Cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

FA Step 2 Rapid Review > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (39):
1

Definition of unstable angina

Angina is new, is worsening, or occurs at rest

2

Anti-HTNsive for a diabetic pt with proteinuria

ACEI

3

Beck's triad for cardiac tamponade

Hypotension, distant heart sounds, and JVD

4

Drugs that slow AVN transmission

ß-blockers, digoxin, CCBs

5

Hypercholesterolemia tx that leads to flushing and pruritus

Niacin

6

Murmur: hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HCM)

-SEM heard along the lateral sternal border
-INCREASES with Valsalva maneuver and standing

7

Murmur: aortic insufficiency (AI)

-Diastolic, decrescendo, high-pitched, blowing murmur
-Best heard sitting up
-INCREASES with decreased preload (handgrip maneuver)

8

Murmur: aortic stenosis (AS)

-Systolic crescendo/decrescendo murmur
-Radiates to the neck
-INCREASES with increased preload (Valsalva maneuver)

9

Murmur: mitral regurgitation (MR)

-HSM
-Radiates to the axillae or carotids

10

Murmur: mitral stenosis (MS)

Mid to late diastolic, low-pitched murmur

11

Tx for AFib and AFlutter

-If unstable: cardiovert
-If stable or chronic: rate control with CCBs or ß-blockers

12

Tx for VFib

Immediate cardioversion

13

AutoI complication occurring 2-4 weeks post-MI

Dressler's syndrome: fever, pericarditis, increased ESR

14

IVDU with JVD and HSM at the left sternal border. Tx?

Tx existing heart failure and replace the tricuspid valve

15

Dxic test for HCM

Echo (showing thickened left ventricular wall and outflow obstruction)

16

A fall in SBP of >10 mmHg with inspiration

Pulsus paradoxus (seen in cardiac tamponade)

17

Classic ECG findings in pericarditis

Low-voltage, diffuse ST elevation

18

Definition of HTN

BP >140/90 on 3 separation occasions 2 weeks apart

19

8 surgically correctable causes of HTN

1) Renal a. stenosis. 2) Coarct. 3) Pheo. 4) Conn's syndrome. 5) Cushing's syndrome. 6) U/l renal parenchymal dz. 7) Hyperthyroidism. 8) Hyperparathyroidism.

20

Eval of a pulsatile abdominal mass and bruit

Abdominal U/S and CT

21

Indications for surgical repair of abdominal ao aneurysm (AAA)

>5.5 cm, rapidly enlarging, sxic, or ruptured

22

Tx for acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

MONA-BH: Morphine, O2, SL nitroglycerin, ASA, IV ß-blockers, heparin

23

What is metabolic syndrome?

Abdominal obesity, high TGs, low HDL, HTN, insulin resistance, prothrombotic or proinflammatory states

24

Appropriate dxic test:
1. 50 yo M with angina can exercise to 85% of max predicted HR
2. 65 yo F with LBBB and severe OA has unstable angina

1. Exercise stress treadmill with ECG
2. Pharmacologic stress test (ex: dobutamine echo)

25

Signs of active ischemia during stress testing

Angina, ST-segment ∆s on ECG, or decreased BP

26

ECG findings suggesting MI

ST elevation (depression means ischemia), flattened T waves, and Q waves

27

Coronary territories in MI

-Anterior wall: LAD/diagonal
-Inferior: PDA
-Posterior: LCX/oblique, RCA/marginal
-Septum: LAD/diagonal

28

Young pt has angina at rest with ST elevation. Cardiac enzymes are nl.

Prinzmetal angina

29

Common sxs a/w silent MIs

CHF, shock, and AMS

30

Dxic test for pulmonary embolism (PE)

V/Q scan

31

Agent that reverses the effects of heparin

Protamine

32

Coagulation parameter affected by warfarin

PT

33

Young pt with FHx of sudden death collapses and dies while exercising

HCM

34

Endocarditis prophylaxis regimen and indications

Surgery/dental: amox 2g 30-60 mins before
-prosthetic valves, h/o IE, some congenital heart dz, heart transplant pts with valvulopathy

*changed from FA (not for GI/GU procedures, not for RHD)

35

6 P's of ischemia d/t peripheral vascular dz (PVD)

Pain, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis, paresthesia, poikilothermia

36

Virchow's triad

Stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage

37

MCC of HTN in young F

OCPs

38

MCC of HTN in young M

Excessive EtOH

39

Classic ECG finding in atrial flutter

"Sawtooth" P waves