Flashcards in pathology 1st quiz Deck (198):
What cells are highly vulnerable to to acute cellular swelling?
Cardiac myocytes, proximal renal tubule cells, hepatocytes, endothelium,
What characterizes pyknosis?
Nuclear shrinkage, round shape, dark blue/black with H&E stain, nucleolus not visible
What microscopic changes happen during karyorrhexis?
Chromatin breaks up, scattered. Happens in purulent exudate when neutrophils break up.
What is karyolysis?
Lysis of nuclear Chromatin and leaks out of nuclear membrane.
What 2 changes can happen during necrosis of cytoplasm?
1. Increased eosinophilia of cytoplasm (basophilia are lost, eosin binds to denatured intacytoplasmic proteins)
2. Depletion of glycogen - glassy homogenous appearance
Where is coagulative necrosis usually seen?
Infarcts from loss of blood supply
Toxic products of certain bacteria like nerobacillosis
Poison, burns, electricity, X-ray
What causes zenkers necrosis?
Animals fed coffee senna and coyotillo plant
White muscle dz
Gossypol alkaloid in pigs
Where does liquefactive necrosis ( colliquative) occur?
Cns, and abscesses
What characterizes fat necrosis both grossly and microscopically?
Gross- white firm chalky
Micro-large shadowy outline of fat cells
Which animals get peritoneal fat necrosis and why?
Young cattle - tall fescue grazing with fungus
Cattle, sheep, horses - summer fescue toxicosis, severity increases with hot weather
Where can traumatic fat necrosis occur?
Fat under skin and pelvic canal
What are the mechanisms of disposal of necrotic tissue?
Liquefaction by Auto lysis and heterolysis, removal by blood and lymph
Liquefaction with abcess formation
Encapsulation by fibrous tissue
Desquamation and sloughing - surfaces, intestine, brochi, renal tubes
How can dry gangrene occur?
Loss of blood supply
In ergot poisoning
Where is dry gangrene mostly found?
Extremity of tail, ear or limb
Where can moist gangrene occur and why?
Lung - aspiration pneuomonia
Intestine - torsion, cuts blood supply
Mammary gland - mastitis caused by putrefaction bacteria
How does gas gangrene occur?
Anaerobic bacteria penetrating wounds or spread from intestine
What are the 4 morphological features of apoptosis?
Chromatin condense, fragment into apoptosis bodies
Phagocytosis of cell by macrophages
Timeline for rigor mortis
1 to 6 hrs after death and persists for 1 to 2 days
What term is used for cooling of the cadaver after death?
What is livor mortis?
Hypo static congestion - pooling of blood on one side of the animal
where does hemoglobin imbibition occur?
heart and arteries. - red staining of tissues by lysed rbcs
can occur in acute intra vascular hemolysis
when does bile imbibition occur?
1-6 hours after death adjacent to gsll bladder
term for blue green discoloration of tissues by iron-sulfide. takes 18-24 hours
what are pale foci on the liver caused from?q
increasEd intra abdominal pressure
bacterial action from tthe gut into portal vein
what is the difference between bloating and ruminal tympany?
bloat line -
in ruminal tympany a sharp line demarcates between pale bloodless distal esophagus and congested proximal esophagus (bloating happens after death - no bloat line) CONFUSING
when and where does mucosal sloughing occur?
what 5 conditions lead to fatty change?
excessive fatty acid release
defects iformation of lipoproteins
decreased oxidation of FA from mitochondrial injury
hepatic lipidoses. cats.
hyperlipidemic condition in horses and dogs
what are the gross appearances of fatty change in liver, heart, and kidney?
liver- pale, enlarged, rounded edges
heart. - tan streak in myocardium, flabby
kidney - radial tan streaking in cortex and medulla
what are microscopic appearance of fatty change in liver, heart, and kidney?
liver - small or large vacuoles in cells
heart - small vacuoles in sarcoplasm
kidney - variable sized droplets in cytoplasm of pct and ascending loop of henle, cats have normal amount in prox tube
how can fat tissue be stained?
must be frozen and use oil red, sudan 3 and 4, osmic red, nile blue
what are the 3 main causes of glycogen deposition?
glycogen storage dz
drug induced metabolic dz - corticosteroids, transitory
which type of glycogenoses occurs in toy breeds and cause hypoglycemia?
what type of glycogenoses is a deficiency in lysosomal acid maltase and glycogen accumulates in brain, muscle and liver?
type. 2 , pompes dz
occurs in calves, corriedal sheep, lapland dogs, japanese quails
which glycogenoses is caused by a deficiency in glycogen brancher enzyme and occurs. in norweigian forest cats and quarter and american horses?
whee does glycogen deposit in type 4 glycogenosis?
cardiac muscle, purkinje fibers and liver
which typeof glycogenosis i s caused by deficiecny in phosphofructokinase?
english springer spaniels
which glycogenosis is a deficiecny in debranching enzyme and found in german shepherds?
what are the 2 types of morphological lesions seen in lysosomal storage dz?
primary - increased size and number of secondary lysosomes
secondary- abnormal cellular and extracellular products
which cells is amyloid light protein chain derived from?
plasma cells, contains immunoglobulin light chains
where does amyloid associated protein come from
secreted from liver cells in response to cytokines from inflammation
what type of amyloidosis has to do with plasma cells?
which amyloidosis is associated with chronic inflammation and is seen in horses used for antiserum?
which type of amyloidosis is heterogenous chemically?
which type of fibril protein is associated with primary amyloidosis and which species are effected?
AL (light chain)
cats and dogs
which protein is associated with secondary amyloidosis and what species does it effect?
AA(amyloid associated protein)
mainly dog cat and horse
which breeds get familial amyloidosis?
what are the 3 most common organs affected by amyloidosis?
what are the 2 gross patterns of spleen amyloidosis?
deposits in splenic follicles - "sago spleen"
splenic sinuses - sheet like deposit, "bacon spleen"
where is amyloid found most commonly in the kidney in most species?
where can amyloidosis be found in the kidneys of cats?
walls of blood vessels
renal infarcts due to amyloidosis are common in what species?
amyloidosis of spleen can cause what problem?
what can liver amyloidosis lead to?
impaired metabolic activity
what are the 2 type of intracellular hyaline changes?
pct of kidney - reaborption of plasma because of excessive leakage from glomerular capillaries
chronic alcoholism in liver of humans
where are equine intimal bodies found?
subendothelial space arterioles in GI tract
less common is heart, lung, kidney, brain
where are hyaline changes found in edema dz of pigs?
subendothelial in arterioles in brain
where are hyaline changes found in chronic damage to glomeruli?
where is hyaline found in hyaline membrane dz?
alveoli in premature infants
where is extracellular hyaline found in diabetes patients and dogs sometimes?
walls of arterioles in kidney
which stain makes amyloid and hyaline appear the same?
H and E
which stain can differentiate between amyloid and hyaline?
congo red will stain amyloid red
what is dystrophic calcification?
deposition of calcium salts in dead or degenerating tissues not related to calcium level inblood
what are the 3 hypotheses for dystrophic calcification?
fatty acids attract it
alkaline phosphotase in dead tissue
where is dystrophic calcification usually seen?
caseous lesions of tuberculosis
atheromatous lesions in bv
what is the gross appearance of dystrophic calcification?
white irregulary round particles, gritty when cut
what are the three dyes used for calcium salts?
purple. - H and E
black - van kossa
dull red - alizarin red s
what is metastatic calcification?
deposition of calcium salts as a result of high blood calcium into non damaged tissues
lesions similar to dystrophic
what are the 5 causes of hypercalcemia?
excess of vit d
granulomatous dz - tb, fungal,
what are the 3 neoplasms that cause hypercalcemia in dogs and cats?
anal sac adenocarcinoma
wherre is calcium deposition normal in bovine?
allantois and amnion of placenta
where can metastatic calcification be found?
basement membrane of aorta and muscular arteries
lungs, kidney, muscle and skin
where is metastatic calcification never found in dogs and cats?
what is a serious consequence of long standing hypercalcemia?
renal failure. - ischemic tubular necrosis
what are the 2 forms of gout and what kinds of species are they seen?
articular form in joints
visceral form in pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, liver, kidneys
in birds and reptiles
what are the 2 forms of calcinosis?
calcinosis cutis - hyperadrenocorticism in dogs
calcinosis circumstripta - dystrophic
what are the 2 causes of gout?
incomplete metabolism of nucleic acid
damage to kidneys
what does gout look like grossly?
thin grayish layer over serous membranes
white chalk in joints and kidneys
what. does gout look like microscopically?
grayish crystalline material
many wbcs around inflammation
what is pnemoconiosis?
retention of organic or mineral dust particles in lungs
what is anthracosis and what is seen-in gross lesions?
black areas on ventral lungs and in lymph nodes
what does anthracosis look like microscopically?
black granules inside macrophages
does not stain, resistant to solvents
what can a large amount of anthracosis cause?
fibrosis of lung, predispose to pulmonary infection
what is siderosis?
iron dust inhaled as iron oxide
where are lesions of melanosis found?
which species can get melanomas?
horses and dogs
what color is CO poisoning in blood?
what can methmoglobin be caused by?
other iv hemolysis
what are the 3 main pigments derived from hemoglobin?
what does hemosiderin look like grossly and microscopically?
grossly - not detected
micro- golden pigment in cytoplasm of macrophages
stains blue with potassium ferrocyanide
what are the 3 main causes of hemosiderin pigment?
chronic venous congestion of lungs
hemosiderosis. - local areas. of hemorrhage
what are the macrophages that pick up rbcs during pulmonary congestion?
heart failure cells
what is the stage during heart failure where the lungs become fibrosed and have hemosiderin pigmeent?
what cells are effected by hemochromatosis?
cytoplasm of hepatocytes
tubular epithelium of kidney
what is formalin pigment?
hematin pigment caused by acid, dark brown
does not stain for iron
what parasites cause parasite hematin?
malaria and trematodes
where is icterus usually seen in the body?
what is unconjugated bilirubin called?
what type of jaundice is associated with a large amount of uncojugated bilirubin?
which jaundice is associated with degenerative changes in liver cells?
what are the 4 obstructions in the liver that can lead to post hepatic jaundice?
swollen hepatic cells
parasites in bile ducts
stones in bile ducts
tumors putting pressure on ducts
which solution do you compare sample to to diagnose jaundice?
What does direct van den berg indicate?
conjugated bilirubin (obstructive jaundice)
What does indirect van den berg reaction indicate?
What is Type 1 photosensitization?
photodynamic plant or drug ingested in absence of liver dz
what are the two plant families causing type 1 photosensitization?
Helianthrones and furocoumarines
Which drug has been associated with type 1 photosensitization?
What is the disease caused by an inherited metabolic defect in synthesis of normal heme pigment?
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria - pink tooth
What is type 2 photosensitization?
hepatogenous, sometimes happens when chlorophyll cant be broken down by ruminants because of liver damage
Where can lipofuscin be found?
brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle
What does lipofuscin look like microscopically?
yellow brown granules in cytoplasm
What conditions is lipofuscin found?
wasting dz, senility, emaciation
What deficienc is ceroid pigment associated with?
Where can ceroid pigment be found?
yellow brown pigment in liver cells of horse, dog, cattle, pig, and rat
What term is used to explain the gross appearance of ceroid pigment?
"yellow fat dz" or "brown dog gut"
What 2 disorders of the circulation redistribute blood within a part of the vascular system?
Hyperemia - large amount of blood in organ or tissue
ischaemia - restriction in blood supply
What 2 circulation disorders cause a loss of circulating blood volume?
What 2 circulation disorders cause accumulation of extra vascular fluid?
transudate - edema
exudate - inflammatory
what 2 circulation disorders cause solid masses to develop in blood?
What is active hyperemia?
abnormal accumulation of arterial blood in arterioles (physiological or pathological)
What is passive hyperemia?
accumulation of blood in veins because of dilation
What are 2 examples of acute local passive hyperemia?
organ misalignment (teloscoping)
venous thrombosis or embolism
What is compression by tumors or fibrosis an example of?
chronic local passive hyperemia
What are the 2 effects of local passive hyperemia?
increased venous pressure --> edema
What is the consequence of hyperemia in highly vascular organs?
massive outpouring of fluid --> shock, gangrene
What are three causes of general passive hyperemia?
impeded venous return
increased pulmonary resistance
What are the long term effects of general passive hyperemia?
edematous with hemorrhage in lungs then fibrosed and loss of function
liver - periacinar degeneration
what are 2 causes of ischaemia?
obstruction of an artery
Term for passive movement of rbcs into EV spaces through small endothelial defects
Term for large and blotch hemorrhages (2-3 cm)
Term for intermediate type hemorrhages up to 1 cm
Term for extensive areas of hemorrhages especially in mucosal and serous surfaces
paint brush hemorrhage
What can cause hemorrhage by anoxic necrosis of vessel wall?
What amount of blood can be lost acutely and not show drastic clinical effects?
How can plasma decrease it's osmotic pressure?
loss of protein
What 2 causes increase the loss of protein from the body?
renal dz (renal edema)
What can cause increased hydrostatic pressure leading to edema?
passive congestion (cardiac edema)
What 2 causes lead to local edema?
local passive hyperemia
What 3 causes lead to generalized edema?
passive hyperemia, hypoproteinemia, increased sodium retention
Where does the generalized edema go in each species?
Dog - peritoneal cavity
Cat - throacic cavity
Ruminants - submandibular and peritoneum
Horse - limbs
Term for generalized edema under the skin
Term for edema in peritoneal cavity
Term for edema fluid in scrotal layers
What are the three reasons for pulmonary edema?
What are the two biggest differences between inflammatory and non-inflammatory edema?
non-inflammatory never clots
inflammatory has inflammatory cells
What is another name for inflammatory edema? non-inflammatory edema?
inflammatory - exudate
non - transudate
What happens to long standing edema?
organized by fibrous tissue
What is Virchow's triad (3 causes of thrombosis)?
alteration in vascular endothelium
alteration in blood flow
alteration in constituents of the blood
How is thrombosis caused by damage in endothelium of blood vessels?
build up of clotting factors after platelets lost
What are some causes of vascular endothelial damage?
arteritis, phlebitis, endocarditis, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, IV injection of irritants
How does stasis of blood flow cause thrombosis?
occurs in veins, reduces inflow of clotting inhibitors
How does turbulence of blood flow cause thrombosis?
platelets come in contact with endothelium more frequently
What cells make up the layered appearance of thrombi?
white layer - platelets and leukocytes
red layer - fibrin, rbc, leukocytes
What is a clot made of?
uniform network of fibrin with platelets, leukocytes and rbcs
What is the difference between a thrombi and a clot?
thrombus - attached to wall, layered
clot - uniform
What type of thrombus is found in rapidly moving blood and composed mostly of platelets and fibrin?
white or pale thrombi
What type of thrombus is found in veins and is largely made of RBCs?
What type of thrombus does not occlude the lumen of the blood vessel?
What type of thrombus completely blocks the vessel?
What parasite can cause thrombosis in mesenteric artery of horses?
What thrombus can cause lameness in horses?
In cattle, an abcess in the adjacent liver parenchyma can cause thrombi in what vessel?
posterior vena cava
What are the four fates of thrombi?
resolution - fibrinolysis
organization - recanalization
abcess - bacteria, pyemia
emboli - breaks free
What is the definition of DIC? (disseminated intravascular coagulation)
diffuse intravascular thrombosis occurs in microvasculature
What causes is DIC secondary to?
disorder in platelet activation
release of thromboplastin into circulation from tissue damage
The clinical effects of DIC are due to a balance between what 2 proteases?
What protease is dominant in DIC if thrombosis is occurring?
What protease is dominant in DIC if bleeding is occurring?
How does death occur in acute DIC?
extensive microthrombosis and circulatory failure --> shock and organ failure
How does the acute DIC become chronic DIC?
Liver and bone marrow increase production of coagulation factors and platelets
What species is DIC principally reported in?
How can DIC be diagnosed?
prolonged prothrombin time
hypofibrinogenemia (horses --> hyper)
decreased coagulation factors and antithrombin 3
Where does an emboli get lodged if it originates in the venous system or right side of heart?
Where does an emboli get lodged if it originates in the left heart or arterial system?
systemic capillary bed
Effects of embolism depend on what three things?
degree of occlusion
speed of onset
presence of collateral supply to affected organ
What 2 places in the body have good collateral circulation?
What parts of the body have bad collateral circulation?
What is an infarction?
loss of blood supply and necrosis
What is the most common type of emboli?
What trauma can cause release of fat into circulation and cause emboli?
Where do fat emboli usually get stuck?
What pathological effect happens after gas gets into circulation?
acute right side heart failure
Where do bacterial emboli usually get lodged?
What are 2 other causes other than thrombus and emboli that cause infarctions?
torsion of blood vessels
hypoperfusion in shock
Where are dull infarcts usually seen?
solid organs like kidney and heart
Where are red infarcts usually seen?
soft organs - lung, spleen, intestine
What type of necrosis lesions are seen in infarcts?
What is the infarct like in the kidney?
What do infarcts look like in the brain?
anemic, liquefactive necrosis
What is an infarct like in the intestine?
What do infarcts look like in the lungs?
alveoli contain blood
When do infarcts happen in the mammary gland?
involves large area
What are infarcts in the liver less severe?
dual blood supply
What clinical signs might be present if large areas are infarcted?
shock from histamine absorption
What 3 most common causes of shock?
1. heart failure - cardiogenic shock
2. low blood volume - hypovalemic shock
3. alteration in blood vessel size - vasculogenic shock
What 2 things accumulate in blood that lead to acidosis in shock?
Pyruvic and lactic acid
What are the 3 main changes in tissues from shock?
microthrombi in capillaries
What is gout?
uric acid and urates are deposited in tissues