Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (94):
1

What breeds have adenohypophyseal hypoplasia as a genetic defect?

guernsey and jersey cattle

2

What plant causes cyclopia when ingested by pregnant sheep?

veratrum californicum (skunk plant)

3

Why is there prolonged gestation during fetal adenohypophyseal hypoplasia?

failure of fetus to convert pregesterone to estrogen surge

4

What causes pituitary cysts?

failure of rathke's pouch to differentiate into pars distalis

5

What characterizes pituitary dwarfism?

slow growth, alopecia, hyperpigmentation of skin

6

What lesion is seen with pituitary cysts?

enlarging cyst in sella turcica and absence of adenohypophysis

7

What pituitary neoplasm is seen in young animals?

craniopharyngiomas

8

What 2 pituitary neoplams are seen in older animals?

adenomas and carcinomas

9

How can adenomas of the pituitary gland be distinguished from nodular hyperplasia?

large size and presence of a capsule

10

What is the most common pituitary neoplasm in horses?

adenomas of the pars intermedia

11

What are the sequlae of INACTIVE adenomas of the pars intermedia in dogs?

hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus

12

What are the sequalae of ACTIVE adenomas of the pars intermedia in dogs?

cushings disease

13

What happens with adenomas of the pars intermedia in horses?

compression of hypothalamus -->PU/PD, hyperhidrosis, hypertrichosis (cushings)

14

What lesion will be seen in a dog with ACTH-secreting adenoma?

bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands

15

What species have been seen with endocrinologically inactive chromophobe adenoma?

dogs, cats, rodents, parakeets

16

What is the sequlae of endocrinologically inactive chromophobe adenoma?

compression atrophy/space occupying lesion --> blindness

17

What is the sequlae of craniopharyngiomas in young animals?

failure to attain somatic maturation
diabetes insipidis (no ADH)
CNS dysfunction

18

Why do dogs with pituitary dwarfism have short life spans?

secondary endocrine dysfunction -->hypothyroidism, hypoadrenocorticocism

19

What pituitary neoplasm is functionally inactive but space occupying leading to panhypopituitarism in older dogs and cows?

pituitary gland carcinoma

20

What species get sporadic pituitary abscesses?

ruminants and swine

21

What is the cause of pituitary abscesses?

bacteria or mycotic agents

22

What form of diabetes insipidus interferes with the ADH synthesis or secretion?

hypophyseal form

23

What form of diabetes insipidus is a heriditary defect resulting in lack of adenylate cyclase in kidney?

nephrogenic form (cells don't respond to ADH)

24

What can cause hypophyseal diabetes insipidus?

Growth disturbances that cause:
severance of infundibular stalk
or destruction of pars nervosa

25

When is hemorrhage of the adrenal cortex usually seen and what causes it?

newborn - trauma, severe stress, or septicemia/toxemia

26

What are the causes of adrenalitis?

Viruses - intranuclear inclusion bodies
Bacteria - gram negatives (myco-->granulomatous)
Fungi --> granulomatous
Parasites

27

What is the 2nd most common neoplasm reported in ferrets?

adrenal gland neoplasm

28

What is a risk factor for ferrets getting adrenal gland neoplasms? Why?

gonadectomized at an early age, chronic trophic stimulation of zona reticularis by LH

29

What are the 2 causes of primary hyperadrenocorticocism?

cortical neoplasm (esp. adenoma)
idiopathic hyperplasia

30

What is the cause of secondary hyperadrenocorticism?

pituatary tumor

31

What can cause cushings besides primary, secondary, and iatrogenic?

ectopic cancer that produces ACTH

32

What is the cause of primary hypoadrenocorticism in young female dogs?

bilateral idiopathic adrenal cortical atrophy

33

What can cause bilateral destruction of the adrenal glands?

adrenalitis, infarction, hemorrhage, tumor

34

What is the pathogenesis of secondary hypoadrenocorticocism?

ACTH deficiency from pituatary lesion --> atrophyl of only the two inner zones (mineralcorticoids not affected)

35

What is the hallmark clinical sign of hypoadrenocorticism?

hyponatremia and hyperkalemia

36

What is the most common neoplasm of the adrenal medulla of animals?

pheochromocytoma

37

How can you diagnose a pheochromocytoma?

apply zenkers solution to freshly cut surface --> dark brown coloration after a few minutes

38

What animals get lymphocytic (immune mediated) thyroiditis?

dogs, obese strains of chickens, primates, buffalo rats

39

What are the lesions associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis?

infiltrate of lymps, plasma cells and macrophages
later replacement fibrosis, colloid vacuolated, may develop hypothyroidism

40

What are the causes of goiter(4)?

iodine deficient
excess iodide
goitrogenic compounds (brassica)
genetic enzyme defects in hormone synthesis

41

What are the 4 morphological types of goiter?

Diffuse hyperplastic goiter
colloid goiter
multifocal nodular hyperplasia
congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter

42

What is the phase of goiter once hyperplastic goiter has been treated with iodide?

colloid goiter

43

What happens in colloid goiter that still causes it to be enlarged?

decreased endocytosis of colloid from lumen

44

Which species is multifocal nodular hyperplasia functional?

cats, the rest are nonfunctional

45

What kind of animals is multifocal nodular hyperplasia usually seen?

older animals

46

What molecule can't be synthesized in congenital dyshormonogenetic goiter?

thyroglobulin

47

What species get follicular cell adenoma?

more common in cats than dogs and horses

48

What species commonly gets follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid?

dogs

49

Where may follicular cell carcinomas arrise from in dogs

accessory thyroids - between base of tongue and cr. mediastinum

50

What is the cause of hyperthyroidism in dogs?

thyroid neoplasms

51

What is the cause of hyperthyroidism in cats?

many different lesions (adenomas and multinodular hyperplasia)

52

What are some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism in cats?

restlessness, polyphagia, 2ry hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

53

What are the 2 causes of hypothyroidism in dog?

idiopathic follicular collapse/atrophy
lymphocytic thyroiditis

54

What are some of the CS associated with hypothyroidism?

hyperkeratosis, alopecia, myxedema, infertility

55

What can lead to arthrosclerosis in hypothyroidism?

hypercholesterolemia (decreased lipid metabolism)

56

What breeds get lymphocytic parathyroiditis?

adult dogs - schnauzers and terriers

57

What is thought to be the cause of lymphocytic parathyroiditis?

immune mediated

58

What are the 2 forms of hypoparathyroidism?

lymphocytic parathyroiditis
parturient paresis

59

What is the cause of parturient paresis?

fed high calcium diet before parturition
anorexia from estrogen

60

What are symptoms of dogs with lymphocytic parathyroiditis?

neuromuscular excitiabilty, blood P are increased (reabsorbed from tubules)

61

What are the lesions associated with lymphocytic parathyroiditis?

extensive degeneration of chief cells and replacement fibrosis

62

What are the 3 causes of primary hyperparathyroidism?

parathyroid hyperplasia
parathyroid adenomas
parathyroid carcinomas

63

What cells does primary hyperparathyroidism effect?

functional neoplasms of CHIEF cells

64

What are the sequlae of primary hyperparathyroidism?

excess PTH --> osteolytic/clastic bone resorption -->fibrous osteodystrophy

65

How is primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed?

total blood calcium and phosphorus, circulating PTH

66

What are the 2 types of secondary hyperparathyroidism?

secondary to nutrition
secondary to renal disease

67

What causes nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism?

generally low calcium, high phosphorus diets (bran, meat)

68

What species get hyperparathyroidism due to renal disease?

cats and dogs

69

What are the lesions associated with secondary renal hyperparathyroidism?

bilateral enlargement of parathyroids
big head in horses, rubber jaws in dogs and cats

70

How can renal disease causes secondary hyperparathyroidism?

decreased renal degradation of PTH resulting in less Ca uptake in intestine (from renal disease)

71

What causes hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in pseudohyperparathyroidism?

imbalance of Ca released from bones, Ca excreted by kidneys, or Ca absorbed from GI

72

What are the 3 mechanisms that can cause pseudohyperparathyroidism?

humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (humoral factors) (HHM)
metastases of solid neoplasms to bone (local bone resorption)
hematologic malignancies (lymphosarcoma, multiple myeloma)

73

What causes hypercalcemia in lymphosarcomas in dogs and cats?

production by neoplastic cells of humoral substances

74

What kind of dogs is adenocarcinomas of apocine glands of anal sacs seen? (causes pseudohyperparathyrodism)

female dogs

75

What cells of the pancreas produce somatostatin?

delta cells

76

Does diabetes cause acidosis or alkalosis?

acidosis

77

What virus can cause diabetes in cattle?

FMD

78

What is type 1 diabetes caused by?

destruction of beta cells -> progressive loss of insulin

79

What is the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes?

insulin resistance

80

What is the cause of secondary diabetes melitus?

antagonism in peripheral tissues between insulin and other hormones

81

What hormones can cause secondary diabetes?

glucagon, growth hormone, glucocorticoids

82

What type of diabetes mellitus do dogs get?

type 1

83

What happens to the islets of the pancreas of type 2 diabetes in cats?

amyloidosis of islets
severe vaculoation of islet beta cells --> exhaustion

84

what is hepatocutaneous syndrome associated with?

glucagonomas

85

What is another name for chemoreceptor organs?

nonchromaffin paraganglia

86

In animals, are aortic body tumors or carotid body tumors more common?

aortic body tumors

87

How do aortic body tumors cause damage?

space occupying in pericardium

88

What should aortic bodies be differentiated from as a heart base tumor?

tumor of ectopic thyroid

89

Are carotid body tumors unilateral or bilateral usually?

unilateral

90

How many "heart base tumors" are from ectopic thyroid gland tissue?

5 to 10%

91

How do ectopic thyroid gland tumors cause damage?

compress or invade cr. mediastinum near base of heart

92

What are the 3 diseases associated with adenohypophyseal hyperfunction?

cushings
hyperthyroidism
gigantism/acromegaly

93

What are 3 diseases that are from adenohypophyseal hypofunction?

addisons
hypothyroidism
dwarfism
anestrus
ovarian follicular cysts

94

What is a disease associated with neurohypophyseal hypofunction?

diabetes insipidus