Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (92):
How bigger is the left ventricular wall than the right one?
3 times thicker
What are the 2 main causes of left heart failure?
myocardial contractile force lost
dysfunction of mitral or aortic valves
When does rigor mortis affect the heart?
What does it mean if there is clotted blood in the left ventrical?
myocardial disease present
What heart defect is in a subaortic position?
ventricular septal defect
What heart defect results in secondary compensatory LV hypertrophy?
What are the 2 heart defects that causes secondary compensatory RV hypertrophy?
tetralogy of fallot
What heart defect is a failure of closure of the foramen ovale?
atrial septal defect
What species get patent ductus arteriousus?
What are the 4 lesions in tetraology of fallot?
ventricular septal defect
secondary RV hypertrophy
Which animals get valvular hematomas (hematocysts)?
young ruminants, no clinical significance
What are the 3 causes for edema fluid in the pericardium?
right heart failure
obstruction at base of heart
What breeds get hemorrhagic pericardial effusions?
large dog breeds - great dane, st bernard, german shep, golden retriever
What are the 2 causes of hemorrhagic pericarddial effusions?
secondary to hemangiosarcoma
What is the gross lesion associated with serous atrophy of fat?
epicardial fat replaced by gray wet gelatinous tissue
What are the 3 causes of fatty degeneration?
What are the gross and microscopic lesions associated with fatty degeneration?
gross - thrush breast heart (mottled, flabby)
mico - spherical vacuoles in myocytes
What causes myofibrillar degeneration in birds?
What are the causes of vacuolar degeneration of the heart?
doxorubicin (chemo drug) cardotoxicity
What is the micro lesion associated with vacuolar degeneration?
What are the causes of hyaline/zenkers necrosis?
ischemia, nutritional deficiency, toxins, excess catecholamine release
What is the gross appearence of zenkers necrosis?
pale streaks, calcificiation, scarring
What does the histopathology of zenkers necrosis look like?
hypereosinophilic fibers, basophilic granules, pyknotic nuclei, leukocytes, fibrous replacement
What are the 2 sequelae of zenkers necrosis?
death from heart failure
recovery with myocardial scarring
What are the causes of endocardial fibrosis/mineralization?
vitamin D poisoning
manchester wasting disease (enzootic calcinosis)
What are the causes of valvular endocardiosis/fibrosis?
What gross lesions will you find in valvular fibrosis?
smooth firm and thick valve cusps, "jet lesions"
What is the most common cause of CHF in old dogs?
How do you differentiate between endocarditis and valvular endocardiosis/fibrosis?
endocarditis will have fryable tissue, and exudate
What causes mulberry heart disease?
Where can infectious agents enter the pericardium?
from the blood (hematogenous dissemination)
foreign body penetration
What causes suppurative inflammation in the heart?
What is the description for what the heart looks like with fibrinous inflammation?
"bread and butter heart"
What are the 2 sequelae of hardware dz in cows?
death from septicemia
chronic cardiac failure from constrictive pericarditis
What are the 4 portals of entry for infection of the endocardium (endocarditis)?
blood, parasites, IV catheters, uremia induced (dog left atrium)
What are the gross lesions associated with endocarditis?
friable dry yellow "vegetations" on valve
What are the microscopic lesions associated with endocarditis?
masses of fibrin and bacteria adhered to granulation tissue
What are the 4 sequelae of endocarditis?
cardiac failure (valves)
bacteremia - death
What are the portals of entry to cause myocarditis?
blood, embolic dissemination from vegetatitve endocarditis into coronary arteries
What are the 5 types of myocarditis?
suppurative, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, lymphocytic, eosinophilic
What virus can cause myocarditis?
What bacterial infection can cause myocarditis?
What protozoa can cause myocarditis?
toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, encephalitozoonosis, theileriasis
What is an idiopathic cause of myocarditis?
What is the type of hypertrophy that is caused by an increase in blood volume?
What is the type of hypertrophy that is caused by an increase in blood pressure?
What are some causes of increased blood pressure?
valvular stenosis, vascular dz, pulmonary dz, hyperthyroidism, hypertension
What is the gross appearance of eccentric hypertrophy?
large chamber with thin or normal thickness walls, round heart, double apex
What is the gross appearance of concentric hypertrophy?
small chamber, thick walls
What is the microscopic appearance of cardiac hypertrophy?
fibers thick with large nuclei
What causes brisket disease in cattle?
high altitude disease
What are the changes in the heart and other organs with brisket disease?
RV hypertrophy, edema of brisket, nutmeg liver
What is the pathogenesis of right heart failure in dogs with dirofilariasis?
arteritis produces pulmonary hypertension --> RV hypertrophy
What are the changes in the heart of cats with hyperthyroidism?
myocardial hypertrophy especially in left ventricle
What are cardiomyopathies?
progressive myocardial failure of undetermined cause, alterations in myocyte sarcomeric proteins
What type of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats is from a taurine deficiency and causes dilated chambers?
dilated (congestive) type
What type of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats is inheritable in persians and maine coons and causes the LV to be thickened?
What idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats has excessive moderator bands or LV endocardial fibrosis?
What are some lesions that can be caused by any of the types of cardiomyopathy in cats?
pulmonary congestion, edema, ascites, hepatic congestion, thromboemboli
What dog breeds is idiopathic cardiomyopathy seen in dogs?
What type of cardiomyopathy do dogs get?
usually dilated (congestive) type
What neoplasm arises from the aortic body and is important in dogs?
What neoplasm is frequent in cattle and involves pericardium and myocardium?
What is the sequelae of malignant lymphomas in cattle?
may produce cardiac failure
Which neoplasm is most frequent in dogs in the RA?
What metastatic neoplasms may affect the heart?
What congenital anomaly produces anasarca and is heriditary in ayrshire cattle?
What is lymphatic hypoplasia called in dogs?
What is the cause and sequelae of aortic ruptures in horses?
associated with exertion
causes intrapericardial hemorrhage
What are the clinical signs of carotid rupture in the horse?
What can cause chylothorax in the dog and cat?
thoracic duct rupture
What can cause hypertrophy of blood vessels?
pregnancy, shunts, high altitude dz, dirofilariasis
What are some causes of aneurysms?
Cu deficiency, lathyrism (sweet pea toxicosis), strongylosis in horses
What are the 2 causes of artherosclerosis?
What is the gross lesion associated with artherosclerosis?
fatty streaks on intima early on, later rough plaques
What are the 2 sequelae of artherosclerosis?
thrombosis (heart, brain, kidney esp)
What are some causes of medial calcification of blood vessels?
vit D poisoning, hyperparathyroidism, mg poisoning, cachexia (johnes dz)
What lesion is induced by vasoactive drugs in the muscular arteries of dogs?
medial necrosis and hemorrhage
What are the 2 chemical agents that cause arterial smooth muscle proliferation?
What are 2 chemical agents that induce arterial medial calcification?
vitamin D, calcinogenic plants
What are 2 agents that alter arterial CT to produce aneurysms?
What are 3 general predisposing conditions that lead to thrombi? (virchow triad)
alterations in blood flow
Where do cattle get thrombosis?
caudal vena cava
What is lymphangiectasia?
dilation of lymph vessels (usually in dog)
What are 2 common causes of arteritis?
E. coli (hemolytic)
canine pain syndrome
What are the gross lesions associated with arteritis?
hemorrhage, edema, infarction
What are the histopath lesions associated with arteritis?
endothelial necrosis, PMN infiltration of vessel wall, thrombi
What are some caues of phlebitis?
neonatal umbilical infection, IV injection
What are the lesions associated with phlebitis?
thrombosis and embolism
What are the 2 bacteria that can cause "naval ill" aka omphalophlebitis?
Streptococcus sp or T. pyogenes
What are some clinical signs of naval ill?
suppurative polyarthritis, septicemia, umbilical abcess