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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (33):
1

Most likely cause of acute LGIB in pts >40 yo

Diverticulosis

2

Dxic modality when U/S is equivocal for cholecystitis

HIDA scan

3

RFs for cholelithiasis

Fat, female, fertile, forty, flatulent

4

Inspiratory arrest during palpation of the RUQ

Murphy's sign, seen in acute cholecystitis

5

MCC of SBO in pts with no h/o abdominal surgery

Hernia

6

MCC of SBO in pts with a h/o abdominal surgery

Adhesions

7

Diarrhea: MC organism

Campylobacter

8

Diarrhea: recent abx use

Clostridium difficile

9

Diarrhea: camping

Giardia

10

Diarrhea: traveler's diarrhea

ETEC

11

Diarrhea: church picnics/mayo

S. aureus

12

Diarrhea: uncooked hamburgers

E. coli O157:H7

13

Diarrhea: fried rice

Bacillus cereus

14

Diarrhea: poultry/eggs

Salmonella

15

Diarrhea: raw seafood

Vibrio, HAV

16

Diarrhea: AIDS

Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

17

Diarrhea: pseudoappendicitis

Yersinia

18

25 yo Jewish M presents with pain and watery diarrhea after meals
Exam: fistulas btwn the bowel and skin, nodular lesions on tibias

Crohn's dz

19

Inflammatory dz of the colon with increased risk of colon CA

Ulcerative colitis (greater risk than Crohn's)

20

Extraintestinal manifestations of IBD

Uveitis, ankylosing spondylitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, 1˚ sclerosing cholangitis

21

Medical tx for IBD

5-ASA agents and steroids during acute exacerbations

22

Difference btwn Mallory-Weiss and Boerhaave tears

-Mallory-Weiss: superficial tear in the esophageal mucosa
-Boerhaave: full-thickness esophageal rupture

23

Charcot's triad

RUQ pain, jaundice, and fever/chills in the setting of ascending cholangitis

24

Reynolds' pentad

Charcot's triad (RUQ pain, jaundice, fever) + shock + mental status ∆s, with suppurative ascending cholangitis

25

Medical tx for hepatic encephalopathy (HE)

-Decrease protein intake
-Lactulose
-Rifaximin

26

1st step in managing a pt with an acute GIB

Establish the ABCs

27

4 yo presents with oliguria, petechiae, and jaundice following an illness with bloody diarrhea. Most likely dx and cause?

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) d/t E. coli O157:H7

28

Post-HBV exposure tx

HBV immunoglobulin

29

Classic causes of drug-induced hepatitis

-TB meds (INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide)
-Acetaminophen
-Tetracycline

30

40 yo obese F with elevated alk phos, elevated bili, pruritus, dark urine, and clay-colored stools

Biliary tract obstruction

31

Hernia with highest risk of incarceration: indirect, direct, or femoral?

Femoral hernia

32

50 yo M with h/o alcohol abuse presents with boring epigastric pain that radiates to the back and is relieved by sitting forward. Management?

Confirm the dx of acute pancreatitis with elevated amylase and lipase. Make sure pt is NPO. Give IVF, O2, analgesia, and "tincture of time."

33

Pt presents with sudden onset of severe, diffuse abd pain
Exam: peritoneal signs
AXR: free air under the diaphragm
Management?

Emergent laparotomy to repair perforated viscus