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Flashcards in Pulmonary Deck (25):
1

Criteria for exudative effusion

-Pleural/serum protein >0.5
-Pleural/serum LDH >0.6

2

Causes of exudative effusion

Think of leaky capillaries: malignancy, TB, bacterial/viral infxn, pulmonary embolism (PE) with infarct, pancreatitis

3

Causes of transudative effusion

Think of intact capillaries: CHF, liver or kidney dz, protein-losing enteropathy

4

Normalizing PCO2 in a pt having an asthma exacerbation may indicate ____.

Fatigue and impending respiratory failure

5

Dyspnea, lateral hilar LAD on CXR, noncaseating granulomas, increased ACE, and hypercalcemia

Sarcoidosis

6

PFTs: decreased FEV1/FVC

Obstructive pulmonary dz (ex: asthma)

7

PFTs: increased FEV1/FVC

Restrictive pulmonary dz

8

Honeycomb pattern on CXR. Dx? Tx?

Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
-Tx: supportive care, steroids may help

9

Tx for SVC syndrome

Radiation

10

Tx for mild, persistent asthma

Inhaled ß-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

11

Tx for COPD exacerbation

O2, bronchodilators, abx, corticosteroids with taper, smoking cessation

12

Tx for chronic COPD

Smoking cessation, home O2, ß-agonists, anticholinergics, systemic or inhaled steroids, flu and pneumococcal vaxs

13

Acid-base d/o in pulmonary embolism (PE)

Hypoxia and hypocarbia (respiratory alkalosis)

14

NSCLC a/w hypercalcemia

SqCC

15

Lung CA a/w SIADH

SmCLC

16

Lung CA highly related to cigarette exposure

SmCLC

17

Tall white M presents with acute SOB. Dx? Tx?

Spontaneous pneumothorax
-Tx: Spontaneous regression. Supplemental O2 may be helpful.

18

Tx of tension pneumothorax

Immediate needle thoracostomy

19

Characteristics favoring carcinoma in an isolated pulmonary nodule

>45-50 yo, lesions new or larger than old films, no calcification or irregular calcification, size >2 cm, irregular margins

20

Hypoxemia and pulmonary edema with nl pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)

ARDS

21

Sequelae of asbestos exposure

Pulmonary fibrosis, pleural plaques, bronchogenic carcinoma (mass in lung field), mesothelioma (pleural mass)

22

Silicosis is a/w increased risk of what infxn?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

23

Causes of hypoxemia

R-to-L shunt, hypoventilation, low inspired O2 tension, diffusion defect, V/Q mismatch

24

Classic CXR findings for pulmonary edema

Cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vessels, Kerley B lines, "bat's wing" appearance of hilar shadows, and perivascular and peribronchial cuffing

25

RFs for DVT

Stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability (Virchow's triad)