Cardiovascular Disease 2 (heart failure, common valvular disease and common congenital heart diseases) - Cardiovascular pathology Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Cardiovascular Disease 2 (heart failure, common valvular disease and common congenital heart diseases) - Cardiovascular pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disease 2 (heart failure, common valvular disease and common congenital heart diseases) - Cardiovascular pathology Deck (23):
1

What are the causes of left sided heart failure?

1)Hypertension (pressure overload)
2)Valvular disease (pressure and volume overload)
3)Myocardial infarction (regional dysfunction and volume overload)

All increase the cardiac work and stress of the wall. This leads to hypertrophy. Then cardiac dysfunction.

2

What are the consequences of Low output Left sided heart failure?

Low output causes:
KIDNEYS to retain salt/fluid. Activation to RAAS increases BP.

BRAIN : irritability >> coma

3

What are the consequences of Left heart failure? (congestion)

LUNGS:
-Pulmonary congestion / oedema
-Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
-blood in sputum
-cyanosis

4

What are the symptoms of Right Sided Heart Failure?

-congestive SPLENOMEGALY
-ascities
-pleural / pericardial effucsion

5

What are the problems associated with Valvular heart disease?

-Stenosis (opening problem)
-Regurgitation (closing problem)

6

What are 70% of all Valvular heart Diseases caused by?

-Aortic Stenosis
-Mitral Stenosis

7

What causes rheumatic heart disease?

it follows a group A streptococcus infection

8

What are the signs of acute valvular heart disease?

-Inflammation
-Aschoff bodies
-Anitschkow cells
-Pancarditis
-Vegetations on chordae tendinae

9

What are the signs of chronic valcular heart disease?

-Thickened valves
- commisural fusion
-Thick, short chordae tendinae

10

What are the complications of Aortic Stenosis?

-Left ventricular hypertension
-angina
-If angina is present then 50% die within 5 years.
-If chronic heart failure present then 50% die within years.

11

What is the association between aortic stenosis and angina?

If angina present then 50% of aortic stenosis will die within 5 years.

12

What are the consequences of Mitral annular calcification?

Mitral Annular calcification is calcification of the mitral "skeleton"
-Usually there is Regurgitation but stenosis is possible

13

What are the causes of Aortic dilations?

-Syphilis
-Rheumatoid Arthritis
-Marfan's syndrome

14

What is mitral valve prolapse?

MVP is myxomatous (weakening of connective tissue) degeneration of the mitral valve.

15

What are the clinical features of a mitral valve prolapse?

-mid systolic click
-holosystolic murmur if regurgitation present.

16

Faults during what time frame in the development of a baby causes congenital heart defects?

Faulty embryogenesis during weeks 3 - 8 can cause congenital heart defects.

17

What is the most common congenital HD?

Ventricular septal defect.

18

What disease can lead to Congenital HD?

-Rubella

19

What are the clinical features of Left to Right shunts?

-NO Cyanosis
-Pulmonary hypertension (irreversible)

20

What are the clinical features of Right to Left shunts

-Cyanosis
-venous emboli

21

What congenital heart defect is associated with down syndrome?

Atrio Ventricular Septal Defect

22

What are the features of tetralogy of fallot?

1)Overriding aorta
2)Ventricular Septal Defect (Right to Left Shunt)
3)Right Ventricular hypertrophy
4)Pulmonary stenosis

23

What is Truncus Arteriosis?

Failure of separation of pulmonary artery and aorta causes cyanosis and increased pulmonary blood flow.

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