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HSCI100 > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (32):
1

signal types (4)

- endocrine
- paracrine
- neuronal
- contact-dependent

2

endocrine signal

endocrine cell -> hormone to bloodstream -> receptors on target cell

3

paracrine signal

signalling cell -> local mediator (eg cytokine) -> target cells

4

neuronal signal

neurotransmitter, electrical

5

contact-dependent signal

signalling cell -> membrane-bound signal molecule -> target cell

6

exocrine glands

secrete products into ducts that carry products to other organs/outside the body

(eg pancreas: bicarbonate/digestive enzymes -> GI tract)

7

endocrine glands

secret products directly into bloodstream

(eg pancreas: insulin production)

8

endocrine system

response: prolonged, slow VS nervous system

regulates: development, metabolism, behaviour

9

homeostasis (nervous + endocrine)

- hypothalamus: bridges both systems
- n: respond to external environ. changes

10

prostaglandins

local affecting neighboring cells, not carried in bloodstream (paracrine)

11

pheromones

chemical signals influence behaviour of other individuals

12

peptide hormones *

bind to receptor in plasma membrane

13

steroid hormones *

lipids enter cell and affect gene activity (protein synthesis)

14

target cells

- hormone receptors (protein molecules that recognize/bind)

15

2 main types of hormones

- lipid-soluble (eg steroid hormones)
- water-soluble

16

lipid-soluble and phospholipid bilayer

lipid-soluble hormones can directly enter into the cell through the phospholipid bilayer

17

peptide hormone and phospholipid bilayer

- tends to be charged, more water-soluble
- cannot pass through layer

18

steroid hormone binding step 1

diffuses through target cell plasma membrane

19

steroid hormone binding step 2

binds to receptor in cytoplasm

20

steroid hormone binding step 3

hormone-receptor complex enters nucleus

21

steroid hormone binding step 4

complex binds to DNA

22

steroid hormone binding step 5

certain genes activated

23

steroid hormone binding step 6

proteins/enzymes synthesized

24

steroid hormone binding step 7

enzymes alter activity of cell

25

water-soluble hormone binding step 1

(first messenger) binds to receptor on plasma membrane surface

26

water-soluble hormone binding step 2

binding activates enzyme that produces cAMP (second messenger) from ATP

27

water-soluble hormone binding step 3

cAMP initiates enzyme cascade (eg inactive enzyme 1 -> active enzyme 1 -> inactive enzyme 2.....)

- amplified # of molecules activated

28

water-soluble hormone binding step 4

enzyme n stimulates breakdown of glycogen -> glucose

29

antagonistic interaction

effect of one opposes that of another

30

synergistic

response of a tissue to a combination of hormones is much greater than its response to either individual hormone

31

permissive

one must be present for another to exert its effects

32

hypothalamus

internal regulation through a. nervous (PNS)

- heartbeat
- body temp
- water balance
- pituitary gland's secretions
- neuroendocrine)