Liver Pathology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Pathology II > Liver Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver Pathology Deck (99):
1

Response to Liver Injury

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Atrophy

2

What is the stain used and what does it stain?

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Reticulin Stain

Reticulin fibers

3

Response to liver injury

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Regeneration

4

Response to liver injury?  What is the possible cause?

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Fibrosis

Parasitic migration

5

Response to liver injury?  What is the common name for this disease?

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Fibrosis

"Milk Spotted Liver"

6

Condition

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Cirrhosis

7

Response to liver injury

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Biliary hyperplasia

8

Condition?

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Capsular Fibrosis - Incidental Finding

9

Condition?

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Tension Lipidosis - Incidental Finding

10

Condition?

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Hepatic Rupture - Incidental Finding

11

Condition?

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Healing of capsular rupture - Incidental Finding

12

Condition?

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Liver Autolysis - Post Mortem Change

13

Condition?

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Bile Inhibition - Post Mortem Change

14

Condition?

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Multifocal Liver Necrosis

15

Pattern of hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis?

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Centrilobular Necrosis

16

Pattern of hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis?

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Midzonal Necrosis

17

Pattern of hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis?

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Periportal Necrosis

18

Condition?

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Massive Hepatic Necrosis

19

Common Cause?

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Hepatosis Dietetica of Swine 

(Massive Hepatic Necrosis)

20

Condition?

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Congenital Biliary Cysts

21

Condition?

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Congenital Polycystic Liver Disease

22

Condition?

Common Name?

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Hepatic Chronic Passive Congestion

"Nutmeg Liver"

23

Condition?

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Hepatic Vein Thrombosis

24

Condition?

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Telangiectasis

25

Condition?

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Amyloidosis

26

Multifocal hepatic necrosis is indicative of what specific type of hepatitis?

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Viral Hepatitis

27

Multifocal necrotizing hepatitis is indicative of what specific type of hepatits

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Bacterial Hepatitis

28

Condition? 

Etiology?

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Bacillary Hemoglobinuria

Clostridium haemolyticum

29

Condition?

Etiology?

 

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Tyzzer's Disease

Clostridium piliforme

30

Condition?

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Liver Abcesses

31

Condition?

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Granulomatous Hepatitis

32

Specific type of hepatitis?

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Mycotic Hepatitis

33

Condition? 

Etiology?

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Parasitic Hepatitis

Ascaris suum

34

Condition?

Etiology?

Parasitic Hepatitis

Flukes

35

Condition caused by Fasicola hepatica

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Chronic Fibrosing Cholangitis

36

Condition?

Etiology?

Parasitic Hepatitis - Hydatidosis

Cestodes

37

Condition?

Etiology?

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Protozoal Hepatitis - "Black Head"

Histomonas meleagridis

38

Condition?

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Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity

39

Condition

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Cholelithiasis

40

Condition?

Cause?

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Hepatocutaneous Syndrome - Superficial Necrolytic Dermatitis

Manifestation of Liver Dysfunction and Failure

41

Condition

Cause

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Photosensitization

Manifestation of liver dysfunction or failure

42

Condition

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Hepatic Nodular Hyperplasia

43

Condition

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Hepatocellular Adenoma

44

Condition

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

45

Condition

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Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

46

What is the largest visceral organ?

Liver

47

The liver receives what percent of cardiac output?

25%

48

What are the components of the liver structural unit?

Central Vein

Portal Triad

Limiting Plate

49

What are the components of the portal triad

Bile Ductules

Branches of the portal vein

Hepatic Artery, Nerves, and Lymphatics

50

Which zone of the liver is the most oxygenated?

Zone 1 - Centroacinar 

51

What cell type makes up 80% of the liver mass?

Hepatocytes

52

Kupfer Cells

Regional macrophage, participate in immune and regenerative response

53

Stellate Cells

Produce and maintain entracellular matrix and store vitamin A

54

Clinical signs of hepatic injury become evident after what percent of parenchyma is injured?

75%

55

Liver enzymes used as biomarkers of liver injury

AST

ALT

LDH

Alkaline Phosphatase

Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase

56

Responses of the liver to injury

Atrophy

Hypertrophy and hyperplasia

Regeneration 

Fibrosis

Biliary Hyperplasia

57

Liver atrophy can cause

Increased catabolism

Decreased blood flow

Decreased bile flow

Pressure

58

Percentage of liver parenchyma that can regenerate in one week

60%

59

Oval cells

Differentiate into hepatocytes or bile duct epithelium

60

Requirements for hepatic regeneration

Intact framework

Good blood supply

Patent bile ducts

61

What cell type proliferates in hepatic injury leading to replacement by fibrosis 

Stellate Cells

62

Cirrhosis

Hepatocellular nodular proliferation, fibrosis, causing impaired blood and bile flow - End Stage Liver

63

Biliary Hyperplasia

Bile duct proliferation - multiple bile ducts

64

Capsular Fibrosis - "Perihepatitis Filamentosa"

Incidental liver lesion found in horses that is caused by resolution of peritionitis or parasitic migration

65

Tension Lipidosis

Incidental liver finding of cattle and horses

Focal areas of pale discoloration adjacent to mesenteric attachment

66

Hepatic Rupture

Incidental finding of the liver - scars of healed traumatic injury, spider web appearance with hemorrhage

67

Common post mortem changes of the liver

Pale, irrecular foci

Green/black discoloration

Emphysema

Autolysis

Bile inhibition

68

Possible eitiologies for Multifocal LIver Necrosis

Bacterial

Viral

Parasitic

69

Zonal Necrosis

Defined areas within hepatic lobule or acini are affected

70

Common cause of Centrilobular Necrosis

Hypoxia

71

Periportal Necrosis

Bridging from one portal area to another

72

Common etiology of Periportal Necrosis

Toxin

73

Hepatosis Dietetica of swine causes what heptic lesions

Massive Hepatic Necrosis

74

Cause of Hepatosis Dietetica of Swine

Associated with generation of free radicals and deficiency of vitamin E/selenium

75

Biliary Cysts

Incidental finding - abnormal development of bile ductules

76

Polycystic Liver Disease

Multiple cysts located in the liver and kidney

77

Polycystic Liver Disease needs to be differentiated from

Parasitic Cyts

78

Acute Hepatic Congestion

Slight enlargement, prominent reticular pattern

79

Hepatic Chronic Passive Congesion

"Nutmeg Liver"

Reticulated pattern due to zonal congestion - blood concentrated around central vein

80

Right sided Congestive Heart Failure causes what type of hepatic lesion?

Hepatic Chronic Passive Congestion

81

Hepatic Vein Thrombosis - "Budd Chiari Syndrome" causes

Hepatomegaly

Ascites

Abdominal Pain

82

Causes of Hepatic Vein Thrombosis

Conditions producing thrombotic tendencies or sluggish flow 

83

Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

Blood within the portal venous system bypasses the liver and drain into the posterior vena cava or azygous vein

84

Histologic appearance of Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

Small hepatocytes

Portel veins in small triads

Prominent hepatic arterioles

 

85

Telangiectasis

Presence of focal areas in which sinusoids are dilated and filled with blood

86

Gross appearance of telangiectasis

Irregular, circumscribed, dark-red foci of cavernous ectasia of sinusoids

87

The liver can accumulate:

Fat

Glycogen

Amyloid

Copper

88

Pathogenesis of Hepatic Lipidosis

Free Fatty Acids > Fatty Acids > Triglycerides > Lipoproteins > Lipid Accumulation

89

Mechanisms of Hepatic Lipidosis

Excessive entry of fatty acids

Decreased oxidation

Increased esterification of fatty acids

Decreased apoprotein synthesis 

Impaired secretion of lipoprotein

90

Gross appearance of Hepatic Lipidosis

Enlarged, heavy, uniform light yellow or orange liver that cuts with ease and is greasy, edges are rounded and surface is smooth - tissue floats

91

Histologic appearance of Hepatic Lipidosis

Marked Hepatocellular Vacuolation

92

Stains used to detect hepatic lipidosis

Oil Red O

Osmium tetroxide

93

Physiological Fatty Liver

Bottleneck movement of lipid through hepatocytes and triglyceride accumulates

94

Bovine Fatty Liver Syndrome

Obese animals within few days after parturition, precipiatated by event that causes cow to go off feed.

 

Influx of fatty acids to the liver and decreased export of lipoprotein from liver

95

Endocrine disorders that can lead to hepatic lipidosis

Diabetes mellitus

Hypothyroidism

96

Glycogne accumulation in the liver can cause

Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperadrenocorticism

Glycogen Storage Diseases

97

Amyloid accumulation in the liver is a consequence of

Prolonged antigenic stimulation

Familial predisposition

 

98

Histologic appearance of hepatic amyloidosis

Amyloid accumulation in space of Disse - atrophy of hepatic cords

99

Special stain used to detect amyloid

Congo Red