Reproductive cont. Flashcards Preview

HSCI100 > Reproductive cont. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive cont. Deck (43):
1

1. Pre-embryonic development

fertilization through second week

2

2 Embryonic development

wk 3 - wk 8

3

3. Fetal development

wk 9 - birth

4

development after birth

postnatal

5

main processes of development

- cleavage
- growth
- morphogenesis
- differentiation

6

cleavage

cell mitotic division (2, 4, 8..) w/o embryo increasing in size

7

growth

cell mitotic division + size increase

8

morphogenesis

embryo begins to take shape as cells migrate

- "morpho" shape
- "genesis" beginning

9

differentiation

cells take on specific structure and function (nervous system = first visible system of embryo)

10

fertilization steps 1

secretions from female reproductive tract alter surface of plasma membrane of sperm

11

fertilization steps 2

sperm contacts corona radiata, and enzyme; spill out of acrosome

12

fertilization steps 3

enzymes disrupt cellular attachments (allowing passage of sperm through corona radiata -> zona pellucida

13

fertilization steps 4

sperm contacts plasma membrane of secondary oocyte -> plasma membranes fuse

14

fertilization steps 5

sperm enters cytoplasm of secondary oocyte

15

fertilization steps 6

granules near plasma membrane of secondary oocyte release enzymes -> zona pellucida hardens

16

fertilization steps 7

nucleus of sperm and egg fuse (fertilization completed)

17

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 1: ovulation

secondary oocyte released from ovary and swept into eviduct

18

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 2: fertilization

single sperm penetrates secondary oocyte -> sperm and egg nuclei fuse -> zygote

19

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 3: cleavage

mitotic division w/o size increase

20

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 4: morula

solid ball of cells that enters uterus

21

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 5: blastocyst

hollow ball of cells w/ fluid-filled cavity
- increases in size

22

pre-embryonic development wk 1 step 6: implantation

blastocyst attaches to endometrium -> cells of inner cell mass form primary germ layers

23

chorion

fetal half of placenta
- organ nourishes embryo and gets rid of wastes by exchange w/ mother's blood

24

allantois

gives rise to bladder and blood vessels of umbilical cord that carry blood to-fro fetus

25

yolk sack

contains many blood vessels and where blood cells first form
- primordial germ cells

26

amnion

contains amniotic fluid for protection/cushioning

27

embryonic development wk 2

- pregnancy begins after implantation
- human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) secreted (maintaining corpus luteum and endometrium
- embryonic disk goes through gastrulation

28

gastrula

embryo w/ ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

29

ectoderm (outer layer)

skin epiderms, epithelial lining cavity and rectum, nervous system

30

mesoderm (middle)

skeleton, muscular, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive, outer layers of respiratory/digestive

31

endoderm (inner)

epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory tract,

32

embryonic development wk 3

- nervous system develops
- neural tube -> spinal cord and brain
- development of heart begins

33

embryonic development wk 4

- chorionic villi and umbilical cord forms
- heart beats
- limb buds form
- hands/feet

34

embryonic development wk 5

- head enlarges
- eyes, ears, nose

35

fetal development months 3/4

- hair development
- head slows in growth
- cartilage -> bone
- female/male
- heartbeat

36

fetal development months 5-7

- fetal movement
- fetal position
- eyelids fully open
- growth

37

fetal development months 8/9

- gains a pound/week
- fetus rotate (head pointed towards cervix)

38

anti-mullerian hormone

secreted by testes, prevents development of female sex organs

39

dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

external organ development dependent of presence/absence of this (produced by testes)

40

bad changes in mother's body

- effect of progesterone (acid reflux, constipation)
- morning sickness
- edema and varicose veins
- gestational diabetes
- stretch marks

41

birth stage 1 (dilation)

regular contractions, ends when cervix is dilated 10 cm

42

birth stage 2 (expulsion)

begins w full dilation of cervix and ends w/delivery of baby

43

birth stage 3 (placental)

ends w/expulsion of placenta