Cardiovascular Pathology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pathology II > Cardiovascular Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Pathology Deck (71)
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1

Maintenance of adequate blood flow is maintained by

Cardiac Output

2

Maintenance of normal thermoregulation and glomerular filtration rate is maintained by

Urine Output

3

Compensatory mechanisms available to maintain cardiac function

Cardiac dilatation

Myocardial hypertrophy

Increase in heart rate

Increase in peripheral resistance

Redistribution of blood flow

4

Which ventricle of the heart is thicker?

Left

5

Characterisitcs of cardiac muscle

Centrally located nuclei

Intercalated discs

6

Abnormalities of cardiac muscle

Fatty degeneration

Lipofuscinosis

Vacuolar degeneration

Fatty infiltration

Myocytolysis

Neoplasia

7

Cardiac muscle damages are typically reversible, except which conditions?

Lipofuscinosis

Neoplasia

8

Describe the process of cardiac muscle healing

Injury → Hyaline Necrosis → Macrophagic Invasion → Healing with Fibrosis

9

T/F: Cardiomyocytes have the capability to regenerate

False 

_________________________

For exams false but new studies are showing that 1% of cardiomyocytes may regenerate.

10

Proportion of thickness of left ventricle to right ventricle

3:1

11

What are the three fetal bypasses

Foramen Ovale

Ductus Arteriosus

Ductus Venosus

12

Hepatic encephalopathy is due to

Retained opening of ductus venosus

13

Umbilical arteries carry (oxygenated/non-oxygenated) blood from fetus to placenta.

Non-Oxygenated

14

Umbilical Vein carries (oxygenated/non-oxygenated) blood from mom to fetus.

Oxygenated

15

Serous atrophy of the heart can be due to

Poor nutrition

16

Cardiac Syncope

Acute onset of cardiac failure

17

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Develops slowly from gradual loss of cardiac output due to pressure or volume overload or myocardial injury

18

"Brisket Edema" can be caused by

Right Sided CHF

19

General clinical signs of congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Exercise intolerance

Cyanosis

Stunted body growth

20

Valvular Hematocyst

Blood filled cyst on valve

Do not produce clinical signs

21

Abnormalities that result in Tetralogy of Fallot 

Narrowing of the pulmonary valve

Thickening of the wall of the right ventricle

Displacement of aorta over ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect between right and left ventricles

22

Teralogy of Fallot

Congenital abnormalities that results in insufficiently oxygenated blood pumped to the body

23

Right Ventricular hypertrophy can be secondary to

Pulmonic Stenosis

24

Aortic stenosis results in

Compensatory concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and post stenotic dilation of the aorta

25

Jet Lesions can be seen with what congenital cardiovascular anomaly

Ventricular Septal Defect

26

Persistant Right Aortic Arch results in

Dysphagia and Megaesophagus

27

Endocardial Mineralization  occurs secondary to

Excessive intake of vitamin D or calcinogenic plants that contain vitamin D analogs

Johnes Disease

28

Valvular Endocardiosis

Degeneration of valvular collagen

29

Endocarditis is often the result of 

30

Pathogenesis of endocarditis involves

Endothelial injury

Blood tubulence

Hypercoagulability