Endocrine Pathology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pathology II > Endocrine Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Pathology Deck (88):
1

Kids that were born dead or died shortly after birth, weak with large neck "masses" some were hairless.  What endocrine disorder would be at the top of your DDx?

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Goiter

2

Characteristic lesions associated with Diabetes Mellitus

Cataracts (Dogs Only)

Microangiopathy

Hepatic Lipidosis

Lesions caused by infections

3

(Primary/Secondary) endocrine disorders involve decreased cellular activity or increased cellular activity of the endocrine gland.

Primary Endocrine Disorders

4

Endocrine function of goiter

Euthyroid or Hypothyroid

5

Endocrine function of Diabetes Mellitus

Hypoinsulinemia

6

Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

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  1. Chronic hyperglycemia
  2. Formation of glycosylated proteins
  3. Deposition into caplillary basement membranes
  4. Thickened basement membrane ("microangiopathy)

7

Pancreas: Morphological Diagnosis

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Chronic Pancreatitis

8

Morphological Diagnosis

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Thyroid Hyperplasia

9

Histological Appearance of

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Adrenocortical Neoplasm

10

(Primary/Secondary) Endocrine disorders consist of a lesion of another organ that leads to decreased or increased cellular activity of the endocrine gland

Secondary Endocrine Disorder

11

Hypopituitarism causes what endocrine disorder?

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Hypoadrenocortisim - Addison's Disease

12

Cause of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

PTH producing Parathyroid Neoplasm

13

Insulin resistance can occur secondary to

Hyperadrenocorticism

Obesity

Pregnancy

14

Pathogenesis of cataracts due to DM

Excessive glucose taken up by epithelium of the lens →  metabolized to sorbitol by aldose reductase →  sorbitol osmotically draws water into the lens →  cataract formation

15

Morphological Diagnosis

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Adrenocortical Adenoma/Carcinoma

_____________________

Require histology to differentiate

16

Pathogenesis of Islet Cell Vacuolar Degeneration

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  1. Insulin Resistance
  2. Long term overstimulation of Beta-Cells
  3. Intracellular accumulation of glycogen
  4. Vacuolar degeneration of beta cells
  5. Insulin deficiency and more severe diabetes mellitus

17

Endocrine disorder that causes hypertension and polymopathy (due to hypernatriemia and hypokalemia)

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Hyperaldosteronism - Conn's Syndrome

18

What dis?

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Pheochromocytoma

__________________________

Would need to be differentiated from Adrenocortical Neoplasm with histopathology

19

Lesion assoicated with what endocrine disorder?

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Steroid Hepatopathy

Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushing's Disease

20

Histology of a pancreas from a cat with Diabetes mellitus due to:

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Insulin Antagonism

21

In horses, most pituitary adenomas are from where, and some produce ACTH.

Pars intermedia

22

Lesions that may be associated with Hyperadrenocorticism

Adrenocortical Adenoma/Carcinoma

Steroid Hepatopathy

Calcinosis cutis

Pituitary Adenoma

23

Endocrine disease that causes nodular thyroid hyperplasia. Characterized by increased appetite with weight loss, PU, enlarged nodular thyroids and histologically abnormal follicles.

Hyperthyroidism

24

Histologic appearance of lesion associated with what endocrine disease?

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Calcinosis cutis

Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushings Disease

25

Histologic appearance of what lesion associated with what endocrine disease?

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Steroid Hepatopathy

Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushing's Disease

26

Possible causes of hyperadrenocorticism

Adrenocortical adenoma/ carcinoma

ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma

Adrenocortical hyperplasia

Iatrogenic

27

Thyroid carcinomas can arise from what types of cells

Follicular Cells

C Cells

28

Why might you see this lesion with secondary hyperparathyroidism?

PTH stimulates increased resorption of bone

Chronic PTH stimulates bone marrow stromal cells to differentiate into fibroblasts

High P and low vitamin D > Low Ca > inability to properly mineralize growing bown due to low Ca and uremic acidosis

29

Morphological Diagnosis

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Nodular Thyroid Hyperplasia

30

Endocrine function of thyroid carcinomas

Euthyroid

31

What stimulates the parathyroid gland

Nutritional imbalance - high P and/or low Ca

Renal Disease

Lack of UVs and inadequate vitamin D3

32

Histologic Appearance of

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Pheochromocytoma

33

Lesion caused by what endocrine disorder?

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Fibrous Osteodystrophy

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

34

Pathogenesis of Islet Amyloidosis

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  1. Long term overstimulation of Beta cells
  2. Beta cells produce IAPP (Islet Amyloid Polypeptide) along with insulin
  3. IAPP polymerizes to form amyloid
  4. Crowding of islet cells
  5. Islet cell atrophy
  6. Insulin deficiency and more severe diabetes mellitus

35

To differentiate between pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical neoplasms histology is required.  However, grossly pheochromocytomas should have what kind of appearance.

Red and mottled

36

Endocrine disorder that causes hypertension and polymopathy due to hypernatremia and hypokalemia.

Conn's Syndrome

37

Histologic appearance of goiter.  What is abnormal?

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Lacks colloid

38

Morphological Diagnosis

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Acute Cerebral Cortical Neuronal Necrosis

39

Diabetes Mellitus causes what histological appearance

Beta Cell Degeneration

Beta Cell Amyloidosis

Islet-itis

Chronic Pancreatitis

40

Primary Hypoadrenocorticism is caused by

Adrenocortical Atrophy

41

Lesion of a dog with diabetes mellitus

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Diabetic Nephropathy

42

Lesion associated wtih what endocrine disorder?

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Calcinosis Cutis

Hyperadrenocorticism

43

Neuroendocrine tumor of the adrenal medulla

Pheochromocytoma

44

Why do hyperadrenocorticim dogs have a pendulous abdomen?

Hepatomegaly

Muscle Atrophy

Redistribution of fat

45

Patient presents with bilaterally symmetric alopecia, polyphagia, PU/PD, potbelly and owner is complaining that he stinks.  What endocrine disorder is at the top of your DDx?

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Cushing's Disease- Hyperadrenocorticism

46

Clinical signs of PPID (Equine Cushings)

Hirsuitism

PU/PD/PP

Hyperhidrosis

Insulin Resistance

47

Adrenocortical hyperplasia can be caused by

Functional Pituitary Tumor

48

Seen with which endocrine disorder

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Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

49

Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism causes what type of lesion?

Adrenocortical atrophy

50

Pathogenesis of cataracts associated with Diabetes mellitus

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  1. Excessive glucose is taken up by epithelium of the lens
  2. Metabolized to sorbitol by aldose reductase
  3. Sorbitol osmotically draws water into the lens
  4. Cataract formation

51

Endocrine function of hyperadrenocorticism?

Hypercorticism

52

Endocrine function of Pancreatic Islet Cell Carcinoma

Pancreatic Islet Hyperfunction

53

Endocrine function of Ferret Adrenal Neoplasm

Hyperestrogenism

54

Lesion associated with what endocrine disease?

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PTH Producing Parathyroid Neoplasm associated with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

55

Benign endocrine neoplasm of ferrets

Insulinoma

56

Pathogenesis of Beta Cell Amyloidosis due to DM

Long term overstimulation of beta cells →  beta cells produce IAPP alonge with insulin →  IAPP polymerizes to form amyloid →  crowding of islet cells →  islet cell atrophy →  insulin deficiency and more severe DM

57

Morphological Diagnosis

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Parathyroid Hyperplasia

58

Endocrine disorder that causes parathyroid hyperplasia, juvenile progressive nephropathy and fibrous osteodystrophy

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

59

Pituitary Cysts can result in what endocrine disease?

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Hypodrenocorticism - Addison's Disease

60

Pathogenesis of microangiopathy due to DM

Chronic hyperglycemia →  formation of glycosylated proteins →  deposition into capillary basement membranes →  thickened basement membrane

61

Histologic appearance of what lesion?  Associated with which endocrine disease?

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Adrenocortical Adenoma

Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushing's Disease

62

Secondary Hypoadrenocorticism is caused by 

Hypopituitarism

Exogenous Steroids

63

Cause of Pseudo-Hyperparathyroidism

PTH-RP producing Neoplasm 

(Lymphoma, Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma of Anal Sac)

64

Endocrine disorder of ferrets characterized by alopecia, PU/PD, vulvar enlargment, anemia and endometria/prostatic hyperplasia.

Ferret Drenal Neoplasm

65

Ferret presents with alopeica, PU/PD, vulvar enlargement and anemia.  What is at the top of your DDx?

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Ferret Adrenal Neoplasm

66

Morphological Diagnosis

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Nodular Thyroid Hyperplasia

67

In dogs, majority of pituitary adenomas are active and from where?

Pars distalis

68

Morphological Diagnosis

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Lymphocytic Thyroidits

69

Morphological diagnosis?  Seen associated with what endocrine disorder?

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Severe renal tubular atrophy, fibrosis, mineralization

Juvenile Progressive Nephropathy associated with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

70

Pathogenesis of hypothyroidism

TSH stimulatin the thyroid gland → increased TSH occurs when T4 is low due to loss of feedback inhibition

71

Lesion associated with what endocrine disorder?

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Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushing's Disease

72

Endocrine disease of dogs that causes lymphocytic thyroiditis, myxedema and atherosclerosis.  Characterized by increased body weight with no change in appetite, alopecia and scaley skin.

Canine Hypothyroidism

73

Morphological Diagnosis

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Islet Cell Vacuolar Degeneration

74

Morphological Diagnosis

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Pancreatic Islet Cell Carcinoma

75

Lesion associated with what endocrine disorder?

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Cataracts associated with Diabetes Mellitus

76

Endocrine disease causing tremors, tetany, muscle excitability due to low Ca and high P

Hypoparathryroidsim

______________________________

Require a lesion that wipes out all parathyroid glands

77

Pancreas: Morphological Diagnosis

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Acute Pancreatitis

78

Endocrine disorder characterized by thyroid hyperplasia and follicles lacking colloid.  

Goiter

79

Pathogenesis of Beta Cell Degeneration

Insulin Resistance →  long term overstimulation of beta cells →  intracellular accumulation of glycogen →  vacuolar degeneration of beta cells →  insulin deficiency and more severe DM

80

Lesion associated with what endocrine disorder?

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Apocrine Gland Adenocarcinoma of the Anal Sac associated with Pseudo-Hyperparathyroidism

81

Morphological Diagnosis?  Associated with which endocrine disease?

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Nodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia

Hyperadrenocorticism - Cushings Disease

82

Pathogenesis of fibrous osteodystrophy caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism

PTH stimulates increased resorption of bone →  chronic PTH stimulates bone marrow stromal cells to differentiate into fibroblasts →  high P and low vitamin D →  low Ca →  inability to properly mineralize growing bone due to low Ca and uremic acidosis

83

Morphological diagnosis of this histology finding from a cat with diabetes mellitus.  

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Islet Amyloidosis

84

Endocrine function of Conn's Syndrome

Hyperaldosteronism

85

Things that decrease T4

Iodine deficient diet

Goiterogenic substances

Congenital dyshormonogenic goiter

Excess dietery iodide

86

Significance of Nodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia

None - typically a senile change

87

Goiter is an example of what type of endocrine disorder?

Hypothyroidism

88

Morphological Diagnosis

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Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma