Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disease 2 (heart failure, common valvular disease and common congenital heart diseases) - Cardiovascular pathology Deck (23):
What are the causes of left sided heart failure?
1)Hypertension (pressure overload)
2)Valvular disease (pressure and volume overload)
3)Myocardial infarction (regional dysfunction and volume overload)
All increase the cardiac work and stress of the wall. This leads to hypertrophy. Then cardiac dysfunction.
What are the consequences of Low output Left sided heart failure?
Low output causes:
KIDNEYS to retain salt/fluid. Activation to RAAS increases BP.
BRAIN : irritability >> coma
What are the consequences of Left heart failure? (congestion)
-Pulmonary congestion / oedema
-Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
-blood in sputum
What are the symptoms of Right Sided Heart Failure?
-pleural / pericardial effucsion
What are the problems associated with Valvular heart disease?
-Stenosis (opening problem)
-Regurgitation (closing problem)
What are 70% of all Valvular heart Diseases caused by?
What causes rheumatic heart disease?
it follows a group A streptococcus infection
What are the signs of acute valvular heart disease?
-Vegetations on chordae tendinae
What are the signs of chronic valcular heart disease?
- commisural fusion
-Thick, short chordae tendinae
What are the complications of Aortic Stenosis?
-Left ventricular hypertension
-If angina is present then 50% die within 5 years.
-If chronic heart failure present then 50% die within years.
What is the association between aortic stenosis and angina?
If angina present then 50% of aortic stenosis will die within 5 years.
What are the consequences of Mitral annular calcification?
Mitral Annular calcification is calcification of the mitral "skeleton"
-Usually there is Regurgitation but stenosis is possible
What are the causes of Aortic dilations?
What is mitral valve prolapse?
MVP is myxomatous (weakening of connective tissue) degeneration of the mitral valve.
What are the clinical features of a mitral valve prolapse?
-mid systolic click
-holosystolic murmur if regurgitation present.
Faults during what time frame in the development of a baby causes congenital heart defects?
Faulty embryogenesis during weeks 3 - 8 can cause congenital heart defects.
What is the most common congenital HD?
Ventricular septal defect.
What disease can lead to Congenital HD?
What are the clinical features of Left to Right shunts?
-Pulmonary hypertension (irreversible)
What are the clinical features of Right to Left shunts
What congenital heart defect is associated with down syndrome?
Atrio Ventricular Septal Defect
What are the features of tetralogy of fallot?
2)Ventricular Septal Defect (Right to Left Shunt)
3)Right Ventricular hypertrophy