia

petechia
late sign of Fat embolism syndrome

146

most common complication following trauma of the lower extremity in adults

venous thrombosis

147

what is the most common fatal complication of orthopedic surgery

venous thrombosis

148

when does venous thrombosis occur

24-48 hours after the injury, but not apparent for 7-10 days

149

what is the average adult blood volume

4-5 liters

150

what is the 1st sign of shock

mental status change

151

open fractures & soft tissue injuries have an increase incidence of ?

infection

152

if there is an open wound what shot needs to be given

tetnus

153

bone loses its blood supplu and dies

avascular necrosis

154

what are pts high risk for due to bone destruction

kidney stones

155

fracture healing progressing more slowly than expected, haling eventually occurs

delayed union

156

what helps with production/stimulation of osteoblasts

electrical bone stimulation

157

complete failure of healing to take place

nonunion

158

transplanting pieces of bone to new location

bone grafting

159

what is the most important thing in mursing manangement of facial fractures

maintain a patent airway

160

what is the most common fx seen in the hospital

hip

161

occurs with in the hip joint and capsule

intracapsular fracture

162

inter trochnteric fx

extracapsular fracture

163

fracture to the distal radius

colles fracture

164

what is the minimum urine output after surgery

30 ml/hr

165

how is a fracture usually caused by

trauma

166

Measure joint motion

Goniometer