Unit VI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit VI Deck (211)
1

Network of cells, tissues, organs that work together to defend body aganst attacks by foreign invaders

immune system

2

altered adverse reactoin to foreign substance that doesnt normally cause reaction

allergy

3

genetic trait predisposing for localized anaphylaxis

atopy

4

substance that induces formation of antibodies when introduced into body

antigen

5

most antigens are composed of

protein

6

what are the four ways antigens can enter the body

ingestion, inhalation, injection, absorption

7

substance synthesized by B lymphocytes in response to presence of specfic antigen

antibody

8

antibodies are a class of proteins known as

immunogloblins

9

where are lymphocytes produced

bone marrow

10

B lymphocytes are found in the

bone marrow & produce antibodies

11

t lymphocytes move from where

bone marrow to thymus

12

Humoral immunity

is extracellular body fluid

13

primary immune response is noted when

4-8 days after initial exposure to antigen

14

can cross the placenta, provides newborn with passive immunity for at least 3 months

IgG

15

first type of antibody formed, primary immune response (can kill bacteria)

IgM

16

protects against infection in intestines & respiratory tract, lines mucus membranes

IgA

17

assist in differentiation of B lymphocytes

IgD

18

causes symptoms of allergic reations

IgE

19

loss of hair

alopecia

20

an abnormal or allergiv reaction to an antigen antibody formation

hypersensitivity reaction

21

the body fails to recoginze self-proteins and reacts against its own proteins

autoimmune disease

22

loss of appetite

anorexia

23

a medicine that prevents or controls vomiting or nausea

antiemetic

24

a drug that kills or blocks the growth and or spread of cancer cells

antineoplastic (chemo)

25

an abnormal growth of tissue which does not spread from one body part to another

benign tumor

26

the cutting out of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

biopsy

27

what is the only way to diagnois cancer

biopsy

28

a disease in which abnormal or malignant cells grow out of conrtol and usually spread to other parts of the body

cancer

29

a small cancer that has not spread and is located on the surgace of a tissue

cancer in situ

30

a substance or agent which causes cancer

carcinogen

31

a kind of cancer which originates in the skin or membranes lining the interior of hollow organs, such as the lungs & intestines etc

carcinoma

32

chemo used in conjuction with surgery, radiation or both to destroy cancer cells

adjuvant chemotherapy

33

simultaneous use of several drugs

combination chemotherapy

34

a science which studies cells under the microscope

cytology

35

an accumulation of fluid or semisolid material within a sac in the body

cyst

36

a chemical test to detect blood in the stool

guaiac test

37

tissue examined under the microscope

histology

38

artificial stimulation of the body's immune mechanism to treat or combat disease

immunotherapy

39

the use of x-rays for treating disease

irradiation

40

an abnormal change in body tissue or organ due to a disease or injury

lesion

41

a tumor made up of cancer cells

malignant tumor

42

cancer of pigment forming cells usualy of the skin

melanoma

43

to spread from the original site

metastasize

44

a new and abnormal growth of tissue or cells, a tumor

neoplasm

45

a type of neoplasm which does not invade or destory nearby tissues

non-invasive

46

th study of cancerand treatment of malignant disease

oncology

47

a benign tumor of bone

osteoma

48

treatment that relieves pain and symptoms of disease but which does not cure the disease

palliative treatment

49

an overgrowth of tissue projecting into a body cavity

polyp

50

the use of radiation for treatment of disease

radiotherapy

51

complete or partial disappearance of a disease

remission

52

a malignant tumor of muscles and or connective tissues

sarcoma

53

an abnormal swelling or enlargement of cells or tissues

tumor

54

what is the goal of treatment of cancer

cure, control & palliation

55

surgery where a biopsy, used to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of cancer

diagnostic surgery

56

what surgery is the goal to remove the entire tumor with minimal functional and structural destruction. Tumor and lymph nodes are removed

radiacal surgery

57

a surgery that is preventitive, where lisions are removed early while they are non malignant or cause harm

prophylactic surgery

58

surgery for the relief of pain, obstruction, hemmorrhage and comfort measures

palliative surgery

59

surgery for insertion of therapeutic devices

supportive surgery

60

surgery used to assist with body image, improving function, anatomical defect or cosmetic apperance

reconstructive surgery

61

uses high energy ionizing radiation to kill/destroy cancer cells (break one or both strands of DNA)

radiation therapy

62

debulk

take away excess

63

radioactive isotops that are used for tempoary or permenant implants

internal radiation (brachytherapy)

64

what is importnat to remember with internal implants

priciples of time(minimize exposure), distance (maximize distance from source) & shielding (decrease exposure, lead shield)

65

Side effects of radiation

fatigue, skin changes, anorezia and other site specific side effects

66

desquamation

peeling of the skin

67

how long will it take after the last radiation treatment will it take for a pt to feel better bc of cummalitive effect

4-6 weeks

68

nurtrionally what does someone with radiation need to do

increase calories & proteins and have small frequent meals

69

treatment of cancer with chemicals

chemotherapy

70

cytoxic

kills cells

71

what cells does chemo affect

all cells cancer and normal cells

72

routes of chemo

oral, im, iv, intracavity, sub q, topical, intraarterial etc

73

work together and are more effective against CA cells

synergistic effect

74

in conjunction with surgery or radiation or both with the ultimate goal to kill cancer

adjuvant

75

a chemotherapeutic agent capable of causing or forming a blister &/or tissue destruction

vesicant

76

a chemotherapeutic agent capable of producing venous pain at the IV site & along the vein with or without an inflammaroty reaction

irritant

77

who can give chemo

only a specially trained RN

78

infiltration (leakage) of a drug into surrounding tissue, vesicants cause pain & tissue necrosis

extravasation

79

Inflammation of mouth

stomatitis

80

what is the most serious side effect of chemotherapy

bone marrow depression
low platelets, WBC & RBC count

81

what nursing measures should you do with chemo

increase fluids, I & O, oral care, decrease odors in room, aseptic techniques, food lukewarm, assess labs (CBC, H&H, WBC, RBC)

82

in chemo trials how many ppl are tested in phase 1, 2, 3

20-80
100-300
1000-3000

83

attempt to stimulate a persons own immune system to fight cancer cells

immunotherapy

84

natural substances produced in small amts by the body's immune system

BRM, biological response modifiers

85

interferes with viral replication, increases natural killer cell activity

interferon

86

what regulates the production, maturation & function of blood cells (hematopoiesis)

colony stimulating factors (CSF)

87

when your WBC counts are at its lowest 10-17 days after chemo has been given

nadir

88

activiates antitumor cells which attack the tumor

IL 2

89

are 2nd malignancies usually resistant to therapy?

yes

90

uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells

cancer

91

incidence

new cases

92

morbidity

illness rate

93

mortality

death rate

94

what is highest cancer overall

lung

95

what is the highest % of cancer in men

prostate

96

what is the highest % of cancer in women

breast

97

what carcinogens can effect cancer

chemicals, diet, radiation, drugs

98

resting phase of the cell cycle

G0

99

RNA & protein synthesis phase of the cell cycle

G1

100

DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle

S

101

additional RNA & DNA synthesisphase of the cell cycle

G2

102

mitosis-cell division phase of the cell cycle

M

103

what phase do cancer cells not go in

G0

104

cells with recognizable specialized structures and functions

differentiated

105

cells which have lost their capactiy for specialized functions

undifferenctiated

106

causes a cell to mutate

carcinogen

107

malignant, irreversible change of cells which regress to more primitive level (fetal)

anaplasia

108

benign change of cells resulting from chromic irritation -may reverse or progress to cancer

dysplasia

109

reversible, benign change of adults cells from one type to another

metaplasia

110

abnormal increase in # of cells, increased tissue mass

hyperplasia

111

process by which neoplasms are produced, new growths

oncogenesis

112

in the development of cancer, when something happens to the cell to make it change, usually when exposed to a carcinagen

initiation

113

in the development of cancer, increase progression of cell growth, immune system doesnt know its there

promotion

114

in the development of cancer, increase of cell growth to allow cell mass to continue, usually where tumors are detected

progression

115

what is the role of the immone system

to reject or destroy cancer cells if perceived as nonself

116

cancer cells evade immune system

escape mechanisms

117

does not invade, localized

benign

118

will matastasize, immature cells, dont go into resting phase

malignant

119

oma

tumor malignant

120

Grade I cancer

well differentiated, no change in apperance

121

Grade II cancer

moderately differentiaed, moderate change

122

Grade III cancer

poorly differentiated, very abnormal

123

Grade IV cancer

undifferentiated, lost all normal cellular charcteristics

124

describes the extent of the disease, not looking at cell apperance

Staging of cancer Stage 0( cancer in situ) -Stage IV (mesastasis)

125

TNM classification

T-tumor size
N-lymph nodes involved
M-metastasis

126

calignant cells detach from parent tissue & migrate; spread of cancer cells

metastasis

127

when cancer grows into surrounding tissue (local spread)

direct extension

128

break off from original tumor and seed to grow in other organs

seeding

129

spread from blood system

hematogenous spread

130

seven warnings of cancer

C-change in bowel or bladder habits
A-a sore that doesnt heal
U-unusal bleeding or discharge
T-thickening or lump
I-indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O-obvious change in wart or mole
N-Nagging cough or hoarseness

131

primary prevention

general wellness promotion

132

secondary prevention

screening (early diagnosis & treatment)

133

tertiary prevention

assist to highest level of wellness
(rehab)

134

characterized by fat, muscle depletion

malnutrition

135

infection throughout bloodstream

sepsis

136

obstruction of vena cava by tumor

superior vena cava syndrome

137

shifting of fluid from vascular space to interstital space

third space syndrom

138

when is tumor lysis syndrome seen

1 week after chemo, results from rapid destruction of tumor cells leads to acute renal failure

139

fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac

cardiac tamponade

140

what is the goal of the psychological aspects of cancer

to meet the daily physical and psychological needs of the cancer pt

141

patients may exhibit what behaviors when coping with fears & diagnosis

shock, denile, anger, bargaining, depression, helplessness, hopelessness

142

those who have overcome and been cured of their cancer

suviorship

143

complex metabolic problem in advanced cancer pts, lassified by anorexia, altered taste & smell, dry mouth

cachexia

144

hepatomegaly

enlarged liver

145

what does a cancer pt need in thier diet

high protein & high calories

146

proteins

rebuilds tissue

147

calories

energy & maintence of cells

148

source of protein

animal product (meat, fish, eggs milk, cheese), legumes, nuts, beans

149

analgesic drug therapy for mild pain

non opiod analgesics, NSAIDS, adjuvant meds
tylenol, ibuprofen

150

analgesic drug therapy for moderate pain

mild opiod analgesics, adjuvant meds
darvocet, percocet

151

analgesic drug therapy for severe pain

strong opiod analgesics, adjuvant meds
morphine

152

what is a contrainication for bone cancer

massage

153

psychological dependence, opiods used for uuphoria

addiction

154

occurs when a lager dose of opiod is required to maintain the same level of analgesia for the same level of pain

tolerance

155

stage 1 in family crisis

living with cancer, family informed of cancer diagnosis

156

stage 2 in family crisis

restructuring during the living-dying interval

157

stage 3 in family crisis

bereavement
before, during and after death

158

stage 4 in family crisis

reestablishment, completes the grieving process

159

an organized institution designed to provide palliative & supportive care to terminally ill patient and their families

hospice

160

what is the number one complaint of cancer patients

fatigue

161

pain where body part has been removed

phantom pain

162

what are causes of bone marrow suppression

cancer, chemo, radiation, combination

163

low hemoglobin

anemia, 120 days after chemo

164

low platelets

thrombocytopenia, 7-10 days after chemo

165

low white blood cells

leukopenia or neutropenia, 7-10 days after chemo

166

all blood counts are low

pancytopenia

167

what turns on bone marrow to produce cells quicker

colony stimulating factors

168

when is a chemo pt most at risk for infection?

7-10 days after chemo

169

all cells start as ?

stem cells or hemocytoblasts

170

signs and symptoms of anemia

cool, clammy pale skin, decrease b/p, high RR, high HR, fatigue, SOB

171

protect patient with reduced immunity

neutropenic precautions

172

mucositis

inflammation of mucus membrane

173

esophagitis

inflammation of esophagus, hard to swallow

174

cardiomyopathy

enlargement of heart

175

CHF

fluid back up in to heart

176

symptoms caused by damage to peripheral nerves

peripheral neuropathy

177

chemo brain

side effect of chemo, memory lapse, trouble concentrating, clower thinking process

178

build up of lymoh fluid in tissue causes edema

lymphedema

179

when does hair loss start after chemo

about 21 days after treatment

180

regardless of treatment type, cancer ________ affects a persons physical and psychological functioning

ALWAYS

181

RBC

transport O2, lasts 120 days

182

WBC

fight infection, lasts from hours to 7 days

183

platelets

clotting, lasts 7 days

184

kills immature blood cells forming in bone marrow

chemotherapy (systemic)

185

kills immature blood cells forming in bone marrow

radiation (localized)

186

how many people are living with HIV in the US

1.4 million

187

emphasis on primary health care and support services that enhance access to and retention in care

ryan white HIV

188

75% of HUV is transmitted by

sex

189

every _____minutes, someone in the US is infected with HIV

9 & 1/2 minutes

190

In a PPD test, a pt with HIV will have positive test what size will the wheal be

5 mm

191

how is HIV transmitted

infected blood and blood products
sexual contact
maternal/child

192

number of viral (HIV) particles in 15 mLof blood

viral load

193

who is at highest risk for HIV

women & children

194

three enzymes in the HIV life cycle

reverse transcriptse
integrase
protease

195

primary HIV infection

5 weeks

196

what is the normal range for the CD4 test

500-1450 cells/mm3

197

signs and symptoms of HIV

shingles, neuropathy, thrush, HPV, herpes

198

fat redistrubution may be caused by some HIV infections

lipodystrophy

199

does pregnancy accelerate HUV

NO

200

do more americans die from hepatitis or HIV

Hepatitis

201

help with lower income individuals under 65 will have access to federal tax credits to purchase private insurance coverage

the affordable care act

202

adults and children in the world with HIV

34.2 million people

203

What are the three functions of the immune system

Defense
Homeostasis
Surveillance

204

Organs of the immune system

Tonsils
Thymus
Bone marrow
Spleen
Lymph nodes

205

What is the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction

Epi (adrenalin)

206

How much and how often would you give epi

Mild symptoms
1:1000 (0.3-0.5ml) sub q or IM q10-15 min
Severe symptoms
1:10000 (3-5ml) IV q5-10 min

207

If a person is having an anaphylaxis reaction what do you do?

Epi
High flow O2
Recumbent position
Keep pt warm
Maintain b/p
Benadryl

208

Involves deposited of antigen-antibody complexes in blood vessel walls of skin, joints, in renal glomeruli

Serum sickness

209

What is the nursing goal of a pt who has advanced cancer

Assist with achievement of a healthy death

210

Progressing to cachexia contributes to the morbidity & mortality of cancer patients

Malnutrition

211

What is most affected by chemo/radiation

Rapidly dividing immature cells