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Flashcards in Epidemiology Deck (29):
1

Bias introduced when screening detects a dz earlier and thus lengthens the time from dx to death

Lead-time bias

2

If you want to know if geographical location affects infant mortality rate but most variation in infant mortality is predicted by SES, then SES is a ___.

Confounding variable

3

(#TP)/(#pts with the dz)

Sensitivity

4

Sensitive tests have few FN and are use to rule __ a dz.

Out

5

PPD reactivity is used as a screening test bc most ppl with TB (except those who are anergic) will have a (+) PPD. Highly sensitive or specific?

Highly sensitive for TB

6

Chronic dzs such as SLE: higher prevalence or incidence?

Higher prevalence

7

Epidemics such as influenza: higher prevalence or incidence?

Higher incidence

8

Cross-sectional survey: incidence or prevalence?

Prevalence

9

Cohort study: incidence or prevalence?

Incidence and prevalence

10

Case-control study: incidence or prevalence?

Neither

11

Describe a test that consistently gives identical results but the results are wrong.

High reliability, low validity

12

Difference between a cohort and case-control study

-Cohort studies: can be used to calculate relative risk (RR), incidence, and/or odds ratio (OR)
-Case-control studies: can be used to calculate an OR

13

Attributable risk

(Incidence rate (IR) of a dz in exposed) - (IR of a dz in unexposed)

14

Relative risk (RR)

(Incidence rate (IR) of a dz in a population exposed to a particular factor) / (IR in those not exposed)

15

Odds ratio (OR)

WRONG!!!!

Likelihood of a dz among individuals exposed to a RF compared to those who have not been exposed

16

Number needed to treat (NNT)

1 / (rate in untxed group - rate in txed group)

17

In which pts do you initiate CRC screening early?

-Have IBD
-Have FAP/HNPCC
-Have 1st-degree relatives with adenomatous polyps (less than 60 yo) or CRC

18

1. MC CA in M
2. MCC of death from CA in M

1. Prostate CA (MC CA in M)
2. Lung CA (MCC CA deaths in M)

19

The % of cases within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SDs? 3 SDs?

68%
95.4%
99.7%

20

Birth rate

# live births (LBs) per 1000 population in 1 yr

21

Fertility rate

# LBs per 1000 females (15-44 yo) in 1 yr

22

Mortality rate

# deaths per 1000 population in 1 yr

23

Neonatal mortality rate

# deaths from birth - 28 days per 1000 LBs in 1 yr

24

Postnatal mortality rate

# deaths from 28 days - 1 yr per 1000 LBs in 1 yr

25

Infant mortality rate

# deaths from birth - 1 yr per 1000 LBs in 1 yr (neonatal + postnatal mortality)

26

Fetal mortality rate

# deaths from 20 wks gestation - birth per 1000 total births in 1 yr

27

Perinatal mortality rate

# deaths from 20 wks gestation - 1 mo per 1000 total births in 1 yr

28

Maternal mortality rate

# deaths during pregnancy - 90 days PP per 100,000 LBs in 1 yr

29

Bias introduced into a study when a clinician is aware of the pt's tx type

Observational bias