Flashcards in Urinary Pathology Deck (311):
What can cause the glomerulus to become visible to the naked eye?
Microscopic appearance of the glomerulus. (3)
1. Fenestrated capillaries supported by mesangium
2. Mesangial cells
4 main fxns of mesangial cells
produce collagen & matrix
contract glomerular tuft
secretion of inflammatory mediators
What are the visceral epithelial cells that participate in glomerular filtration?
Glomerular filtration barrier selectively filters molecules based on:
size (< 70,000 Da)
charge (cations only)
Describe the glomerular filtration barrier.
filtration slits btwn podocyte pedicels & fenestrated endothelial cells w/ shared basal lamina
3 things that cause an increase in the amt of CT (scar tissue) in the interstitium of the kidney?
2. chronic inflammation
3. ischemic damage
List the path blood flows through the kidneys
renal a.--> interlobar a. ---> arcuate a--> interlobular a.--> afferent glomerular arterioles--> glomerular capillaries--> efferent glomerular arterioles--> peritubular capillary network
Which arteries are more susceptible to embolism leading to renal infarction? Why?
terminal arteries that do NOT contain anastomoses & have a small lumen diameter
5 characteristics of renal infarction
2. well demarcated
3. dark red or white
4. acutely swollen (inflammation)
5. chronically contracted (fibrosis)
5 basic renal fxns
1. Urine --> eliminates metabolic waste
2. Acid-base regulation--> reclaims bicarbonate
3. Conserves H2O --> 99%
4. Maintains normal extracellular [K]--> via aldosterone--> K excretion
5. Controls endocrine fxn--> RAAS --> NaCl retention
What dictates plasma filtration?
Glomerular filtration barrier
How is BP regulated?
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (know details)
The macula densa responds to low _____.
Low Na stimulates juxtaglomerular cells to secrete______.
Fxn of Renin.
Converts Angiotensinogen ---> Angiotensin I
Fxn of ACE.
Angiotensin I--> Angiotensin II
Fxns of Angiotensin II
1. stimulates aldosterone secretion (AG)
2. stimulates ADH (PPG)
Cumulative effect= incr. BP
What kind of drugs are ACE-inhibitors?
7 things reabsorbed in the Proximal tubules
Na, Cl, K, albumin, Gluc, H20, bicarb
How does the LoH produce a hypotonic filtrate?
via a countercurrent mechanism & Na/K-ATPase pump which absorbs more NaCl from the filtrate
2 places H20 is reabsorbed in the kidneys?
What hormone influences Na & H2O reabsorption & K excretion in the Distal Tubules?
How do the Collecting Ducts promote H2O reabsorption?
increasing urea gradient
How are H2O & Na reabsorption controlled in the Collecting Ducts?
Na/K-ATPase pumps, under the influence of ADH
What provides structural support for the glomerulus, tubules, BVs, lymphatics & nerves of the kidney?
Interstitial fibroblasts produce what 3 things?
EPO (+ peritubular cells)
Definition of renal failure.
significant loss of renal fxn
(kidneys have 75% fxnal reserve)
Clinical indicators of renal failure
1. Altered urine quantity - PU/PD; oliguria; anuria
2. Altered urine quality- Isosthenuria, proteinuria, azotemia, uremia
What does Isosthenuria inidcate? (TQ)
loss of renal fxn--> failure to concentrate urine
What does azotemia indicate? (TQ)
elevated serum Urea & Creatinine = >75% loss of nephrons
Uremia is a _______ characterized by numerous lesions & C.S.s caused by toxic levels of urea in blood.
2 mechanisms by which uremia causes systemic lesions.
1. uremic vasculopathy
What is uremic vasculopathy?
direct endothelial injury resulting in vasculitis, thrombosis & infarction
What is the term for caustic injury to epithelium of mucosal surfaces due to production of LG amts or ammonia by urea-splitting bacteria?
Systemic lesions of uremic syndrome
ulcerative glossitis (ventral tongue)
ulcerative gastritis w/ mineralization --> Cat & Dog
7 additional non-renal lesions caused by uremic syndrome.
1. ulcerative colitis --> cattle & horse
2. vascular thrombosis
3. fibronous pericarditis
4. pulmonary edema
5. endocardial mineralization
6. intercostal mineralization
7. other soft tissue mineralizations
3 ways renal failure can lead to death.
1. cardiotoxicity due to elevated serum K
2. metabolic acidosis
3. pulmonary edema
3 classifications of renal failure & azotemia.
Why does acute pre-renal failure occur?
impaired renal perfusion causes reduced glomerular filtration &/o hypoxic injury
2 things that lead to acute pre-renal failure.
renal ischemia --> vasculitis or embolic dz.
Why does acute intrarenal failure occur?
damage to the renal tissue
4 things that can cause acute intrarenal failure.
acute tubular necrosis
When form of acute intrarenal failure is most common?
acute tubular necrosis
2 clinical presentations that result from intrarenal failure.
2 way tubular necrosis results in further renal injury.
1. leakage of tubular ultrafiltrate--> necrosis & inflammation
2. intratubular obstruction --> tubular casts
5 bacT infections that cause acute tubular necrosis.
2. E. coli
3 virus that cause acute tubular necrosis in dogs.
1. K9 hepatitis
2. K9 distemper
3. K9 herpes
A substance that accumulates to toxic conc. w/in the tubules.
4 general categories of nephrotoxins
3 pigments that act as nephrotoxins
Hb, myoglobin, bile/bilirubin
5 heavy metals that act as nephrotoxins
lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium & thallium
2 oxalates that act as nephrotoxins
ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
4 plants that can act as nephrotoxins.
pigweed, oaks, grapes/raisins & lilies
Why can Vit D toxicosis cause acute tubular necrosis (intrarenal failure)?
due to hypercalcemia
Which 4 drug types are nephrotoxic and can cause acute tubular necrosis?
4 things that can cause acute glomerulonephritits (intrarenal failure)
What causes acute pyelonephritits (intrarenal failure)?
ascending bacT infection from urethra, ureters & renal pelvis
What causes urinary obstruction w/ pressure atrophy & necrosis? (a.k.a obstructive nephropathy)
3 causes of acute post-renal failure.
What 2 things can post-renal obstructions lead to?
hydroureter & hydronephrosis
(possible organ rupture)
Time period of chronic renal failure.
wks, mos., or yrs
When can CRF lead to end-stage kidney?
when it is prolonged & progressive
Term used to describe renal dz which is chronic, advanced, generalized, progressive & irreversible.
Gross appearance of an end-stage kidney
Shrunken renal parenchyma
Massive loss of fxnal nephrons
What is a common pathway to CRF, despite original cause of injury?
Is it possible to determine the etiology once end-stage kidney is reached?
Pathophysiology of CRF? (2)
1. non-regenerative anemia
2. altered Ca:P metabolism
How does CRF alter Ca/P metabolism? what is this process known as?
HYPERphosphatemia--> HYPOcalcemia---> PTH secretion--> Ca mobilized from osteoclastic bone resorption--> osteopenia
Renal 2ry Hyperparathyroidism
Chronic hyperparathyroidism may lead to _____ ______.
fibrous osteodystrophy (bone replaces fibrous tissue)
Renal 2ry hyperparathyroidism is often due to what?
bilateral parathyroid gland hyperplasia
4 portals of entry to the kidney
1. ascending from ureter
3. glomerular filtrate
4. direct penetration
Ascending bacT infection results in _______.
What is the most important barrier (defense mechanism) of the kidney?
glomerular basement membrane
What prevents ascending bacT from gaining access to the kidney's interstitium?
Tubular basement membrane (TBM)
What provides the scaffold for tubular regeneration?
tubular basement membrane
What typically destroys the TBM & causes permanent scarring w/ loss of tubules? (TQ)
Ischemia or Infarction
Humoral Abs protect the interstitium at the ____ ____ of the renal pelvis.
What 3 cells w/in the interstitium provide cell-mediated immune surveillance against Lepto?
What is a defensive barrier against bloodborne pathogens?
intact endothelial lining (healthy vasculature)
Intact endothelium prevents activation of ____ ____ and reduces ____ formation
_____ to 1 part of the nephron results in _____ damage to other components of the nephron with eventual loss of _____.
Glomerular injury can result from the deposition of what 4 things?
1. immune complexes (Type III)
3. Bact emboli or direct infections
4. amyloid & fibrin (proteins)
2 things that cause glomerular injury?
deposition of substances
2 things that result in hyperfiltration and glomerular injury?
prolonged systemic hypertension
increased dietary protein (prolonged proteinuria)
How does glomerular injury result in hypoxia with tubular atrophy & loss of fxn?
by interfering w/ peritubular blood supply
What 2 proteins leak into the urine due to damage to the glomerular filtration barrier?
2 characteristics of protein losing nephropathy?
What causes nephrotic syndrome? List some CS.
HYPOproteinuria --> reduced plasma oncotic pressure
C.S= ascites, pleural effusion, generalized edema
Loss of what protein can result in a hypercoagulable state & thromboembolic dz.
List 4 ACUTE responses of the glomerulus to injury
1. mesangial hypertrophy & hyperplasia
2. increased vascular permeability
3. infiltration of leukocytes
List 3 CHRONIC responses of the glomerulus to injury.
2. Glomerulosclerosis (=fibrosis)
3. 2ry atrophy of renal tubules due to ischemia
List some things that can cause tubular damage
abnormal glomerular filtrate
What are some components of abnormal glomerular filtrate?
high crystalline salts
high organic acids --> oxalic/uric/pyruvic acid
4 responses to tubular damage?
1. atrophy (2ry)
Which type of injury generally preserves the TBM & allows for regeneration of the tubules?
Which type of injury destroys the TBM causing permanent scars & no regeneration of the tubules?
What is the single most important cause of acute renal failure in animals? (TQ)
Acute tubular necrosis
What are the 2 most common causes of acute tubular necrosis?
ischemia or nephrotoxicity
Acute tubular necrosis clinically results in ____ or _____.
oliguria or anuria
How does nephrotoxic injury cause acute tubular necrosis?
chemicals &/o toxic metabolites become concentrated in the tubules
3 mechanisms by which nephrotoxins cause damage to tubules?
1. direct damage to epithelium
2. reactive metabolites damage epithelium
3. nephrotoxin-associated ischemia
Form of tubular necrosis that is NOT caused by inflammation? (TQ)
What typically causes nephrosis?
hypoxic injury combined w/ nephrototoxic injury
Type of nephrosis caused when hypoxic injury is exacerbated by hemoglobinuria during a hemolytic crisis?
Type of nephrosis caused when hypoxic injury in exacerbated by myoglobinuria during acute muscle injury?
Gross lesions of acute tubular necrosis (often difficult to recognize)
1. swollen, pale cortex that bulges on cut surface
2. may see accentuated striations or white streaks
Microscopic lesions of acute tubular necrosis? (6)
1. tubular epithelial swelling
Which tubules are more sensitive to hypoxia due to higher metabolic demands?
Which part of the kidney is resistant to ischemia & often remain morphologically normal?
Interstitium's response to injury. (7)
4. lymphofollicular inflammation
6. interstitial nephritis
7. tubulointerstitial nephritis
What is the most common response of the interstitium to chronic Lepto infection?
What leads to progressive loss of renal fxn? (TQ)
3 causes of infectious interstitial nephritis.
1. K9 ehrlichiosis
When will interstitial nephritis lead to renal failure & end-stage kidney?
only when it's severe
4 things that can cause 2ry tubulointerstitial nephritis?
_____ tubulointerstitial nephritis leads to end-stage kidney.
What causes a well-demarcated, cone-shaped area of coagulative necrosis extending from medulla to cortex?
3 portals of entry to the lower UT.
1. ascending infections
2. direct penetration from lumen
5 defensive mechanisms of the lower UT.
1. flushing action --> reduces risk of ascending infections
2. peristalsis --> eliminates bacT
3. slightly acidic urine --> reduces some bacT growth
4. protective urethral mucus layer --> decr. bacT adhesion
5. innate & adaptive immune response
5 developmental anomalies of the kidney.
1. renal aplasia, hypoplasia or dysplasia
2. ectopic kidney
3. fused kidney
4. renal cysts
5. polycystic kidneys
Juvenile progressive nephropathy is a specific form of inherited renal dysplasia common to what 3 breeds?
"Horseshoe kidney" is an example of which developmental anomaly? What is the fxn of these kidneys?
usually maintain normal fxn
Ectopic kidney is most common in what 2 species?
dogs & pigs
Renal cysts are common in what 2 species?
cattle & pigs (just 1 to a few)
What is the clinical significance of renal cysts?
none--> usually an incidental finding
Term for many renal cysts affecting numerous nephrons?
Polycystic Kidney Dz in an autosomal dominant trait in what 2 breeds? (TQ)
Dz caused by mutations in PKD-1 &/o PKD-2 resulting in abnormal tubulogenesis?
Polycystic Kidney Dz.
When can renal function by impaired in patients w/ Polycystic Kidney Dz?
severe cases --> when significant loss of parenchyma
List the 6 diseases of the glomerulus.
1. immune-mediated glomerulonephritis
3. glomerular amyloidosis
4. Acute suppurative glomerulitis (bacT embolic nephritis)
5. viral glomerulitis
6. chemical glomerulitis
Immune mediated glomerulonephritis occurs most commonly in ____ & _____.
cats & dogs
Immune mediated glomerulonephritis is associated with ___ ___ which enhances the formation of abundant ____ ____ in the blood plasma.
What results in complement fixation, leukocyte infiltration & formation of fibrin thrombi --> glomerular damage?
deposition of soluble immune complexes w/in glomeruli
What 5 things can cause immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in cats?
What 2 things cause immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in horses?
What 2 things cause immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in cattle?
What 2 viruses cause immune-mediated glomerulonephritis in swine?
Classical SF (Hog cholera)
What gross lesion of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis might you see?
swollen, enlarged glomeruli as red pin-point foci in the cortex
List the 3 histologic forms of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Species each is common in?
1. proliferative --> horses
2. membranous --> cats
3. mebrano-proliferative --> dogs
What is the condition of CHRONIC glomerulonephritis characterized by fibrosis of the glomerulus?
2 things associated with glomerulosclerosis?
unrestricted dietary protein
What is typically associated w/ Reactive Systemic Amyloidosis (AA amyloidosis) that occurs w/ CHRONIC inflammatory dz?
Which 2 breeds are genetically predisposed to reactive amyoidosis? (TQ)
Chinese Shar-Pei dogs
What is a common cause of protein losing nephropathy?
What stain can be used to ID amyloid protein histologically?
Congo red stain
List the 4 examples of bacT & affect species that cause actute suppurative glomerulitis. (LG animals)
1. A. equuli --> foals
2. E. rhusiopathiae --> pigs
3. C. pseudotuberculosis --> goats & sheep
4. T. pyogenes --> cattle
List the 5 causes of viral glomerulitis? common or rare?
1. Infectious K9 hepatitis (adeno-)
2. EVA (arteri-)
3. CSF (pesti-)
4. Newcastle dz (paramyxo-)
5. neonatel porcine cytomegalovirus
List 4 known examples that cause chemical glomerulitis
1. puromycin aminonucleoside
3. histamine-receptor antagonists
4. cyclosporin A
List 2 inherited abnormalities in renal tubular FXN.
1. 1ry renal glucosuria --> trouble reabsorbing Gluc--> Norwegian elkhounds
2. Basenji dog Fanconi Syndrome
Are there any lesions associated with 1ry Renal Glucosuria?
no, only a fxnal deficit
What other dz must by distinguished from 1ry Renal Glucosuria?
C.S. of acute tubular necrosis? (TQ)
oliguria or anuria w/ severe azotemia
Hemoglobinuria nephrosis & hemoglobinuria w/ hemolysis occurs in what 4 things? Species?
1. Cu toxicity --> sheep
2. Lepto or Babesia --> cattle
3. Red maple toxicity --> horse
4. Babesia or IMHA--> dogs
3 things that cause myoglobinuria (myoglobinuric nephrosis)?
1. exertional myopathy (azotemia, tying up) --> horses
2. capture myopathy (rhabdomyolysis)--> wild animals
3. severe mm. trauma
List the 3 histologic changes seen in acute tubular necrosis.
IN inclusion bodies
When can nephrotoxic drugs cause acute tubular necrosis?
when administered at excessive doses or too frequently
Which drugs decrease the synthesis of renal prostaglandins which are responsible for maintaining normal renal blood flow?
NSAIDs cause renal ____________.
NSAIDs cause acute tubular necrosis & ___ ___ ___.
renal papillary necrosis
Which mycotoxin from contaminated feed can result in acute tubular necrosis?
What 2 things do mycotoxins cause?
List the 4 oxalate-rich plants
What happens when Ca oxalates precipitate in renal tubules froming oxalate crystals w/ subsequent epithelial injury & renal failure?
Grapes & raisins can cause acute tubular necrosis in what species?
Lilies can cause acute tubular necrosis in what species?
Oak toxicity can cause acute tubular necrosis in what 2 species?
Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) results in ___ ____ & ___ ____.
nephrotoxic metabolites --> oxalate & glycolic acid
What 2 pet food contaminants cause distal tubular necrosis w/ characteristic irregular brown birefringent crystals?
Vit D toxicosis leads to ____calcemia.
Hypercalcemia causes ______ mineralization of tubular & glomerular basement membranes.
Metastaic mineralization is followed by what 4 things?
loss of fxn
Pulpy Kidney is a typical dz seen in what animals?
What causes Pulpy Kidney?
enteric proliferation of C. perfringes type D
What exotoxin is produced in Pulpy Kidney dz?
What 3 things do epsilon exotoxin cause in small ruminants?
Bilateral acute tubular degeneration & necrosis
What is caused by dilation of the renal pelvis due to obstruction of urine outflow?
Pyelonephritis leads to infection of the ____ ____ w/ extension to the ____ ___.
Pyelonephritis is often unilateral or bilateral?
bilateral (can do either or)
Gross lesion of pyelonephritis
expansion of renal pelvis by purulent exudate
Microscopic lesions of pyelonephritis
suppurative inflammation of pelvis & medulla w/ necrotic transitional epithelium
Papillary necrosis is due to ischemic injury caused by what drugs?
Papillary necrosis is most frequently seen in _____. Can be seen in ___ & ___ due to accidental ingestion.
cats & dogs
Hairy vetch toxicosis in cattle causes ______ _____ & accompanies systemic granulomatous dz.
What animals get Xanthogranulomas?
cats w/ inherited hyperlipoproteinmia
List the 3 types of epithelial tumors.
Transitional cell papilloma & carcinoma
What is the most common primary renal neoplasm of the kidney? Common species?
In what dog breed is renal carcinoma associated with nodular dermatofibrosis?
Transitional cell papilloma & carcinoma occur most commonly where?
Which neoplastic dz has a very high metastatic potential?
transitional cell carcinoma
Another term for nephroblastoma.
Nephroblastoma is common in which species?
What is a common metastatic tumor of the kidney?
2 invasive tumors of the adrenal glands that effect the kidney
2. adrenocortical carcinoma
5 developmental anomalies of the lower UT
1. aplasia (rare)
3. ectopic ureters
4. patent urachus
5. urinary bladder diverticulum
What is the most common malformation of the urinary bladder?
What causes patent urachus?
fetal urachus fails to close & completely involute --> channel btwn bladder's apex & umbilicus
Where can one see urine coming from in patients with patent urachus?
urine dribbles from the umbilicus (navel region)
What 2 things are frequently observed with patent urachus?
Which animals are most commonly affected by patent urachus?
Developmental abnormalities of the urinary bladder diverticulum can do what 3 things?
1. be associated w/ obstructive dz (acquired form)
2. predispose to systitis & calculi formation
3. predispose to bladder rupture
Syndrome that occurs when familial, congenital, &/o pathophysiological factors increase the precipitation of stone-forming salts resulting in urinary calculi formation.
What is the essential precursor to initiation of crystal & urolith formation?
supersaturation of urine --> due to supersaturation of mineral salts & protein
What is only partially responsible for calculogenesis?
What type of crystal is most common in dogs & cats? What type of urine favors their formation?
Struvite crystals are also known as?
Which breed of dog is predisposed to struvite uroliths and Ca oxalate dihydrate w/ urolith formation?
Bilirubinuria +/- bilirubin crystals is an abnormal finding in what 4 species?
Ca carbonate crystals are not common in what 2 species' urine?
cats & dogs
List the 4 UNCOMMON types of urinary crystals seen in animals.
1. Ca oxalate MONOhydrate
2. Ammonium biurate crystals
3. Cystine crystals
4. Drug-associated crystals
What shape of Ca oxalate monohydrate crystals are observed in the urine of dogs & cats w/ ethylene glycol toxicosis?
"picket fence" crystals
2 things that together indicate ethylene glycol toxicosis?
acute renal failure & picket fence crystalluria
What type of urinary crystal is commonly seen in dogs & cats w/ congenital or acquired portal vascular anomalies?
ammonium biurate crystals
Ammonium biurate crystals are NORMAL in what 2 breeds of dog? (TQ)
Dalmatians & bulldogs
Cystine crystalluria &/o urolithiasis is an indication of what genetic abnormality?
What animals are almost exclusively affected by cystinuria?
Which drug most commonly causes drug-associated urinary crystals? Do these cause significant renal dz?
What is the most common cause of obstructive uropathy?
Acute cystitis is common in all domestic animals. Which gender is more prone? Why?
due to shorter & wider urethra
Acute cystitis may have concurrent ____ & ____.
ureteritis & urethritis
What 4 bacT are the most common source of acute cystitis?
C. renale commonly causes acute cystitis in what species?
A. suis commonly causes acute cystitis in what species?
E. faecalis commonly causes acute cystitis in what species?
Klebsiella sp. commonly cause acute cystitis in what species?
List some risk factors for acute bacterial cystitis. (8)
1. stagnation of urine
3. vaginoscopy, vaginitis, coitus, AI
4. urinary incontinence
5. prolonged antibiotic use
6. diabetes mellitus
7. prolonged corticosteroid use or Cushing's dz
Cantharidin toxicosis occurs in? from ingestion of what?
blister beetles in alfalfa hay
2 causes of mycotic cystitis?
What can cause cystitis, hematuria & urinary bladder neoplasia in cattle?
bracken fern toxicosis
Gross lesions of acute cystitis. (4)
Microscopic lesions of acute cystitis. (6)
C.S. of acute cystitis
dysuria, stranguria or hematuria
sedimentation, blood, +/- bacT on UA
2 most common causes of chronic cystitis
chronic bacT infection
3 types of chronic cystitis (based on morphologic pattern)
Gross lesions of chronic cystitis.
diffusely reddened, roughened & thickened mucosa
may see lymphoid follicles or polypoid hyperplasia
Microscopic lesions of chronic cystitis.
mononuclear infiltration w/ few neutrophils
Where to most neoplasms occur in the lower UT?
Transitional cell carcinoma is most common in ____.
What area of the bladder is transitional cell carcinoma most common?
What is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the lower UT?
leiomyoma (less common that epithelial tumors)
Bacterial embolic nephritis is caused by what normal inhabitant of the alimentary tract?
How do foals get bacterial embolic nephritis?
via contamination of the umbilicus
What 2 NSAIDs can cause papillary necrosis?
List the 5 disorders specific to horses.
bacterial embolic nephritis
myoglobinuric nephritis (rhabdomyolysis)
Klossiella equi infection
List the 10 disorders specific to ruminants
pulpy kidney dz.
embolic nephritis (white spotted kidney)
bracken fern toxicosis
White Spotted Kidney (embolic nephritis) occurs in ruminants due to ? Is it noticeable?
bacT embolize the kidney leading to microabscesses & abscess formation
no, commonly subclinical
What can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis in cattle?
Serovars- hardjo, pomona, & grippotyphosa
Tubulointerstitial nephritis causes direct damage to what 3 parts of the kidney?
Granulomatous nephritis in ruminants is due to ___ ____ toxicosis. (TQ)
Is pyelonephritis common in cattle?
What is the most common isolate of Contagious Bovine Pyelonephritis?
What viral dz in cattle can be associated with renal lymphosarcome?
Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV)
List the common locations of urolith obstruction in bulls, rams & bucks.
bulls - sigmoid flexure
rams & bucks- urethral process
Why are uroliths typically silica calculi in ruminants?
due to the high silica content of pasture grasses
Bracken fern toxicosis is also known as ____ _____.
What is the most common toxicosis of cattle? (TQ)
bracken fern toxicosis
Prolonge ingestion of bracken fern (P. aquilinum) causes what 3 things in cattle?
Repeated low level exposure to bracken fern causes what in cattle?
urinary bladder neoplasia --> transitional cell carcinoma
List the 7 disorders specific to swine.
Viral interstital nephritis
What plant can cause acute tubular necrosis leading to acute renal failure in swine?
Which 3 Leptospira serovars cause leptospirosis in swine?
Which virus can cause granulomatous interstitial nephritis in swine?
Circovirus--> Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS)
What is the most common cause of embolic nephritis in pigs? (TQ)
Erysipelothrix (diamond skin dz)
Kidney worm of swine?
List the 5 disorders specific to cats.
Granulomatous nephritis --> FIP (non-effusive form)
Feline Lower UT Dz (FLUTD)
Toxic tubulointerstitial nephritis
FLUTD is most commonly seen in what cats?
middle-aged, overweight cats w/ little exercise, indoor litter box & dry food diet
What is the term for a collection of diseases affecting the urethra & bladder of cats?
feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD)
3 things that cause FLUTD in cats?
Feline idiopathic cystitis
chronic &/o recurring bacT UTIs
Older male acts typically form ____ calculi leading to urethral obstruction.
In what cats may inflammation predispose to formation of protein matrix plugs?
younger male cats
What is the consequence of urethral obstruction in male cats?
Pathology of hemorrhagic urocystitis.
urinary bladder becomes severely distended leading to pressure necrosis, hemorrhagic & ulceration
Chronic fibrosis limits bladder ____ & leads to poor ____ voiding & increased susceptibility to ____ infections.
3 things that cause toxic tubulointerstitial nephritis in cats
ethylene glycol toxicosis
melamine & cyanuric acid
List the 15 disorders specific to dogs
Greyhound cutaneous glomerular vasculopathy
Ethylene glycol toxicity
Infectious K9 hepatits
Progressive juvenile nephropathy
Transitional cell carcinoma
Toxic tubulointerstitial nephritis
Grape or raisin toxicity
Giant kidney worm
What is a rare idiopathic vascular dz w/ genetic predisposition in Greyhounds?
Cutaneous Glomerular Vasculopathy
Lesions seen in Greyhounds w/ Cutaneous Glomerular Vasculopathy.
glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (can look like DIC)
Why is ethylene glycol (antifreeze) so toxic to dogs?
Readily absorbed by the GIT & converted to toxic metabolites by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase
What is the degree of nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides in dogs. (-mycins)
Neo> Kana>Genta> Strepto> Tobra> Amikacin
Aminoglycoside toxicosis causes what 2 things in dogs?
acute tubular degeneration & necrosis
What other parts of the dog's body can be affected by aminoglycoside toxicosis?
2 most common Lepto isolates in dogs?
How do dogs pick up Leptospirosis?
infections obtained from wet, contaminated environments through compromised mucus membranes
Where does Lepto persists in dogs?
renal tubular epithelial cells
C.S. of Leptospirosis in dogs?
Chronic causes of Lepto in dogs will present with what 2 signs.
Lepto causes what 2 things in dogs
acute tubular damage
acute to chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis
Is Lepto zoonotic?
How do young puppies (< 6 wks) get K9 herpesvirus?
due to intrauterine or neonatal infection from the dam w/ CHV-1
K9 herpesvirus causes what?
multifocal acute tubular necrosis w/ hemorrhage
CHV-1 neonatal mortality is associated in puppies w/ _____.
Most common organisms to cause pyelonephritis in dogs
CS of pyelonephritis in dogs.
When is pyelonephritis likely to occur in dogs?
when there is altered lower UT defense
Inherited disorder in dogs leading to development of severe bilateral renal fibrosis, dysplasia & progressive loss of fxnal nephrons.
progressive juvenile nephropathy
Progressive juvenile nephropathy clinical resembles what?
CRF & end-stage kidney
Variable degrees of severity w/ progressive fibrosis leading to progressive loss of renal fxn in younger dogs.
progressive juvenile nephropathy
What breeds of dogs are over-represented w/ progressive juvenile nephropathy?
4 most common uroliths in dogs
What 2 dog breeds are predisposed to urate calculi due to inefficient hepatic uric acid metabolism?
Therapy for Dalmatians & English bulldogs w/ inefficient hepatic uric acid metabolism
low purine diets
Allopurinol --> lowers uric acid in blood
2 main dog breeds that are genetically predisposed to Ca oxalate urolithiasis.
What common symptoms to dogs develop with chronic urocystitis?
lymphofollicular & polypoid cystitis
What is the most common primary kidney neoplasm in dogs?
Renal carcinoma occurs sporadically in ____ dogs.
Where can renal carcinoma metastasize to? (4)
What cause distal tubular necrosis with characteristic irregular brown birefringent crystals in dogs? (TQ)
Melamine & Cyanuric acid toxicosis from contaminated pet food
Ingestion of grapes/raisins by dogs leads to these 3 things.
acute renal failure
What is the kidney worm that affects mostly fish eating mammals, especially dog & mink?
What may be the only initial C.S. of D. renale (giant kidney worm) infection?