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HSCI100 > Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestion Deck (40):
1

main steps

1. ingestion
2. digestion
3. movement
4. absorption
5. elimination

2

ingestion

intake of food via mouth

3

digestion

mechanically/chemically breaking down food into subunits

4

movement

food moved along GI tract

5

absorption

movement of nutrients across GI tract wall to cells/tissues via blood

6

elimination

removal of indigestible molecules

7

mucosa

innermost layer, produces: mucus for protection, produces digestive enzymes

8

submucosa

2nd layer, loose connective tissue containing blood/lymphatic vessels and nerves

9

muscularis

3rd layer, 2 smooth muscle layers that move food

10

serosa

outer lining, part of peritoneum that covers abdominal organs

11

salivary glands

secrete salivary amylase enzyme, beings carb digestion

12

tonsils

lymph organ, back of mouth, important in fighting disease

13

tongue

covered in taste buds, mechanical breakdown + movement of food

14

bolus

mass of chewed food

15

teeth

mechanical digestion

16

stomach

longitudinal/circular/oblique layer of muscle

- pepsiongen/HCl/mucus-secreting cells embedded in wall, gastric pits

17

heartburn

acid reflux

-chronic: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

18

pancreas

secretes enzymes into s. intestine to digest carbs, proteins, fats

19

gallbladder

liver produces bile -> stores and secretes bile to emulsify fats

20

microvilli/villi

increases surface area of small intestine for absorption

21

which molecules enter the capillaries for absorption?

amino acids and sugars

22

which molecules enter the lacteals (small lymph vessels)?

fatty acids and glycerol

23

how are nutrients digested and transported out of s. intestine? (carbohydrates)

- poly->di->mono->glucose/fructose
- facilitated transport
- blood travels via hepatic portal vein -> liver

24

how are nutrients digested and transported out of s. intestine? (proteins)

- protein -> peptide -> amino acids
- hepatic portal vein -> liver

25

how are nutrients digested and transported out of s. intestine? (fat)

bile salts + fat globules -> emulsification droplets -> bile salts + fatty acids/monoglycerides -> micelles -> chylomicron -> lacteal -> thoracic duct

26

protein digestion (substrates and enzymes): stomach

proteins + pepsin (enzyme) -> small polypetides

27

protein digestion (substrates and enzymes): lumen/s. intestine

- polypetides + trypsin -> smaller + aminopeptidase/carboxypeptidase -> amino acids

28

protein digestion (substrates and enzymes): epithelium/s. intestine

small peptides + dipeptidases -> amino acids

29

carbohydrate digestion (substrates and enzymes): mouth

polysaccharides (starch/glyogen) + salivary amylase -> smaller polysaccharides

30

carbohydrate digestion (substrates and enzymes): lumen

polysaccharides + pancreatic amylases -> maltose, disaccharides

31

carbohydrate digestion (substrates and enzymes): epithelium

maltose/disaccharides + disaccharidases -> monosaccharides

32

nucleic acid digestion (substrates and enzymes): lumen

dna/rna + nucleases -> nucleotides

33

nucleic acid digestion (substrates and enzymes): epithelium

nucleotides + nucleotidases -> nucleosides + nucleosidases -> nitrogenous bases/sugars/phosphates

34

fat digestion (substrates and enzymes): lumen

fat globules + bile salts -> fat droplets (emulsified) + lipase -> glycerol, fatty acids, glyerides

35

l. intestine

cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal

36

cecum

includes appendix (minor role in fighting infections)

37

l. intestine functions

absorb water, vitamins (B complex + K) produced by intestinal flora/bacteria
- poop

38

liver functions (7)

- bile production
- blood filtering
- plasma protein production
- bile salt production (cholesterol regulation)
- glucose -> glycogen storage (glucose regulation w glucagon/insuline)
- hemoglobin break down

39

pancreas' enzymes

- trypsin: proteins
- lipase: fats
- pancreatic amylase: carbs

40

pancreas functions (2)

- bicarbonate secretion to neutralize stomach acids
- insulin (blood sugar level regulation)