Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (29):
Bias introduced when screening detects a dz earlier and thus lengthens the time from dx to death
If you want to know if geographical location affects infant mortality rate but most variation in infant mortality is predicted by SES, then SES is a ___.
(#TP)/(#pts with the dz)
Sensitive tests have few FN and are use to rule __ a dz.
PPD reactivity is used as a screening test bc most ppl with TB (except those who are anergic) will have a (+) PPD. Highly sensitive or specific?
Highly sensitive for TB
Chronic dzs such as SLE: higher prevalence or incidence?
Epidemics such as influenza: higher prevalence or incidence?
Cross-sectional survey: incidence or prevalence?
Cohort study: incidence or prevalence?
Incidence and prevalence
Case-control study: incidence or prevalence?
Describe a test that consistently gives identical results but the results are wrong.
High reliability, low validity
Difference between a cohort and case-control study
-Cohort studies: can be used to calculate relative risk (RR), incidence, and/or odds ratio (OR)
-Case-control studies: can be used to calculate an OR
(Incidence rate (IR) of a dz in exposed) - (IR of a dz in unexposed)
Relative risk (RR)
(Incidence rate (IR) of a dz in a population exposed to a particular factor) / (IR in those not exposed)
Odds ratio (OR)
Likelihood of a dz among individuals exposed to a RF compared to those who have not been exposed
Number needed to treat (NNT)
1 / (rate in untxed group - rate in txed group)
In which pts do you initiate CRC screening early?
-Have 1st-degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (less than 60 yo) or CRC
1. MC CA in M
2. MCC of death from CA in M
1. Prostate CA (MC CA in M)
2. Lung CA (MCC CA deaths in M)
The % of cases within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SDs? 3 SDs?
# live births (LBs) per 1000 population in 1 yr
# LBs per 1000 females (15-44 yo) in 1 yr
# deaths per 1000 population in 1 yr
Neonatal mortality rate
# deaths from birth - 28 days per 1000 LBs in 1 yr
Postnatal mortality rate
# deaths from 28 days - 1 yr per 1000 LBs in 1 yr
Infant mortality rate
# deaths from birth - 1 yr per 1000 LBs in 1 yr (neonatal + postnatal mortality)
Fetal mortality rate
# deaths from 20 wks gestation - birth per 1000 total births in 1 yr
Perinatal mortality rate
# deaths from 20 wks gestation - 1 mo per 1000 total births in 1 yr
Maternal mortality rate
# deaths during pregnancy - 90 days PP per 100,000 LBs in 1 yr