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Flashcards in The Cell Deck (20):
1

Cell theory

basic unit of life; all living things are composed of cells; new cells come from pre-existing cells

2

prokaryotic

lack nucleus, bacteria/archaea, cell wall + ribosome + cytoplasm + plasma membrane, circular DNA form

3

eukaryotic

nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, coiled/linear DNA strands, 10x bigger than prokaryotic

4

plasma membrane characteristics (6)

phospholipid bilayer, fluid mosaic model, selectively permeable, receives info, capacity for movement/expansion, import/export of molecules

5

how is the membrane selectively permeable?

-hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, N2) go through easily
-small uncharged polar molecules (H2O, glycerol) go through ok
- large uncharged polar molceules (glucose, sucrose) barely go through
-ions (H+, NA+, HCO3-, K+) do not go through

6

diffusion

random movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration (passive transport) along the concentration gradient

7

facilitated diffusion

diffusion w/ aid of protein channel (eg glucose)

8

active transport

ATP + protein carrier against concentration gradient

eg: sodium potassium pump (Na out, K in)

9

osmosis

flow of H2O across a permeable membrane

10

(exo/endo/phago)cytosis

exo: out of plasma membrane via vesicle (merged)
endo: in
phago: macrophages consuming pathogens

11

hyper/hypo/isotonic

hyper: more solute inside/less water out (shrivel)
hypo: less solute inside/more water out (swelling)
iso: equal amount

12

nucleus

separates DNA/genome from cytosol, nucleolus (rRNA/ribosomal proteins), double membrane

13

endomembrane system

rough ER w/ribosome, golgi complex, vesicles (lysosome), plasma membrane

14

smooth/rough ER

s: makes lipids
r: ribosomes for protein synthesis

15

cytoskeleton

protein fibers, cell shape/support, strength, locomotion, chromosome separation

16

metabolism

chemical processes that occur w/in an organism in order to maintain life

17

catabolism

destructive metabolism; breakdown of complex molecules --> simpler -> release of energy

18

anabolism

constructive metabolism, synthesis of complex molecules -> simpler -> storage of energy

19

mitochondria

production of ATP, has its own DNA (passed down maternally)

20

endosymbiotic hypothesis

mitochondria used to be an energy-producing prokaryotic cell that got absorbed by a eukaryotic cell. it evolved into an organelle and continued to produce energy inside