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Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (92):
0

How bigger is the left ventricular wall than the right one?

3 times thicker

1

What are the 2 main causes of left heart failure?

myocardial contractile force lost
dysfunction of mitral or aortic valves

2

When does rigor mortis affect the heart?

15-20 minutes

3

What does it mean if there is clotted blood in the left ventrical?

myocardial disease present

4

What heart defect is in a subaortic position?

ventricular septal defect

5

What heart defect results in secondary compensatory LV hypertrophy?

subaortic stenosis

6

What are the 2 heart defects that causes secondary compensatory RV hypertrophy?

pulmonic stenosis
tetralogy of fallot

7

What heart defect is a failure of closure of the foramen ovale?

atrial septal defect

8

What species get patent ductus arteriousus?

dogs, calves

9

What are the 4 lesions in tetraology of fallot?

ventricular septal defect
pulmonic stenosis
dextroposed aorta
secondary RV hypertrophy

10

Which animals get valvular hematomas (hematocysts)?

young ruminants, no clinical significance

11

What are the 3 causes for edema fluid in the pericardium?

serous pericarditis
right heart failure
obstruction at base of heart

12

What breeds get hemorrhagic pericardial effusions?

large dog breeds - great dane, st bernard, german shep, golden retriever

13

What are the 2 causes of hemorrhagic pericarddial effusions?

idiopathic
secondary to hemangiosarcoma

14

What is the gross lesion associated with serous atrophy of fat?

epicardial fat replaced by gray wet gelatinous tissue

15

What are the 3 causes of fatty degeneration?

anemia
toxemia
Cu deficiency

16

What are the gross and microscopic lesions associated with fatty degeneration?

gross - thrush breast heart (mottled, flabby)
mico - spherical vacuoles in myocytes

17

What causes myofibrillar degeneration in birds?

furazolidone toxicosis

18

What are the causes of vacuolar degeneration of the heart?

doxorubicin (chemo drug) cardotoxicity
antiviral drugs

19

What is the micro lesion associated with vacuolar degeneration?

sarcoplasmic vacuolation

20

What are the causes of hyaline/zenkers necrosis?

ischemia, nutritional deficiency, toxins, excess catecholamine release

22

What is the gross appearence of zenkers necrosis?

pale streaks, calcificiation, scarring

23

What does the histopathology of zenkers necrosis look like?

hypereosinophilic fibers, basophilic granules, pyknotic nuclei, leukocytes, fibrous replacement

24

What are the 2 sequelae of zenkers necrosis?

death from heart failure
recovery with myocardial scarring

25

What are the causes of endocardial fibrosis/mineralization?

vitamin D poisoning
manchester wasting disease (enzootic calcinosis)

26

What are the causes of valvular endocardiosis/fibrosis?

genetic

27

What gross lesions will you find in valvular fibrosis?

smooth firm and thick valve cusps, "jet lesions"

28

What is the most common cause of CHF in old dogs?

valvular endocardiosis/fibrosis

29

How do you differentiate between endocarditis and valvular endocardiosis/fibrosis?

endocarditis will have fryable tissue, and exudate

30

What causes mulberry heart disease?

hemorrhage

31

Where can infectious agents enter the pericardium?

from the blood (hematogenous dissemination)
foreign body penetration

32

What causes suppurative inflammation in the heart?

hardware dz

33

What is the description for what the heart looks like with fibrinous inflammation?

"bread and butter heart"

34

What are the 2 sequelae of hardware dz in cows?

death from septicemia
chronic cardiac failure from constrictive pericarditis

35

What are the 4 portals of entry for infection of the endocardium (endocarditis)?

blood, parasites, IV catheters, uremia induced (dog left atrium)

36

What are the gross lesions associated with endocarditis?

friable dry yellow "vegetations" on valve

37

What are the microscopic lesions associated with endocarditis?

masses of fibrin and bacteria adhered to granulation tissue

38

What are the 4 sequelae of endocarditis?

cardiac failure (valves)
bacteremia - death
septic embolism
recovery

39

What are the portals of entry to cause myocarditis?

blood, embolic dissemination from vegetatitve endocarditis into coronary arteries

40

What are the 5 types of myocarditis?

suppurative, necrotizing, hemorrhagic, lymphocytic, eosinophilic

41

What virus can cause myocarditis?

canine parvo

42

What bacterial infection can cause myocarditis?

blackleg

43

What protozoa can cause myocarditis?

toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, encephalitozoonosis, theileriasis

44

What is an idiopathic cause of myocarditis?

eosinophillic myocarditis

45

What is the type of hypertrophy that is caused by an increase in blood volume?

eccentric

46

What is the type of hypertrophy that is caused by an increase in blood pressure?

concentric

47

What are some causes of increased blood pressure?

valvular stenosis, vascular dz, pulmonary dz, hyperthyroidism, hypertension

48

What is the gross appearance of eccentric hypertrophy?

large chamber with thin or normal thickness walls, round heart, double apex

49

What is the gross appearance of concentric hypertrophy?

small chamber, thick walls

50

What is the microscopic appearance of cardiac hypertrophy?

fibers thick with large nuclei

51

What causes brisket disease in cattle?

high altitude disease

52

What are the changes in the heart and other organs with brisket disease?

RV hypertrophy, edema of brisket, nutmeg liver

53

What is the pathogenesis of right heart failure in dogs with dirofilariasis?

arteritis produces pulmonary hypertension --> RV hypertrophy

54

What are the changes in the heart of cats with hyperthyroidism?

myocardial hypertrophy especially in left ventricle

55

What are cardiomyopathies?

progressive myocardial failure of undetermined cause, alterations in myocyte sarcomeric proteins

56

What type of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats is from a taurine deficiency and causes dilated chambers?

dilated (congestive) type

57

What type of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats is inheritable in persians and maine coons and causes the LV to be thickened?

hypertrophic type

58

What idiopathic cardiomyopathy in cats has excessive moderator bands or LV endocardial fibrosis?

restrictive type

59

What are some lesions that can be caused by any of the types of cardiomyopathy in cats?

pulmonary congestion, edema, ascites, hepatic congestion, thromboemboli

60

What dog breeds is idiopathic cardiomyopathy seen in dogs?

large breeds

61

What type of cardiomyopathy do dogs get?

usually dilated (congestive) type

62

What neoplasm arises from the aortic body and is important in dogs?

chemodectoma

63

What neoplasm is frequent in cattle and involves pericardium and myocardium?

malignant lymphoma

64

What is the sequelae of malignant lymphomas in cattle?

may produce cardiac failure

65

Which neoplasm is most frequent in dogs in the RA?

hemangiosarcoma

66

What metastatic neoplasms may affect the heart?

malignant melanoma

67

What congenital anomaly produces anasarca and is heriditary in ayrshire cattle?

lymphatic hypoplasia

68

What is lymphatic hypoplasia called in dogs?

hereditary lymphedema

69

What is the cause and sequelae of aortic ruptures in horses?

associated with exertion
causes intrapericardial hemorrhage

70

What are the clinical signs of carotid rupture in the horse?

epistaxis

71

What can cause chylothorax in the dog and cat?

thoracic duct rupture

72

What can cause hypertrophy of blood vessels?

pregnancy, shunts, high altitude dz, dirofilariasis

73

What are some causes of aneurysms?

Cu deficiency, lathyrism (sweet pea toxicosis), strongylosis in horses

74

What are the 2 causes of artherosclerosis?

hypercholesterolemia
hypothyrodism

75

What is the gross lesion associated with artherosclerosis?

fatty streaks on intima early on, later rough plaques

76

What are the 2 sequelae of artherosclerosis?

thrombosis (heart, brain, kidney esp)
tissue ischemia

77

What are some causes of medial calcification of blood vessels?

vit D poisoning, hyperparathyroidism, mg poisoning, cachexia (johnes dz)

78

What lesion is induced by vasoactive drugs in the muscular arteries of dogs?

medial necrosis and hemorrhage

79

What are the 2 chemical agents that cause arterial smooth muscle proliferation?

ergot, fescue

80

What are 2 chemical agents that induce arterial medial calcification?

vitamin D, calcinogenic plants

81

What are 2 agents that alter arterial CT to produce aneurysms?

B-aminoproprionitrile
penicillamine, aminoacetonitrile

82

What are 3 general predisposing conditions that lead to thrombi? (virchow triad)

endothelial injury
alterations in blood flow
hypercoagulability

83

Where do cattle get thrombosis?

caudal vena cava

84

What is lymphangiectasia?

dilation of lymph vessels (usually in dog)

85

What are 2 common causes of arteritis?

E. coli (hemolytic)
canine pain syndrome

86

What are the gross lesions associated with arteritis?

hemorrhage, edema, infarction

87

What are the histopath lesions associated with arteritis?

endothelial necrosis, PMN infiltration of vessel wall, thrombi

88

What are some caues of phlebitis?

neonatal umbilical infection, IV injection

89

What are the lesions associated with phlebitis?

thrombosis and embolism

90

What are the 2 bacteria that can cause "naval ill" aka omphalophlebitis?

Streptococcus sp or T. pyogenes

91

What are some clinical signs of naval ill?

suppurative polyarthritis, septicemia, umbilical abcess

92

What are the lesions associated with lymphangitis?

edema of limbs, cord like nodular masses in subcutis, may ulcerate