Flashcards in Path Final - Integument TS Deck (221):
What is the typical transit time of a single keratinocyte?
What structure provides intracellular adhesion between keratinocytes?
What structure provides attachment of epidermis to basement membrane?
What are the 3 components of the basement membrane zone?
What pathogens are able to penetrate the skin?
What 2 pathogens penetrate through hair follicle opening?
What cells in the skin produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and present antigens to T-lymphos?
What part of the skin adaptive immunity kills virus infected cells and neoplastic cells?
What part of the skin adaptive immunity activates macrophages to eliminate intracellular bacteria?
CD4 TH1 cells
What part of the skin adaptive immunity activates B cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to produce immunoglobulins?
CD4 TH2 cells
What part of the skin innate immune system express adhesion molecules and trigger kinin, coagulation, and complement systems which facilitates leukocyte migration?
What part of the innate immune system of the skin initiates the toll signaling pathway and promotes expression of pro-inflammatory mediators?
Macrophages and dendritic cells
What part of the skin adaptive immune system produces cytokines and growth factors which modulate adaptive immune responses?
What is the term for the diffuse thickining of the stratum spinosum?
What is the term for loss of desmosomal function and occurs in diseases like pemphigus?
What is the term for intracellular edema that occurs with injury and infection?
What is the term for INTERcellular edema in the skin?
What is the term for INTRAcellular edema in the basal layer of the skin only? What disease is it common in?
common in cutaneous lupus
What are the 7 steps in order for regeneration and repair of the skin? What is their time frames?
1. Blood clot (0-12 hrs)
2. inflammation (12-24 hours)
3. re-epitheliazation (3-7 days)
4. fibroplasia(3-7 days)
5. angiogenesis (3-7 days)
6. wound contraction(>7 days)
7. tissue remodeling (weeks to months)
What are macrophages secreting during inflammatory phase of skin repair?
What are keratinocytes doing during re-epitheliazation phase of skin repair?
migrate and proliferate
re-establish BM zone
What 5 things happen during the fibroplasia phase of skin repair?
cytokines and growth factors released
fibroblasts migrate and proliferate
fibroblasts produce proteolytic enzymes
fibroblasts produce extracellular matrix proteins
What phases does granulation tissue result from in skin repair?
fibroplasia and angiogenesis
What is the term for transformation of squamous epithelial cells into the keratin layers of the stratum corneum, hair, and nails?
What are 2 primary cornification disorders?
primary seborrhea - cocker spaniel
What nutritional disorder can cause secondary cornification?
vitamin A deficiency
What is the term for epidermal hyperplasia in response to chronic stimuli?
What is the term for premature keratinization of epidermal cells?
What are the 3 causes of dyskeratosis?
zinc responsive dermatosis
What 2 immune mediated disorders cause apoptosis of the epidermis?
What is the difference between erosion and ulceration of the epidermis?
erosion - necrosis of superficial epidermis
ulceration - necrosis of full epidermis and partial dermis
What 2 etiologic agents can cause spongiosis?
Staph or Malessezia
What are the 3 causes of hydropic degeneration?
What are 2 viruses that can cause ballooning degeneration?
What disease does acantholysis occur in superficial epidermis?
What disease does acantholysis occur in the deep epidermis resulting in suprabasilar vesicles and clefts with tombstoning ulceration?
What protein is involved in pemphigus foliaceus? pemphigus vulgaris?
foliaceus - desmoglein 1
vulgaris - desmoglein 1 + 3
What 2 skin infections can cause acantholysis with subsequent neutrophilic enzymatic destruction?
What are vesicles that are greater than 1 cm in width?
What viral infections can cause vesicles/bulla?
herpes, pox, morbillivirus, rhabdo, picorna
What is the term used to describe complete seperation of the epidermis from the dermis such as in bullous pemphigoid?
What 3 conditions can result in pustules being formed by eosinophil accumulation in the epidermis?
feline eosinophilic dz
What 2 diseases/infections cause exocytosis of lymphocytes?
What are the 2 pathways of hyperpigmentation and what are the causes of each?
increased production of melanin - chronic dermatitis, hyperadrenocorticocism
increased melanocytes - lentigo, melanocytic neoplasia
What nutritional deficiency can cause hypopigmentation?
What is the histologic feature that refers to melanin within macrophages?
What is the laymans term for exuberant granulation tissue that may occur on distal limbs of horses?
What 2 conditions can cause collagen dysplasia?
What is the term for chronic exposure to the sun that causes increased numbers of elastic fibers in superficial dermis?
What can trigger amyloid depostion in the dermis? What species can it be seen in?
monoclonal gammopathy of plasma cell tumors or by dermatomyositis, seen rarely in dogs and horses
What is the term for mucin or hyaluron (glycosaminoglycan) accumulation in the skin? What diseases can cause it?
seen with hypothyroidism, mucinosis of shar pei
What is the cause of dystrophic calcification of the skin?
cushings - calcinosis cutis
What type of calcification of the skin is caused by hypercalcemia?
What cell types characterize chronic dermatitis?
What are the 4 alterations of growth in the dermis?
2. fibrosis (granulation)
3. collagen dysplasia
4. solar elastosis
What are the 3 abnormal deposits in the dermis?
amyloid, mucin, calcium
What is the term for abnormal development of follicles and hair shafts that frequently causes alopecia?
What is the scientific name for ingrown hair?
What is the term for inflammation of the apocrine glands of the adnexa?
What are the 2 species most commonly affected by vasculitis?
dogs and horses
What are the 3 classical examples of vasculitis?
type 3 hypersensitivity - SLE
endotheliotropic infections - rickettsia, herpes, FIP
bacterial embolism - erysipelothrix
What is the term for inflammation of sub Q adipose tissue?
What are 2 causes of non-genetic congenital alopecia and hypotrichosis?
maternal iodine deficiency
in utero pestivirus (BVD, CSF)
What are some causes of panniculitis?
infections, immune, injury, nutritional, pancreatic dz, idiopathic
What are some causes of vasculitis??
infection, immune, toxins, DIC, idiopathic
What are 3 rare diseases that can cause congenital collagen dysplasia disorders?
What is a congenital disorder that causes development of cutaneous blisters in response to minor mechanical trauma?
epidermolysis bullosa (red foot dz)
What is the term for failure of the epidermis to develop completely?
epitheliogeneisis imperfecta (aplasia cutis)
What species can get congenital hypertrichosis? What are the other names for this condition?
sheep - excessive fleece
aka border dz (pesitivirus), hairy shaker dz
What species and breed can get congenital dermatosis vegetans?
What is the cause of Type 1 photosensitization?
ingestion of certain plants/drugs like hypericum perforatum, fagopyrum esculentum, phenothiazine
What causes Type 2 photosensitization?
What causes Type 3 photosensitization?
most common - liver dz --> reduced ability to exrete phylloerythirn
What are the 3 immune mediated disorders that are aggravated by UV radiation?
photoactivated vasculitis in horse
Which toxin can cause peripheral vasoconstriction and endothelial damage leading to ischemic necrosis of the extremities?
What common pasture plant can become infected with fungus and cause skin problems?
What supplement leads to competitive replacement of sulfur in keratin and causes poor hair coat and alopecia?
What toxin is a legume and can cause immune mediated chemical injury of the skin?
Whats the veterinary word for "hot spots"?
What is the veterinary word for skin fold dermatitis?
What self inflicted skin injury happens in cats around dorsal neck?
feline ulcerative dermatitis syndrome
What are the classifications of thermal burns?
First degree - epidermis only
2nd degree - epidermis and part of dermis
3rd degree - full thickness necrosis of skin
What stage of hair growth are thyroid hormones responsible for?
What are the causes of hyperestrogenism in both male and female dogs?
female - ovarian cysts or tumors
males - fxnal sertoli cell tumor
What type of hypersensitivites cause urticaria?
Type 1 and 3
What is the term for a genetic predisposition to inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin dz?
What hypersensitivity and antibody is involved in atopic dermatitis?
What causes "sweet itch" in horses?
What hypersensitivity types are involved in insect bite hypersensitivity?
Type 1 and 4
What are the gross lesions associated with insect bite hypersensitivity?
papular to exudative dermatitis and miliary dermatitis(cats)
What hypersensitivity is allergic contact dermatitis?
What are the gross lesions associated with allergic contact dermatitis?
erythema, papules, exudation
Which hypersensitivity disorder of the skin could be all 4 types?
What is the pathogenesis of pemphigus foliaceus?
autoantibodies + desmoglein 1 in superficial epidermis resulting in subcorneal pustules
What are the histologic lesions associated with pemphigus foliaceus?
acantholytic keratinocytes and subcorneal pustules
What are the gross lesions associated with pemphigus vulgaris?
vesiculo-ulcerative lesions of oral mucosa/skin
What are the histologic lesions associated with pemphigus vulgaris?
suprabasilar vesicles, pustules, acantholytic keratinocytes and tombstoning of basal cells
What causes bullous pemphigoid?
autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins
What are the histologic lesions associated with bullous pemphigoid?
subepidermal vesicles and bullae
What type hypersensitivity is systemic lupus erythematosus?
What is a diagnostic aid for systemic lupus erythematosus?
elevation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer (ANA is negative in discoid)
What organs are involved in discoid lupus erythematosus?
Where do the lesions aoccur in discoid lupus?
nasal planum, dorsal nose, pinna, lips, periocular
What disease is associated with numerous apoptotic keratinocytes within multiple layers of the epidermis?
What is the life threatening form of erythema multiforme that results in full thickness epidermal necrosis?
toxic epidermal necrolysis
What is the most pathogenic pox viruses?
sheeppox and goatpox
What is the pathogenesis of pox viruses?
stimulation of host DNA causes epidermal and dermal hyperplasia --> vascular injury and ischemic necrosis
*What is the order of lesion development of pox viruses?
Macule -->papule-->vesicle-->umbilicated pustule-->crust --> scar
What is a diagnostic feature of histologic lesions of pox viruses?
intracytoplasmic eosinophilic viral inclusion bodes
What are the 2 dermatotropic herpesviruses?
bovine herpes 2 - ulcerative mammilitis
bovine herpes 4 - mammary pustular dermatitis
What does herpes virus infection of endothelial cells cause? What is an example?
vasculitis and cutaneous infarction
malignant catarrhal fever
*What is the lesion development order of herpes virus?
vesicle --> ulcer --> crusts
What are 2 viruses that cause oncogenesis in the skin?
marek's dz - cutaneous follicular lymphoma
sea turtle fibropapillomatosis
What species do sarcoids form most in?
horses - most common skin tumor (bovine papilloma virus)
*What are other examples of viruses causing cutaneous lesions?
picorna (FMD), rhabdo, calici, parvo, retro
Which species gets the most bacterial skin infections? *Reasons?
dog - thin corneum, low lipid, high pH, genetics
What bacteria causes canine superficial pyoderma and deep pyoderma?
What are the gross lesions associated with canine superficial pyoderma?
*erythema, macules, papules, pustules, crusts
*What are the histologic lesions associated with canine superficial pyoderma?
pustules, serocellular crusts, superficial suppurative luminal follciulitis
What bacteria cause impetigo?
S. aureus, intermedius, pseudintermedius, schleiferi
What are the gross and histologic lesions seen in impetigo?
gross - multifocal pustules and crusts
histo - NON-FOLLICULAR subcorneal pustules with serocellula crusting
What bacteria causes exudative epidermitis of pigs (greasy pig dz)?
What bacteria causes dermatophilosis (rain rot, rain scald)?
*railroad like, gram positive
What are the gross lesions associated with dermatophilosis?
THICK CRUSTS, papules, pustules
What bacteria causes ovine fleece rot and what infection can it predispose the sheep to?
predispose to myiasis
What are the 6 bacterial infections that are superficial?
canine superficial pyoderma, impetigo, canine mucocutaneous pyoderma, greasy pig dz, dermatophilosis, fleece rot
What deep bacterial pyoderma causes infection AND foreign body type inflammation?
bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis
What species most commonly gets subcutaneous abcessation? *What are the causes?
*causes - puncture, foreign body, injections, shearing, clipping wounds
What is the term for suppurative inflammation of the dermis, subcutis, and underlying muscle?
What infectious disease of the skin is caused by Strep canis and is life threatening due to septic shock?
What are the acid fast stains, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fite-Faraco stain good at identifying?
How do mycobacteria survive inside macrophages?
preventing fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes
What kind of mycobacterium cause tuberculosis and leprosy?
obligate intracellular pathogens - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. lepraemurium
*What filamentous bacteria can cause granulomas?
nocardia, actinomyces, streptomyces
*What is non-filamentous bacterial granulomas caused?
What species most commonly gets sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma syndrome?
What species and what age get juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis? What is the pathogenesis?
puppies <4 months
path - unknown
What are the 4 mechanisms that sepsis can lead to skin lesions by affecting blood vessels?
1. bacterial embolism
3. direct infection of vascular endothelial cells
4. immune complex (type 3)
What bacteria is responsible for creating skin lesions by bacterial embolization? *What is an example of the disease?
*diamond skin dz
What bacteria causes endotoxin induced venous thrombosis?
What bacteria produces shiga toxin 2e that leads to endothelial damage, vasculitis, and edema dz of pigs?
What bacteria produces exotoxin that act as superantigens causing dogs to get toxic shock like syndrome?
What bacteria produces an exotoxin that contributes to vascular damage in necrotizing fasciitis?
What bacteria directly infects endothelial cells leading to vasculitis and necrotic skin lesions?
What fungus causes piedra or trichosporosis or trichomycosis nodularis and causes swelling of extrafollicular hair shaft in dogs and horses?
Trichosporon beigelii (superficial mycoses)
What parts of the skin get infected in cutaneous mycoses?
hair follicles, claws, epidermis
What 2 organisms cause dermatophytosis? What is another name for this disease?
Microsporum and Trichophyton
Ringworm - cats, young animals
What is the histological lesion associated with dermatophytosis?
What are gross lesions of a candida infection?
exudative and fibrinous cheilitis, stomatitis, esophagitis, otitis externa
What are the gross lesions associated with a Malessezia pachydermatis infection?
erythematous, scaly, lichenified and alopecic dermatitis
How can an animal get subcutaneous mycoses? What does it lead to?
caused by traumatic implantation
leads to nodular granulomatous panniculitis and dermatitis
What kind of fungi cause eumycotic mycetoma in horses and dogs?
What fungi causes dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in persian cats?
What kind of fungi causes phaeohyphomycosis?
What disease is usually caused by Sporothrix schenkii in cats?
What disease is caused by Pythium insidiosum? *What is another name for it?
Pythiosis - aka oomycosis, swamp cancer
What are the gross lesions associated with Pythiosis?
necrotizing subQ nodules that ulcerate and drain
What are the 4 fungi that cause systemic mycoses causing cutaneous lesions?
What are the gross lesions associated with systemic mycoses?
nodular skin which may have draining tract
What are the 2 algae that can cause pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis?
What are the gross and histo lesions of demodicosis?
Gross - scaly erythematous, thickened, alopecic areas
Histo - lymphocytic mural folliculitis and occasional furunculosis
What are the gross and histo lesions of scabies?
Gross - same as demodex
Histo - marked acanthosis and hyperkaratosis
What mite infection is seen mostly in cats and rabbits and is highly contagious and pruritic?
What is a mite that occurs in external ear canal of dogs and cats?
What 2 mites infect horses, cattle, sheep, goats?
Psoroptic - also rabbits and others
What mite occurs in sheep in australia and new zealand?
What mite infection is by larvae of chigger mites?
What mite lives on surface of skin and induces hyperkeratosis and detritus on dorsal midline?
*What are the terms for biting lice? blood sucking lice?
mallophaga - biting lice
anoplura - blood sucking lice
What is the term used for lice induced papules, crusts, excoriations and traumatic hair loss?
What lice is a vector for pig disease and can lead to hypersensitivities?
*What is a vector for bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic dz and african horse sickness?
What helminth is transmitted by house/stable flies and causes nodular ulcerated areas on horses?
cutaneous habronemiasis (summer sores)
What 2 filarial dermatitis infections cause granulomatous nodules on the ventral midline of horses? Cows?
Onchocerciasis - horses
Stephanofilariasis - cattle (buffalo, goats)
What protozoa infection is endemic in foxhounds in the u.s.?
Leishmania infantum (cutaneous leishmaniasis)
What are the gross lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis?
alopecia, nodules, ulcers where sandflies feed
What 4 protozoal infections are cutaneous lesions RARELY seen?
toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcocystosis, caryosporosis
What epidermal tumor is "pre-malignant" and contains high grade dysplasia without invasiveness?
squamous cell carcinoma in situ
*What is a frequent site of metastasis for pulmonary cancer in cats?
digits (feline metastatic pulmonary carcinoma)
*What are the 2 malignant follicular neoplasms?
What non neoplastic malformation composed of dermal collagen is common in dogs?
What rare fibrous neoplastic disorder is seen in german shepherds?
Canine nodular dermatofibrosis
What is another name for skin tag?
What cell shape is a sarcoid?
What is the name for benign endothelial cell tumor seen with UV radiation?
What neoplasia arises from pericytes that surround BV and is similar to fibrosarcoma?
What is a merkel cell tumor?
cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor
What are other names for benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor(PNST)?
What tumor is patnaik histologic grading scheme used for to determine prognosis?
canine mast cell tumors
What age is canine cutaneous histiocytoma seen? What cells does it arise from?
What stages of lesions are seen in epitheliotropic lymphoma?
patch -> plaque -> tumor
What sterile granulomatous disease is associated with high cholesterol?
What breed gets canine zinc-responsive dermatitis characterized by scaling and crusting on the face?
siberian huskies, malamutes
What causes feline paraneoplastic alopecia?
old cats - metastatic pancreatic or biliary carcinoma
What tumor causes feline exfoliative dermatitis?
old cats with thymoma, also seen in dogs and rabbits
What are 2 other names for canine hepatocutaneous syndrome? What is it associated with?
superficial necrolytic dermatitis, diabetic dermatopathy
associated with deranged nutrient metabolism
What breed gets nodular dermatofibrosis?
What lesions are seen in paraneoplastic pemphigus?
mucosal to mucocutaneous vesicles/pustules, may present before cancer signs
*What adnexal glands open directly onto skin surface and undergo merocrine secretion?
*What glands undergo holocrine secretion (by membrane rupture)?
*What are the apocrine glands that open into the hair follicle?
*Which form of hyperkeratosis has anuclear squamous epithelial cells?
*Which form of hyperkeratosis has nuclei in the squamous cells and is seen with zinc responsive dermatosis?
*What are the 3 subtypes of orthokeratosis?
basket weave, compact, laminated
*What 2 diseases can cause pigmentary incontinence?
lupus erythromatosus, vitiligo
*What causes calcinosis circupscripta?
*What disease causes clumping of melanin pigment and increased hair shaft fragility?
color dilution follicular dysplasia
* What is a disease that causes bulbitis?
*What virus causes congenial hypertrichosis?
in utero pestivirus
*What bacteria causes impetigo?
coagulase positive staph
*What are histo features of canine mucocutaneous pyoderma?
lichenoid inflammation and pigmentary incontinence
*What gross lesions do horses develop during bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis?
saddle sores, greasy heel, scratches
*What bacteria causes necrotizing fascitis?
*What kind of bacteria cause mycobacteriosis?
*What is the mild condition, piedra, caused by in dogs and horses?
*What infection do Pythium insidiosum and Lagenidium sp. cause?
Oomycosis (aquatic dimorphic water molds)
*What is the vector for swinepox, ASF, and eperthyrozoon suis?
*What 3 orbiviruses are transmitted by cullicoides?
bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic dz, african horse sickness
*What disease do Ancylostoma sp or Uncinaria sp cause?
*Which disease are amastigotes found causing nodular granulomatous and ulcerative dermatitis?