Cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

HSCI100 > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (32):
1

functions

- generate blood pressure
- transport blood and other components
- nutrient exchange (glucose) and wastes (CO2) @ capillaries
- blood flow regulation

2

main pathway of blood

heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> heart

3

artery + vein structure

- Inner layer: endothelium
- Middle layer: smooth muscle, elastic fibers
- Outer layer: connective tissue

4

arteriole structure

smooth muscle + endothelium

5

venule

valve + connective tissue + endothelium

6

capillary

endothelium
- large surface area
- place of exchange
- works together w/lymphatic system to maintain tissue homeostasis

7

arteries and arterioles function

- carry blood away from heart
- arterioles regulate blood pressure

8

veins

blood to heart

9

exchange at capillary beds (osmotic and blood pressure)

arterial end: blood pressure higher than osmotic pressure, net pressure out

venous end: osmotic pressure higher than blood pressure, net pressure in

10

myocardium

cardiac muscle tissue

11

pericadium

sac surrounding heart

12

septum

separates two sides of the heart

2 atria, 2 ventricles

13

2 sets of valves in heart

semilunar and atrioventricular (AV/cuspid)

14

pulmonary circuit

right side of heart
- body -> lungs

15

systemic circuit

left side of heart
- lungs -> body
- small coronary arteries that supply heart

16

which ventricle is stronger and why

left ventricle
- must pump blood to entire body

17

which is more muscular: arteries or veins?

arteries: withstand higher pressure

18

which has more volume: arteries or veins?

veins: thinner wall but more volume to store blood

19

systole

atria contract together, followed by ventricles

20

diastole

rest phase in heart beat, chambers relax

21

cardiac cycle

early diastole -> later diastole -> atrial systole -> ventricular systole -> back

22

early diastole

atria/ventricles relaxed and fill passively

23

later diastole

ventricles still relaxed/filling passively

24

atrial systole

both atria contract and force blood into ventricles

25

ventricular systole

both ventricles contract

- right -> pulmonary trunk
- left -> aorta

26

internal control 1/3

- sinoatrial (SA) node in right atrium initiates -> atria contract

27

internal control 2/3

impulse reaches atrioventricular (AV) node in right atrium -> AV bundle + Purkinje fibers -> ventricular contraction

28

internal control 3/3

impulses travel between gap junctions at intercalated disks

29

external control

cardiac center in brain, hormones (epinephrine)

30

hypertension

high blood pressure due to arterial plaque

- 140/90 mmHg
-few symptoms
- can lead to heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, kidney failure

31

atherosclerosis

buildup of plaque in blood vessels (from cholesterol)

-plaque -> clot
- stationary: thrombus
- detachable: embolus
-stroke, heart attack, aneurysm

32

heart attack/myocardial infarction (MI)

part of heart dies due to lack of O2 (blocked coronary arteries)

- angina pectoris (radiating pain in left arm)