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Flashcards in pathology 1st quiz Deck (198):
0

What cells are highly vulnerable to to acute cellular swelling?

Cardiac myocytes, proximal renal tubule cells, hepatocytes, endothelium,

1

What characterizes pyknosis?

Nuclear shrinkage, round shape, dark blue/black with H&E stain, nucleolus not visible

2

What microscopic changes happen during karyorrhexis?

Chromatin breaks up, scattered. Happens in purulent exudate when neutrophils break up.

3

What is karyolysis?

Lysis of nuclear Chromatin and leaks out of nuclear membrane.

4

What 2 changes can happen during necrosis of cytoplasm?

1. Increased eosinophilia of cytoplasm (basophilia are lost, eosin binds to denatured intacytoplasmic proteins)
2. Depletion of glycogen - glassy homogenous appearance

5

Where is coagulative necrosis usually seen?

Infarcts from loss of blood supply
Toxic products of certain bacteria like nerobacillosis
Poison, burns, electricity, X-ray

6

What causes zenkers necrosis?

Certain infections
Animals fed coffee senna and coyotillo plant
White muscle dz
Gossypol alkaloid in pigs
Malignant hyperthermia

7

Where does liquefactive necrosis ( colliquative) occur?

Cns, and abscesses

8

What characterizes fat necrosis both grossly and microscopically?

Gross- white firm chalky
Micro-large shadowy outline of fat cells

9

Which animals get peritoneal fat necrosis and why?

Young cattle - tall fescue grazing with fungus
Cattle, sheep, horses - summer fescue toxicosis, severity increases with hot weather

10

Where can traumatic fat necrosis occur?

Fat under skin and pelvic canal

11

What are the mechanisms of disposal of necrotic tissue?

Liquefaction by Auto lysis and heterolysis, removal by blood and lymph
Liquefaction with abcess formation
Encapsulation by fibrous tissue
Desquamation and sloughing - surfaces, intestine, brochi, renal tubes
Calcification

12

How can dry gangrene occur?

Loss of blood supply
In ergot poisoning
Tight bandage
Excess cold

13

Where is dry gangrene mostly found?

Extremity of tail, ear or limb

14

Where can moist gangrene occur and why?

Lung - aspiration pneuomonia
Intestine - torsion, cuts blood supply
Mammary gland - mastitis caused by putrefaction bacteria

15

How does gas gangrene occur?

Anaerobic bacteria penetrating wounds or spread from intestine

16

What are the 4 morphological features of apoptosis?

Cell shrinkage
Chromatin condense, fragment into apoptosis bodies
Phagocytosis of cell by macrophages
No inflammation

17

Timeline for rigor mortis

1 to 6 hrs after death and persists for 1 to 2 days

18

What term is used for cooling of the cadaver after death?

Algor mortis

19

What is livor mortis?

Hypo static congestion - pooling of blood on one side of the animal

20

where does hemoglobin imbibition occur?

heart and arteries. - red staining of tissues by lysed rbcs
can occur in acute intra vascular hemolysis

21

when does bile imbibition occur?

1-6 hours after death adjacent to gsll bladder

22

term for blue green discoloration of tissues by iron-sulfide. takes 18-24 hours

pseudomelanosis

23

what are pale foci on the liver caused from?q

increasEd intra abdominal pressure
bacterial action from tthe gut into portal vein

24

what is the difference between bloating and ruminal tympany?

bloat line -
in ruminal tympany a sharp line demarcates between pale bloodless distal esophagus and congested proximal esophagus (bloating happens after death - no bloat line) CONFUSING

25

when and where does mucosal sloughing occur?

1-6 hours
rumen

26

what 5 conditions lead to fatty change?

excessive fatty acid release
defects iformation of lipoproteins
decreased oxidation of FA from mitochondrial injury
hepatic lipidoses. cats.
hyperlipidemic condition in horses and dogs

27

what are the gross appearances of fatty change in liver, heart, and kidney?

liver- pale, enlarged, rounded edges
heart. - tan streak in myocardium, flabby
kidney - radial tan streaking in cortex and medulla

28

what are microscopic appearance of fatty change in liver, heart, and kidney?

liver - small or large vacuoles in cells
heart - small vacuoles in sarcoplasm
kidney - variable sized droplets in cytoplasm of pct and ascending loop of henle, cats have normal amount in prox tube

29

how can fat tissue be stained?

must be frozen and use oil red, sudan 3 and 4, osmic red, nile blue

30

what are the 3 main causes of glycogen deposition?

diabetes
glycogen storage dz
drug induced metabolic dz - corticosteroids, transitory

31

which type of glycogenoses occurs in toy breeds and cause hypoglycemia?

type 1

32

what type of glycogenoses is a deficiency in lysosomal acid maltase and glycogen accumulates in brain, muscle and liver?

type. 2 , pompes dz
occurs in calves, corriedal sheep, lapland dogs, japanese quails

33

which glycogenoses is caused by a deficiency in glycogen brancher enzyme and occurs. in norweigian forest cats and quarter and american horses?

type 4

34

whee does glycogen deposit in type 4 glycogenosis?

cardiac muscle, purkinje fibers and liver

35

which typeof glycogenosis i s caused by deficiecny in phosphofructokinase?

type 7
english springer spaniels

36

which glycogenosis is a deficiecny in debranching enzyme and found in german shepherds?

type 3
coris dz

37

what are the 2 types of morphological lesions seen in lysosomal storage dz?

primary - increased size and number of secondary lysosomes
secondary- abnormal cellular and extracellular products

38

which cells is amyloid light protein chain derived from?

plasma cells, contains immunoglobulin light chains

39

where does amyloid associated protein come from

secreted from liver cells in response to cytokines from inflammation

40

what type of amyloidosis has to do with plasma cells?

primary amyloidosis

41

which amyloidosis is associated with chronic inflammation and is seen in horses used for antiserum?

secondary amyloidosis

42

which type of amyloidosis is heterogenous chemically?

localized amyloidosis

43

which type of fibril protein is associated with primary amyloidosis and which species are effected?

AL (light chain)
cats and dogs

44

which protein is associated with secondary amyloidosis and what species does it effect?

AA(amyloid associated protein)
mainly dog cat and horse

45

which breeds get familial amyloidosis?

siamese cats
abyssynian cats
sharpeis

46

what are the 3 most common organs affected by amyloidosis?

kidneys
liver
spleen

47

what are the 2 gross patterns of spleen amyloidosis?

deposits in splenic follicles - "sago spleen"
splenic sinuses - sheet like deposit, "bacon spleen"

48

where is amyloid found most commonly in the kidney in most species?

glomeruli

49

where can amyloidosis be found in the kidneys of cats?

peritubular tissue
walls of blood vessels

50

renal infarcts due to amyloidosis are common in what species?

dogs

51

amyloidosis of spleen can cause what problem?

clotting disturbances

52

what can liver amyloidosis lead to?

impaired metabolic activity

53

what are the 2 type of intracellular hyaline changes?

pct of kidney - reaborption of plasma because of excessive leakage from glomerular capillaries
chronic alcoholism in liver of humans

54

where are equine intimal bodies found?

subendothelial space arterioles in GI tract
less common is heart, lung, kidney, brain

55

where are hyaline changes found in edema dz of pigs?

subendothelial in arterioles in brain

56

where are hyaline changes found in chronic damage to glomeruli?

glomerular tuft

57

where is hyaline found in hyaline membrane dz?

alveoli in premature infants

58

where is extracellular hyaline found in diabetes patients and dogs sometimes?

walls of arterioles in kidney

59

which stain makes amyloid and hyaline appear the same?

H and E

60

which stain can differentiate between amyloid and hyaline?

congo red will stain amyloid red

61

what is dystrophic calcification?

deposition of calcium salts in dead or degenerating tissues not related to calcium level inblood

62

what are the 3 hypotheses for dystrophic calcification?

local alkalinity
fatty acids attract it
alkaline phosphotase in dead tissue

63

where is dystrophic calcification usually seen?

caseous lesions of tuberculosis
degenerating tumors
old thrombi
atheromatous lesions in bv
dead parasites

64

what is the gross appearance of dystrophic calcification?

white irregulary round particles, gritty when cut

65

what are the three dyes used for calcium salts?

purple. - H and E
black - van kossa
dull red - alizarin red s

66

what is metastatic calcification?

deposition of calcium salts as a result of high blood calcium into non damaged tissues
lesions similar to dystrophic

67

what are the 5 causes of hypercalcemia?

hyperparathyroidism
renal failure
excess of vit d
granulomatous dz - tb, fungal,
malignancy

68

what are the 3 neoplasms that cause hypercalcemia in dogs and cats?

lymphoma
anal sac adenocarcinoma
multiple myeloma

69

wherre is calcium deposition normal in bovine?

allantois and amnion of placenta

70

where can metastatic calcification be found?

basement membrane of aorta and muscular arteries
lungs, kidney, muscle and skin

71

where is metastatic calcification never found in dogs and cats?

arteries

72

what is a serious consequence of long standing hypercalcemia?

renal failure. - ischemic tubular necrosis

73

what are the 2 forms of gout and what kinds of species are they seen?

articular form in joints
visceral form in pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, liver, kidneys
in birds and reptiles

74

what are the 2 forms of calcinosis?

calcinosis cutis - hyperadrenocorticism in dogs
calcinosis circumstripta - dystrophic

75

what are the 2 causes of gout?

incomplete metabolism of nucleic acid
damage to kidneys

76

what does gout look like grossly?

thin grayish layer over serous membranes
white chalk in joints and kidneys

77

what. does gout look like microscopically?

grayish crystalline material
many wbcs around inflammation

78

what is pnemoconiosis?

retention of organic or mineral dust particles in lungs

79

what is anthracosis and what is seen-in gross lesions?

black areas on ventral lungs and in lymph nodes

80

what does anthracosis look like microscopically?

black granules inside macrophages
does not stain, resistant to solvents

81

what can a large amount of anthracosis cause?

fibrosis of lung, predispose to pulmonary infection

82

what is siderosis?

iron dust inhaled as iron oxide

83

where are lesions of melanosis found?

lungs
pleura
meninges
heart

84

which species can get melanomas?

horses and dogs

85

what color is CO poisoning in blood?

bright red

86

what can methmoglobin be caused by?

nitrates, chlorates,
other iv hemolysis

87

what are the 3 main pigments derived from hemoglobin?

hemosiderin
hematin
bilirubin

88

what does hemosiderin look like grossly and microscopically?

grossly - not detected
micro- golden pigment in cytoplasm of macrophages
stains blue with potassium ferrocyanide

89

what are the 3 main causes of hemosiderin pigment?

hemolytic dz
chronic venous congestion of lungs
hemosiderosis. - local areas. of hemorrhage

90

what are the macrophages that pick up rbcs during pulmonary congestion?

heart failure cells

91

what is the stage during heart failure where the lungs become fibrosed and have hemosiderin pigmeent?

brown induration

92

what cells are effected by hemochromatosis?

cytoplasm of hepatocytes
tubular epithelium of kidney

93

what is formalin pigment?

hematin pigment caused by acid, dark brown
does not stain for iron

94

what parasites cause parasite hematin?

malaria and trematodes

95

where is icterus usually seen in the body?

eyes
omentum
mesentery

96

what is unconjugated bilirubin called?

hemobilirubin

97

what type of jaundice is associated with a large amount of uncojugated bilirubin?

prehepatic jaundice/hemolytic

98

which jaundice is associated with degenerative changes in liver cells?

hepatic/toxic jaundice

99

what are the 4 obstructions in the liver that can lead to post hepatic jaundice?

swollen hepatic cells
parasites in bile ducts
stones in bile ducts
tumors putting pressure on ducts

100

which solution do you compare sample to to diagnose jaundice?

potassium dichromate

101

What does direct van den berg indicate?

conjugated bilirubin (obstructive jaundice)

102

What does indirect van den berg reaction indicate?

hemolytic jaundice

103

What is Type 1 photosensitization?

photodynamic plant or drug ingested in absence of liver dz

104

what are the two plant families causing type 1 photosensitization?

Helianthrones and furocoumarines

105

Which drug has been associated with type 1 photosensitization?

phenothiazine

106

What is the disease caused by an inherited metabolic defect in synthesis of normal heme pigment?

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria - pink tooth

107

What is type 2 photosensitization?

hepatogenous, sometimes happens when chlorophyll cant be broken down by ruminants because of liver damage

108

Where can lipofuscin be found?

brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle

109

What does lipofuscin look like microscopically?

yellow brown granules in cytoplasm

110

What conditions is lipofuscin found?

wasting dz, senility, emaciation

111

What deficienc is ceroid pigment associated with?

choline deficiency

112

Where can ceroid pigment be found?

yellow brown pigment in liver cells of horse, dog, cattle, pig, and rat

113

What term is used to explain the gross appearance of ceroid pigment?

"yellow fat dz" or "brown dog gut"

114

What 2 disorders of the circulation redistribute blood within a part of the vascular system?

Hyperemia - large amount of blood in organ or tissue
ischaemia - restriction in blood supply

115

What 2 circulation disorders cause a loss of circulating blood volume?

hemorrhage
fluid loss

116

What 2 circulation disorders cause accumulation of extra vascular fluid?

transudate - edema
exudate - inflammatory

117

what 2 circulation disorders cause solid masses to develop in blood?

thrombosis
embolism

118

What is active hyperemia?

abnormal accumulation of arterial blood in arterioles (physiological or pathological)

119

What is passive hyperemia?

accumulation of blood in veins because of dilation

120

What are 2 examples of acute local passive hyperemia?

organ misalignment (teloscoping)
venous thrombosis or embolism

121

What is compression by tumors or fibrosis an example of?

chronic local passive hyperemia

122

What are the 2 effects of local passive hyperemia?

increased venous pressure --> edema
anoxia, necrosis

123

What is the consequence of hyperemia in highly vascular organs?

massive outpouring of fluid --> shock, gangrene

124

What are three causes of general passive hyperemia?

cardiac failure
impeded venous return
increased pulmonary resistance

125

What are the long term effects of general passive hyperemia?

edematous with hemorrhage in lungs then fibrosed and loss of function
liver - periacinar degeneration

126

what are 2 causes of ischaemia?

heart failure
obstruction of an artery

127

Term for passive movement of rbcs into EV spaces through small endothelial defects

diapedesis

128

Term for large and blotch hemorrhages (2-3 cm)

ecchymoses

129

Term for intermediate type hemorrhages up to 1 cm

purpura

130

Term for extensive areas of hemorrhages especially in mucosal and serous surfaces

paint brush hemorrhage

131

What can cause hemorrhage by anoxic necrosis of vessel wall?

passive hyperemia

132

What amount of blood can be lost acutely and not show drastic clinical effects?

10-20%

133

How can plasma decrease it's osmotic pressure?

loss of protein

134

What 2 causes increase the loss of protein from the body?

renal dz (renal edema)
parasitic infections

135

What can cause increased hydrostatic pressure leading to edema?

passive congestion (cardiac edema)

136

What 2 causes lead to local edema?

local passive hyperemia
lymphatic obstruction

137

What 3 causes lead to generalized edema?

passive hyperemia, hypoproteinemia, increased sodium retention

138

Where does the generalized edema go in each species?

Dog - peritoneal cavity
Cat - throacic cavity
Ruminants - submandibular and peritoneum
Horse - limbs

139

Term for generalized edema under the skin

anasarca

140

Term for edema in peritoneal cavity

ascitis

141

Term for edema fluid in scrotal layers

hydrocele

142

What are the three reasons for pulmonary edema?

heart failure
irritating gases
inflammatory process

143

What are the two biggest differences between inflammatory and non-inflammatory edema?

non-inflammatory never clots
inflammatory has inflammatory cells

144

What is another name for inflammatory edema? non-inflammatory edema?

inflammatory - exudate
non - transudate

145

What happens to long standing edema?

organized by fibrous tissue

146

What is Virchow's triad (3 causes of thrombosis)?

alteration in vascular endothelium
alteration in blood flow
alteration in constituents of the blood

147

How is thrombosis caused by damage in endothelium of blood vessels?

build up of clotting factors after platelets lost

148

What are some causes of vascular endothelial damage?

arteritis, phlebitis, endocarditis, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, IV injection of irritants

149

How does stasis of blood flow cause thrombosis?

occurs in veins, reduces inflow of clotting inhibitors

150

How does turbulence of blood flow cause thrombosis?

platelets come in contact with endothelium more frequently

151

What cells make up the layered appearance of thrombi?

white layer - platelets and leukocytes
red layer - fibrin, rbc, leukocytes

152

What is a clot made of?

uniform network of fibrin with platelets, leukocytes and rbcs

153

What is the difference between a thrombi and a clot?

thrombus - attached to wall, layered
clot - uniform

154

What type of thrombus is found in rapidly moving blood and composed mostly of platelets and fibrin?

white or pale thrombi

155

What type of thrombus is found in veins and is largely made of RBCs?

red thrombi

156

What type of thrombus does not occlude the lumen of the blood vessel?

mural thrombus

157

What type of thrombus completely blocks the vessel?

occlusive thrombus

158

What parasite can cause thrombosis in mesenteric artery of horses?

strongylus vulgaris

159

What thrombus can cause lameness in horses?

iliac arteries

160

In cattle, an abcess in the adjacent liver parenchyma can cause thrombi in what vessel?

posterior vena cava

162

What are the four fates of thrombi?

resolution - fibrinolysis
organization - recanalization
abcess - bacteria, pyemia
emboli - breaks free

163

What is the definition of DIC? (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

diffuse intravascular thrombosis occurs in microvasculature

164

What causes is DIC secondary to?

disorder in platelet activation
release of thromboplastin into circulation from tissue damage

165

The clinical effects of DIC are due to a balance between what 2 proteases?

Thrombin
Plasmin

166

What protease is dominant in DIC if thrombosis is occurring?

thrombin

167

What protease is dominant in DIC if bleeding is occurring?

plasmin

168

How does death occur in acute DIC?

extensive microthrombosis and circulatory failure --> shock and organ failure

169

How does the acute DIC become chronic DIC?

Liver and bone marrow increase production of coagulation factors and platelets

170

What species is DIC principally reported in?

dogs

171

How can DIC be diagnosed?

prolonged prothrombin time
hypofibrinogenemia (horses --> hyper)
FDPs
schistocytes
decreased coagulation factors and antithrombin 3

172

Where does an emboli get lodged if it originates in the venous system or right side of heart?

lungs

173

Where does an emboli get lodged if it originates in the left heart or arterial system?

systemic capillary bed

174

Effects of embolism depend on what three things?

degree of occlusion
speed of onset
presence of collateral supply to affected organ

175

What 2 places in the body have good collateral circulation?

limbs
lungs

176

What parts of the body have bad collateral circulation?

spleen
kidney
brain
heart
skin

177

What is an infarction?

loss of blood supply and necrosis

178

What is the most common type of emboli?

thrombo-emboli

179

What trauma can cause release of fat into circulation and cause emboli?

bone fracture
subcutaneous trauma

180

Where do fat emboli usually get stuck?

lung capillaries

181

What pathological effect happens after gas gets into circulation?

acute right side heart failure

182

Where do bacterial emboli usually get lodged?

lungs
kidney
brain
liver

183

What are 2 other causes other than thrombus and emboli that cause infarctions?

torsion of blood vessels
hypoperfusion in shock

184

Where are dull infarcts usually seen?

solid organs like kidney and heart

185

Where are red infarcts usually seen?

soft organs - lung, spleen, intestine

186

What type of necrosis lesions are seen in infarcts?

coagulative necrosis

187

What is the infarct like in the kidney?

conical

188

What do infarcts look like in the brain?

anemic, liquefactive necrosis

189

What is an infarct like in the intestine?

hemorrhagic
gangrene
fatal

190

What do infarcts look like in the lungs?

hemorrhagic
alveoli contain blood

191

When do infarcts happen in the mammary gland?

severe mastitis
involves large area

192

What are infarcts in the liver less severe?

dual blood supply

193

What clinical signs might be present if large areas are infarcted?

shock from histamine absorption

194

What 3 most common causes of shock?

1. heart failure - cardiogenic shock
2. low blood volume - hypovalemic shock
3. alteration in blood vessel size - vasculogenic shock

195

What 2 things accumulate in blood that lead to acidosis in shock?

Pyruvic and lactic acid

196

What are the 3 main changes in tissues from shock?

necrosis
hemorrhage
microthrombi in capillaries

197

What is gout?

uric acid and urates are deposited in tissues

198

What is calcinosis?

calcification in or under the skin