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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (42):
1

tissue

collection of similar cells that perform a common function (cells held by junctions)

2

tight junction

impermeable junction preventing exchange between cells

- digestive tract

3

adhesion junction

holds cells together despite stretching

- opening of uterus, skin

4

gap junction

allows communication (small molecules/ions passing from cell to cell)

- beating of cilia, heart, smooth muscle

5

3 main types of connective tissue

fibrous, supportive, fluid

6

fibrous connective

loose: open framework
dense: packed together

7

collagen vs reticular vs elastic fiber

r: branched, thin, forms network
c: unbranched, strong, flexible
e: branched, stretchable

8

ground substance

fills spaces between cells and fibers

9

fibroblast

produces fibers + ground substance

10

mast cell vs stem cell

m: releases chemicals after injury/infection
s: divides to produce other types

11

supportive connective tissue

cartilage and bone

12

cartilage

lacunae cell chambers, solid/flexible matrix, low blood supply

13

hyaline cartilage

fine collagen fibers

14

elastic cartilage

more elastic fibers (flexible)

15

fibrocartilage

strong collagen fibers, areas w/high tension/pressure

16

bone

lacunae chambers, solid/rigid matrix, collagen + calcium salts, vascularized

compact + spongy

Clasts: break down
cytes: maintain
Blasts: building

17

compact

units called osteons, hard matrix + living cells + blood vessels

eg long shaft bone

18

spongy

open, latticework w/irregular spaces, surrounds bone marrow cavity

eg ends of long bones

19

benefits of bone being vascularized

more access to nutrients, growth, and repair

cartilage requires nutrients by diffusion

20

fluid connective tissue

blood and lymph

21

blood

fluid matrix (plasma) + 3 formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, platelets)

transfers nutrients and waste to/from tissues

22

RBCs VS WBCs VS platelets

r: carry oxygen
w: fight infection (immune system)
p: clots blood (pieces of megakaryocytes)

23

lymph

clear/watery fluid matrix

site of immune system action

24

lymphatic vessels functions

absorb excess fluids -> cardiovascular system -> absorb fat from small intestine

25

lymph nodes

(fibrous connective tissue)

"filter" and clean lymph (get enlarged during infections)

26

muscle tissue

muscle fibers/cells + protein fibers (actin/mysoin) for movement

3: skeletal, smooth, cardiac)

27

skeletal muscle

long, cylindrical cells, multiple nuclei, striated fibers

attached to bone w/tendon

28

smooth muscle

spindle-shaped cell w/1 nucleus, lacks striations

walls of hollow organs/vessels

involuntary

slower to contract

29

cardiac

branched cells w/1 nucleus, strations w/dark striations (intercalated disks) between cells

30

nervous tissue

communication between cells (sensory input + integration of data + motor output)

neurons + (neuro)glia

31

neurons

dendrite + cell body + axon

covered in myelin

32

glia types

oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheath

astrocytes: provide nutrients

microglia: engulf bacteria + debris

33

epithelial tissue

- tight, continuous network
- lines body cavities, surfaces and glands
- cells anchored by basement membrane (carbs/proteins layer)
- other side exposed to environment

34

epithelial functions

secretion, absorption, excretion, filtration

35

epithelial categorization (# of cell layers)

simple: 1
stratified: 1+
pseudostratified: 1 (appears to have more)

36

epithelial categorization (shape of cell)

cuboidal: cube
columnar: column
squamous: flat

37

simple squamous

air sacs of lungs, heart and blood vessel linings
(exchange of nutrients, gases, wastes)

38

stratified squamous

surface of skin, mouth lining, esophagus
(protection against abrasion, infection, drying out)

39

simple cubodial

kidney tubules, glands
(absorption, secretion)

40

stratified cubodial

ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands
(protection)

41

simple columnar

lining of gut, respiratory tract
(absorption, secretion)

42

stratified columnar

rare, urethra
(protection, secretion)