Cardiovascular Pathology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pathology II > Cardiovascular Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Pathology Deck (71):
1

Maintenance of adequate blood flow is maintained by

Cardiac Output

2

Maintenance of normal thermoregulation and glomerular filtration rate is maintained by

Urine Output

3

Compensatory mechanisms available to maintain cardiac function

Cardiac dilatation

Myocardial hypertrophy

Increase in heart rate

Increase in peripheral resistance

Redistribution of blood flow

4

Which ventricle of the heart is thicker?

Left

5

Characterisitcs of cardiac muscle

Centrally located nuclei

Intercalated discs

6

Abnormalities of cardiac muscle

Fatty degeneration

Lipofuscinosis

Vacuolar degeneration

Fatty infiltration

Myocytolysis

Neoplasia

7

Cardiac muscle damages are typically reversible, except which conditions?

Lipofuscinosis

Neoplasia

8

Describe the process of cardiac muscle healing

Injury → Hyaline Necrosis → Macrophagic Invasion → Healing with Fibrosis

9

T/F: Cardiomyocytes have the capability to regenerate

False 

_________________________

For exams false but new studies are showing that 1% of cardiomyocytes may regenerate.

10

Proportion of thickness of left ventricle to right ventricle

3:1

11

What are the three fetal bypasses

Foramen Ovale

Ductus Arteriosus

Ductus Venosus

12

Hepatic encephalopathy is due to

Retained opening of ductus venosus

13

Umbilical arteries carry (oxygenated/non-oxygenated) blood from fetus to placenta.

Non-Oxygenated

14

Umbilical Vein carries (oxygenated/non-oxygenated) blood from mom to fetus.

Oxygenated

15

Serous atrophy of the heart can be due to

Poor nutrition

16

Cardiac Syncope

Acute onset of cardiac failure

17

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Develops slowly from gradual loss of cardiac output due to pressure or volume overload or myocardial injury

18

"Brisket Edema" can be caused by

Right Sided CHF

19

General clinical signs of congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Exercise intolerance

Cyanosis

Stunted body growth

20

Valvular Hematocyst

Blood filled cyst on valve

Do not produce clinical signs

21

Abnormalities that result in Tetralogy of Fallot 

Narrowing of the pulmonary valve

Thickening of the wall of the right ventricle

Displacement of aorta over ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect between right and left ventricles

22

Teralogy of Fallot

Congenital abnormalities that results in insufficiently oxygenated blood pumped to the body

23

Right Ventricular hypertrophy can be secondary to

Pulmonic Stenosis

24

Aortic stenosis results in

Compensatory concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and post stenotic dilation of the aorta

25

Jet Lesions can be seen with what congenital cardiovascular anomaly

Ventricular Septal Defect

26

Persistant Right Aortic Arch results in

Dysphagia and Megaesophagus

27

Endocardial Mineralization  occurs secondary to

Excessive intake of vitamin D or calcinogenic plants that contain vitamin D analogs

Johnes Disease

28

Valvular Endocardiosis

Degeneration of valvular collagen

29

Endocarditis is often the result of 

30

Pathogenesis of endocarditis involves

Endothelial injury

Blood tubulence

Hypercoagulability 

31

32

Valvular endocarditis in a pig could be caused by what bacterial organism

33

Dirofilariasis

Dirofilaria immitis usually found in the pulmonary arterires and right ventricle

Causes cardiomegaly and endothelial damage

34

Causes of Myocardial Necrosis and Mineralization in veterinary medicine

Nutritional deficiencies

Chemical and plant toxicities

Ischemia

Metabolic disorders

Inherited diseases

Physical trauma

35

Describe the lesions of "White Muscle Disease"

36

Describe the lesions associated wtih Mulbery Heart Disease

Pericardial effusion with fibrin

Mottled appearance - hemorrhage and necrosis

37

Cardiomyopathies

Structural or functional abnormalities of the myocardium

38

Primary Cardiomyopathies

39

Primary cardiomyopathies are (idiopathic/specific)

Idiopathic

40

Secondary cardiomyopathies are (idiopathic/specific)

Specific heart muscle disease

41

Secondary Cardiomyopathies

Congenital

Nutritional

Toxic

Ischemic

Inflammatory

Endocrine disorders

Neoplastic infiltration

Systemic hypertension

42

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most common in what species

Cats

43

Dilated cardiomyopathy is most common in what species

Dogs

44

Clinical signs of Congestive Heart Failure

Cardiomegaly

Rounded shape of the heart

Pale cardiac muscle

Chambers of heart dilated

45

Histologic findings of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyocytes exhibit variable degrees of hypertrophy and are often arranged in an interweaving rather than parallel pattern

46

Normal heart of a cat should weigh around how any grams?

16g

47

Myocarditis is an example of (primary/secondary) cardiomyopathy

Secondary

48

Myocarditis is often the result of

Hematogenous infection

49

Cysticercosis 

Zoonotic Disease

Tapeworm

Adult stage in intestine of DH

Larval stage in muscle of IH

50

Pathogenesis of cysticercosis

Ingestion of taenia eggs

51

Ingestion of cysticerci by consumption of raw or incompletely cooked pork results in

Formation of the tapeworm in the intestine

52

Primary cardiac neoplasias

Rhabdomyoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Schwanomma

Hemangiosarcoma

Heart based tumors

53

Secondary cardiac neoplasia

Metastatic tumors

54

Major arterial diseases

Fibrinoid necrosis

Arteritis

Atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis

Medial hypertrophy

Intimal proliferation

Atrophy

Medial hemorrhage and necrosis

Dissecting aneurysm

55

"Diamond Skin Disease"

Multiple cutaneous infarcts

Etiology: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

56

Edema Disease

Bacterial enterotoxin that causes endothelial cell injury in arterioles resulting in fluid loss and edema.  

57

Cerebrospinal angiopathy of swine

Focal bilaterally symmetric encephalomalacia seen in pigs with edema disease

58

Arteriosclerosis

Thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

59

Most important pattern of arteriosclerosis

Atherosclerosis

60

Atherosclerosis

Presence of atheromas within the intima and media - plaques contain cholesterol and other lipids

61

Common etiologies of atherosclerosis

Hypothyroidism

Diabetes mellitus

62

Dissecting Aneurysm

dissection of blood between and along the laminar planes of the media can result in rupture and fatal hemorrhage

63

Arterial Rupture is commonly the result of

Physical trauma

64

Uterine Artery Rupture

Fatal rupture during parturition occurs in aged mares with low serum copper levels

65

Mycotic Vasculitis

Lead to rupture of the internal carotid artery in horses with guttural pouch mycosis

66

Rupture of the aorta 

may occur in periods of excitement and physical activity - thought to be secondary to increased intra-aortic pressure

67

Primary hemostasis mechanism

Platelet adhesion

Shape change

Granule release

Recruitment

Aggregation

68

Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Thrombosis

Severe renal glomerular disease → protein loosing nephropathy → significant loss of antithrombin III

69

Common cause of pulmonary thrombosis in horse

Strongylosis

70

Verminous arteritis is associated with

Strongylus vulgaris

71

Saddle thrombosis is seen as secondary condition of

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy