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RUSVM Pathology II > Special Senses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Special Senses Deck (137):
1

Cause of secondary glaucoma?

Anything that obstructs teh pupil or trabecular meshwork

2

Most common disease of the lens

Cataract

3

Blepharitis

Inflammation of the eyelids

4

Condition

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Corneal Ulcer, Corneal edema and hypopyon

5

Condition

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Corneal lipidosis 

6

Condition

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Otitis Media

7

T/F: Collie Eye Anomaly is always bilateral.

True

8

Consequences of otitis media?

Inflammation or perforation of tympanic membrane

Erosion of auditory ossicles

Horners syndrome

Osteosclerosis of tympanic bulla

Inflammatory polyps

Progression to otitis interna

9

Condition

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Corneal edema

10

Glaucoma

Increase IOP due to movenment of aqueous

Primary vs Secondary

11

Ciliary-Iridociliary adenoma/carcinomas are typically (benign/malignant)

Benign

12

Cause of Keratomalacia

Rapidly progressing bacteral infection

13

Condition

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Anterior Uveitis

14

Primary pathogens causing conjunctivitis are rare except in what species?

Cats

15

Cause of Retinal Dysplasia

Variety of retinal injuries in the embryonic eye or as inherited condition

16

Condition

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Corneal Sequestrum 

17

Tractional cause of retinal detachement

Maturation of fibrin in vitreous

18

Causes of uveitis

Hypersensitivity

Infectious

Lens induced

19

Possible underlying factors of otitis externa

Allergic disease

Ectoparasitism

Foreign bodies

Conformation

Moisture

20

Anterior Synechia

Fibrous adhesions between iris and cornea

21

Posterior synechia

Fibrous adhesions between iris and lens

22

Condition

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Microphthalmia

23

T/F: Histology is recommended for cases of conjunctivitis.

False

 

__________________________

Histology is NOT recommended - by the time clinical signs develop, primary pathogens are gone

24

Otitis media infections are almost always due to what causative agent?

Bacterial

25

Phacolytic Lens Uveitis

Leakage of lens proteins from hypermature cataract

26

Pathogenesis of Nodular Granulomatous Episceritis

Immune mediated

27

Type of condition

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Corneal pigmentation 

28

Causes of Retinitis

Extension from choroiditis or encephalitis

Neurotropic viral infection

Visceral Larval Migrans

29

Bacterial pathogens commonly associated with Otitis media

Pasteurella multocida

Mycoplasma spp

30

Most common cause of blindness in the horse

Equine Recurrent Uveitis

31

Condition

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Staphyloma 

32

Common name for this condition seen in puppies?  

Etiology?

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"Blue Eye"

Infectious Canine Hepatitis - CAV

33

Causes of developmental anomalies

Genetic defect

In utero infection

In utero exposure to teratogens

34

Condition

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Goniodysgenesis

35

Condition

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Keratitis

36

Condition

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Iris Hypoplasia

37

Condition

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Feline Diffuse Iris Melanoma

38

Lesion associated with Uveal Lymphoma

Thickening and pallor of uvea

39

Consequences of descemetoceles

Iris prolapse

Staphyloma

40

Descemetocele

Perforated Ulcer

41

Causes of Retinal Degeneration and Atrophy

Senile Change

Progressive Retinal Atrophy

Toxicity

Metabolic deficiencies

Increased IOP

42

Pathogenesis of Auricular Hematomas

Trauma - excessive head shaking > centrifugal shearing forces fracture cartilage and lacerate blood vessels

43

Consequences of otitis externa

Fibrosis

Adnexal atrophy and hyperkeratosis

Constant ear infections

Middle/Inner Ear infections

44

Pathogenesis of Chronic Superficial Keratitis - "Pannus"

Immune mediated

45

Exudative causes of retinal detachement

Choroiditis

Retinitis

Hemorrhage

Neoplasm

46

Condition

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Otitis Externa

47

Synechia

Fibrous adhesions

48

Lesion assciated with ciliary-iridociliary adenoma/carcinoma

Discrete nodules in posterior segment

49

Coloboma

Notch like defects of the optic disk, retina and or uvea as a result of defective closure of the embryonic fissure of the eye

50

Lesion associated with Retinal Dysplasia

Jumbling of retinal layers

51

It is important to differentiate Feline Diffuse Iris Melanoma from what other condition?

Melanosis

52

Condition

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Auricular Hematoma

53

Consequences of uveitis

Synechia

Pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane

Iris bombe

Cataract

Lens luxation

Glaucoma

Retinal detachment

Phthisis bulbi

54

Lens response to injury:

Hydropic swelling

Hyperplasia and Fibrous Metaplasia

Posterior Lens Epithelial Migration

Chronic "Hypermature"

55

Causes of Corneal Opacity

Corneal Edema

Keratitis

Hyphema

Retinal Hypertensive Vasculopathy

56

Condition?

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Retinal Hypertensive Vasculopathy

57

Cyclopia Synophthalmos in lambs is caused by

Ingestion of Veratrum californicum on day 14 of gestation

58

Pathogenesis of Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy

Bilaterally symettrical foci of opacity > Progress to diffuse opacity

59

Condition

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Retinal Dysplasia

60

Condition

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Ceruminous Neoplasia

61

Causes of corneal pigmentation

Staphyloma

Chronic Keratitis

Corneal Sequestration

62

Canine Melanoma on the conjunctiva of the eye is likely (benign/malignant)

Malignant

63

Condition

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Descemetocele 

64

Canine Melanoma on the haired skin of the eye is likely (benign/malignant)

Benign

65

Condition

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Cataract

66

Consequences of retinitis

Gliosis (Scarring)

Atrophy

67

Condition

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Corneal Ulcer

68

Indications of retinal degeneration and atrophy seen on a fundic exam

Decreased vascularity

Optic disc atrophy

Changes in tapetal reflection

69

Chalazion

Granulomatous infection directed against meibomian gland

70

Most common neoplasm of the external acoustic meatus of dogs and cats

Ceruminous neoplasia

71

Condition

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma

72

Otic adenomas are more common in (dogs/cats)

dogs

73

Condition?

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Retinal degeneration and atrophy

74

Histologic findings of Nodular Granulomatous Episcleritis

Granulomatous keratoconjunctivitis

75

Keratomalacia - "Melting Ulcers"

Necrosis of corneal epithelium and stroma, usually due to innocent bystander injury from leukocytes

76

DDx for Hyphema

Primary Vascular Lesion

Disorder of Hemostasis

77

Condition

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Iris Bombe

78

Corneal Edema occurs in response to

Injury to epithelium

Injury to endothelium

Increased IOP

Immune mediated

 

79

Condition

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Lens-Induced Uveitis

80

Pathogenesis of "Blue Eye" in puppies

Immune complex deposition in corneal endothelium

81

Feline Diffuse Iris Melanoma is seen in cats primarily with what color eyes

Yellow

 

82

Disease unique to cats due to subsequent ocular trauma.  It causes malignant invasion of the eye, down optic nerve and distance metastasis following enuculation.

Intraocular Sarcoma

83

Condition

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Equine Recurrent Uveitis

84

Chronic Superficial Keratitis is predisposed in what breed of dog

German Shepherd Dog

85

Condition

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Keratitis

86

Condition

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Corneal Dermoid

87

Condition

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Intraocular sarcoma

88

Condition

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Keratic precipiates and rubeosis iridis

89

Etiology of "Blue Eye" in puppies

Infectious Canine Hepatitis - CAV-1

90

Keratitis is a gross feature of

Inflammation

91

Condition

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Iris Coloboma

92

Condition

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Uveal Lymphoma

93

How do you diagnose corneal ulceration?

Stain eye with Fluorescein Dye

94

Ophthalmoscopic findings of Collie Eye Anomaly

Retinal vessel tortusosity

Focal to diffuse choroidal and tapetal hypoplasia

Optic Nerve Coloboma

Retinal Separation with intraocular hemorrhage

95

Hyphema

Blood in the anterior chamber

96

Common secondary bacterial/fungal pathogens associated with Otitis Externa

Staphylococcus

Pseudomonas

Proteus

Malassezia pachydermatitis

97

Condition

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Cyclopia/ Synophthalmos

98

Corneal lipidosis is typically associated with what other disease

Hyperlipidemia

99

Lens Induced Uveitis

Inflammatory response to lens proteins

100

Pathogenesis of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca 

Immune mediated injury to lacrimal glands > decreased tear and or change in composition of tears > drying of cornea/conjunctivia > chronic irritation

101

Corneal response to injury:

Edema

Epithelial regeneration

Neutrophil mediated stromal lysis

Neovascularization

Stromal fibrosis

102

Cause of cataracts

Swelling/degeneration of lenticular fibers

103

Staphyloma

entrapped iris

104

Consequences of ciliary-iridociliary adenoma/carcinoma

Secondary Glaucoma

Hyphema

Retinal Detachment

105

Goniodysgenesis

Detectable malformation of the trabecular meshwork

106

Chorioretinitis

Inflammation of Choroid and Retina

107

Condition

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Retinal Detachment 

108

Gross features of conjunctivitis

Hyperemia

Swelling/Edema

Discharge

Chemosis

Pigmentation

109

Posterior Uveitis

Inflammation of choroid

110

In Feline Diffuse Iris Melanoma the rate of metastasis is (high/slow) and the rate of glaucoma development is (high/slow)

Slow, High

111

Condition

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Keratomalacia 

"Melting Ulcers"

112

Underlying factors of otitis media

Functionally of auditory tubes

Immunocompetency

113

Condition

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Meibomian (sebaceous) adenoma 

114

Pathogenesis of Collie Eye Anomally

Genetic - inherited autosomal recessive trait

115

Condition

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Conjunctivitis

116

Condition

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Ciliary Adenoma or Carcinoma

117

Panophthalmitis

Inflammation of the cornea and sclera

118

Consequences of otitis interna

Meningitis

Vestibular disease

Sensory hair cell loss- permanent hearing impairment

119

Stye

Bacterial infection of hair follicle or meibomian gland - usually staphylococcus aureus

120

Condition

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Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca

121

Characterisitic lesion of Corneal Sequestrum

Black lesion in the cornea

122

Uveal lymphoma is difficult ot differentiate from what other disease?

Uveitis

123

Phacoclastic Lens Uveitis

Rupture of the lens - more severe

124

Endophthalmitis

Inflammation of the uvea, retina, and vitreous

125

Condition

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Collie Eye Anomaly

126

Condition

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Glaucoma

127

Uveal melanoma is usually (benign/malignant) in dogs

Benign

128

Otic carcinomas are more common in (dogs/cats)

Cats

129

Pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis

Hypersensitivity reaction to previous systemic infection

________________________________________

Leptospira interrogens

130

Anterior Uveitis

Inflammation of iris and ciliary body

131

Corneal Sequestrum

Cats

Localized necrosis of the epithelium and anterior stroma from severe corneal injury.  Affected area gets infiltrated with dark pigment that is present in tear film

132

Condition

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Luxated Lens

133

Condition

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Ankyloblepharon

134

Primary pathogens that cause conjunctivitis

Feline Herpesvirus 1

Chlamydophilia felis

Mycoplasma felis

135

Cause of primary glaucoma?

Goniodysgenesis

136

Condition

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Retinal Detachment

137

Evidence of malignancy in eye lesions

Raised lesions

Velvet surface

Distortion of pupil/iris