Path Final - Integument TS Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Path Final - Integument TS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Path Final - Integument TS Deck (221):
1

What is the typical transit time of a single keratinocyte?

one month

2

What structure provides intracellular adhesion between keratinocytes?

desmosomes

3

What structure provides attachment of epidermis to basement membrane?

hemidesmosomes

4

What are the 3 components of the basement membrane zone?

hemidesmosomes
lamina lucida
lamina densa

5

What pathogens are able to penetrate the skin?

Hookworm larvae
Shistosoma

6

What 2 pathogens penetrate through hair follicle opening?

demodex, staph

7

What cells in the skin produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and present antigens to T-lymphos?

Langerhans cells

8

What part of the skin adaptive immunity kills virus infected cells and neoplastic cells?

CD8-T cells

9

What part of the skin adaptive immunity activates macrophages to eliminate intracellular bacteria?

CD4 TH1 cells

10

What part of the skin adaptive immunity activates B cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to produce immunoglobulins?

CD4 TH2 cells

11

What part of the skin innate immune system express adhesion molecules and trigger kinin, coagulation, and complement systems which facilitates leukocyte migration?

endothelial cells

12

What part of the innate immune system of the skin initiates the toll signaling pathway and promotes expression of pro-inflammatory mediators?

Macrophages and dendritic cells

13

What part of the skin adaptive immune system produces cytokines and growth factors which modulate adaptive immune responses?

keratinocytes

14

What is the term for the diffuse thickining of the stratum spinosum?

acanthosis

15

What is the term for loss of desmosomal function and occurs in diseases like pemphigus?

acantholysis

16

What is the term for intracellular edema that occurs with injury and infection?

ballooning degeneration

17

What is the term for INTERcellular edema in the skin?

Spongiosis

18

What is the term for INTRAcellular edema in the basal layer of the skin only? What disease is it common in?

hydropic degeneration
common in cutaneous lupus

19

What are the 7 steps in order for regeneration and repair of the skin? What is their time frames?

1. Blood clot (0-12 hrs)
2. inflammation (12-24 hours)
3. re-epitheliazation (3-7 days)
4. fibroplasia(3-7 days)
5. angiogenesis (3-7 days)
6. wound contraction(>7 days)
7. tissue remodeling (weeks to months)

20

What are macrophages secreting during inflammatory phase of skin repair?

collagenase

21

What are keratinocytes doing during re-epitheliazation phase of skin repair?

migrate and proliferate
produce proteases
re-establish BM zone

22

What 5 things happen during the fibroplasia phase of skin repair?

cytokines and growth factors released
fibroblasts migrate and proliferate
fibroblasts produce proteolytic enzymes
fibroblasts produce extracellular matrix proteins

23

What phases does granulation tissue result from in skin repair?

fibroplasia and angiogenesis

24

What is the term for transformation of squamous epithelial cells into the keratin layers of the stratum corneum, hair, and nails?

cornification

25

What are 2 primary cornification disorders?

primary seborrhea - cocker spaniel
icthyosis

26

What nutritional disorder can cause secondary cornification?

vitamin A deficiency

27

What is the term for epidermal hyperplasia in response to chronic stimuli?

acanthosis

28

What is the term for premature keratinization of epidermal cells?

dyskeratosis

29

What are the 3 causes of dyskeratosis?

zinc responsive dermatosis
actinic keratosis
SCC

30

What 2 immune mediated disorders cause apoptosis of the epidermis?

lupus erythematosus
erythema multiforme

31

What is the difference between erosion and ulceration of the epidermis?

erosion - necrosis of superficial epidermis
ulceration - necrosis of full epidermis and partial dermis

32

What 2 etiologic agents can cause spongiosis?

Staph or Malessezia

33

What are the 3 causes of hydropic degeneration?

lupus erythematosus
dermatomyositis
drug eruptions

34

What are 2 viruses that can cause ballooning degeneration?

pox viruses
FMD virus

35

What disease does acantholysis occur in superficial epidermis?

pemphigus foliaceus

36

What disease does acantholysis occur in the deep epidermis resulting in suprabasilar vesicles and clefts with tombstoning ulceration?

pemphigus vulgaris

37

What protein is involved in pemphigus foliaceus? pemphigus vulgaris?

foliaceus - desmoglein 1
vulgaris - desmoglein 1 + 3

38

What 2 skin infections can cause acantholysis with subsequent neutrophilic enzymatic destruction?

bacterial pyoderma
dermatophytosis

39

What are vesicles that are greater than 1 cm in width?

bulla

40

What viral infections can cause vesicles/bulla?

herpes, pox, morbillivirus, rhabdo, picorna

41

What is the term used to describe complete seperation of the epidermis from the dermis such as in bullous pemphigoid?

subepidermal vesicle

42

What 3 conditions can result in pustules being formed by eosinophil accumulation in the epidermis?

ectoparasite bite
pemphigoid rxn
feline eosinophilic dz

43

What 2 diseases/infections cause exocytosis of lymphocytes?

lupus erythematosus
malessezia sp.

44

What are the 2 pathways of hyperpigmentation and what are the causes of each?

increased production of melanin - chronic dermatitis, hyperadrenocorticocism
increased melanocytes - lentigo, melanocytic neoplasia

45

What nutritional deficiency can cause hypopigmentation?

copper deficiency

46

What is the histologic feature that refers to melanin within macrophages?

pigmentary incontinence

47

What is the laymans term for exuberant granulation tissue that may occur on distal limbs of horses?

proud flesh

48

What 2 conditions can cause collagen dysplasia?

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
cutaneous asthenia

49

What is the term for chronic exposure to the sun that causes increased numbers of elastic fibers in superficial dermis?

solar elastosis

50

What can trigger amyloid depostion in the dermis? What species can it be seen in?

monoclonal gammopathy of plasma cell tumors or by dermatomyositis, seen rarely in dogs and horses

51

What is the term for mucin or hyaluron (glycosaminoglycan) accumulation in the skin? What diseases can cause it?

cutaneous myxedema
seen with hypothyroidism, mucinosis of shar pei

52

What is the cause of dystrophic calcification of the skin?

cushings - calcinosis cutis

53

What type of calcification of the skin is caused by hypercalcemia?

metastatic

54

What cell types characterize chronic dermatitis?

mononuclear leukocytes

55

What are the 4 alterations of growth in the dermis?

1. atrophy
2. fibrosis (granulation)
3. collagen dysplasia
4. solar elastosis

56

What are the 3 abnormal deposits in the dermis?

amyloid, mucin, calcium

57

What is the term for abnormal development of follicles and hair shafts that frequently causes alopecia?

follicular dysplasia

58

What is the scientific name for ingrown hair?

furunculosis

59

What is the term for inflammation of the apocrine glands of the adnexa?

hidradenitis

60

What are the 2 species most commonly affected by vasculitis?

dogs and horses

61

What are the 3 classical examples of vasculitis?

type 3 hypersensitivity - SLE
endotheliotropic infections - rickettsia, herpes, FIP
bacterial embolism - erysipelothrix

62

What is the term for inflammation of sub Q adipose tissue?

panniculitis

63

What are 2 causes of non-genetic congenital alopecia and hypotrichosis?

maternal iodine deficiency
in utero pestivirus (BVD, CSF)

64

What are some causes of panniculitis?

infections, immune, injury, nutritional, pancreatic dz, idiopathic

65

What are some causes of vasculitis??

infection, immune, toxins, DIC, idiopathic

66

What are 3 rare diseases that can cause congenital collagen dysplasia disorders?

hyperelastosis cutis
dermatosparaxis
cutaneous asthenia

67

What is a congenital disorder that causes development of cutaneous blisters in response to minor mechanical trauma?

epidermolysis bullosa (red foot dz)

68

What is the term for failure of the epidermis to develop completely?

epitheliogeneisis imperfecta (aplasia cutis)

69

What species can get congenital hypertrichosis? What are the other names for this condition?

sheep - excessive fleece
aka border dz (pesitivirus), hairy shaker dz

70

What species and breed can get congenital dermatosis vegetans?

landrace pigs

71

What is the cause of Type 1 photosensitization?

ingestion of certain plants/drugs like hypericum perforatum, fagopyrum esculentum, phenothiazine

72

What causes Type 2 photosensitization?

porphyrin metabolism

73

What causes Type 3 photosensitization?

most common - liver dz --> reduced ability to exrete phylloerythirn

74

What are the 3 immune mediated disorders that are aggravated by UV radiation?

lupus erythematosus
dermatomyositis
photoactivated vasculitis in horse

75

Which toxin can cause peripheral vasoconstriction and endothelial damage leading to ischemic necrosis of the extremities?

Ergot poisoning

76

What common pasture plant can become infected with fungus and cause skin problems?

Tall fescue

77

What supplement leads to competitive replacement of sulfur in keratin and causes poor hair coat and alopecia?

selenium

78

What toxin is a legume and can cause immune mediated chemical injury of the skin?

hairy vetch

79

Whats the veterinary word for "hot spots"?

pyotraumatic dermatitis

80

What is the veterinary word for skin fold dermatitis?

intertrigo

81

What self inflicted skin injury happens in cats around dorsal neck?

feline ulcerative dermatitis syndrome

82

What are the classifications of thermal burns?

First degree - epidermis only
2nd degree - epidermis and part of dermis
3rd degree - full thickness necrosis of skin

83

What stage of hair growth are thyroid hormones responsible for?

anagen

84

What are the causes of hyperestrogenism in both male and female dogs?

female - ovarian cysts or tumors
males - fxnal sertoli cell tumor

85

What type of hypersensitivites cause urticaria?

Type 1 and 3

86

What is the term for a genetic predisposition to inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin dz?

atopy

87

What hypersensitivity and antibody is involved in atopic dermatitis?

type 1
IgE

88

What causes "sweet itch" in horses?

Cullicoides spp

89

What hypersensitivity types are involved in insect bite hypersensitivity?

Type 1 and 4

90

What are the gross lesions associated with insect bite hypersensitivity?

papular to exudative dermatitis and miliary dermatitis(cats)

91

What hypersensitivity is allergic contact dermatitis?

Type 4

92

What are the gross lesions associated with allergic contact dermatitis?

erythema, papules, exudation

93

Which hypersensitivity disorder of the skin could be all 4 types?

drug hypersensitivity

94

What is the pathogenesis of pemphigus foliaceus?

autoantibodies + desmoglein 1 in superficial epidermis resulting in subcorneal pustules

95

What are the histologic lesions associated with pemphigus foliaceus?

acantholytic keratinocytes and subcorneal pustules

96

What are the gross lesions associated with pemphigus vulgaris?

vesiculo-ulcerative lesions of oral mucosa/skin

97

What are the histologic lesions associated with pemphigus vulgaris?

suprabasilar vesicles, pustules, acantholytic keratinocytes and tombstoning of basal cells

98

What causes bullous pemphigoid?

autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins

99

What are the histologic lesions associated with bullous pemphigoid?

subepidermal vesicles and bullae

100

What type hypersensitivity is systemic lupus erythematosus?

type 3

101

What is a diagnostic aid for systemic lupus erythematosus?

elevation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer (ANA is negative in discoid)

102

What organs are involved in discoid lupus erythematosus?

only skin

103

Where do the lesions aoccur in discoid lupus?

nasal planum, dorsal nose, pinna, lips, periocular

104

What disease is associated with numerous apoptotic keratinocytes within multiple layers of the epidermis?

erythema multiforme

105

What is the life threatening form of erythema multiforme that results in full thickness epidermal necrosis?

toxic epidermal necrolysis

106

What is the most pathogenic pox viruses?

sheeppox and goatpox

107

What is the pathogenesis of pox viruses?

stimulation of host DNA causes epidermal and dermal hyperplasia --> vascular injury and ischemic necrosis

108

*What is the order of lesion development of pox viruses?

Macule -->papule-->vesicle-->umbilicated pustule-->crust --> scar

109

What is a diagnostic feature of histologic lesions of pox viruses?

intracytoplasmic eosinophilic viral inclusion bodes

110

What are the 2 dermatotropic herpesviruses?

bovine herpes 2 - ulcerative mammilitis
bovine herpes 4 - mammary pustular dermatitis

111

What does herpes virus infection of endothelial cells cause? What is an example?

vasculitis and cutaneous infarction
malignant catarrhal fever

112

*What is the lesion development order of herpes virus?

vesicle --> ulcer --> crusts

113

What are 2 viruses that cause oncogenesis in the skin?

marek's dz - cutaneous follicular lymphoma
sea turtle fibropapillomatosis

114

What species do sarcoids form most in?

cats
horses - most common skin tumor (bovine papilloma virus)

115

*What are other examples of viruses causing cutaneous lesions?

picorna (FMD), rhabdo, calici, parvo, retro

116

Which species gets the most bacterial skin infections? *Reasons?

dog - thin corneum, low lipid, high pH, genetics

117

What bacteria causes canine superficial pyoderma and deep pyoderma?

staph pseudintermedius

118

What are the gross lesions associated with canine superficial pyoderma?

collarettes
*erythema, macules, papules, pustules, crusts

119

*What are the histologic lesions associated with canine superficial pyoderma?

pustules, serocellular crusts, superficial suppurative luminal follciulitis

120

What bacteria cause impetigo?

S. aureus, intermedius, pseudintermedius, schleiferi

121

What are the gross and histologic lesions seen in impetigo?

gross - multifocal pustules and crusts
histo - NON-FOLLICULAR subcorneal pustules with serocellula crusting

122

What bacteria causes exudative epidermitis of pigs (greasy pig dz)?

Staph hyicus

123

What bacteria causes dermatophilosis (rain rot, rain scald)?

Dermatophilus congolensis
*railroad like, gram positive

124

What are the gross lesions associated with dermatophilosis?

THICK CRUSTS, papules, pustules

125

What bacteria causes ovine fleece rot and what infection can it predispose the sheep to?

Pseudomonas sp.
predispose to myiasis

126

What are the 6 bacterial infections that are superficial?

canine superficial pyoderma, impetigo, canine mucocutaneous pyoderma, greasy pig dz, dermatophilosis, fleece rot

127

What deep bacterial pyoderma causes infection AND foreign body type inflammation?

bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis

128

What species most commonly gets subcutaneous abcessation? *What are the causes?

cats
*causes - puncture, foreign body, injections, shearing, clipping wounds

129

What is the term for suppurative inflammation of the dermis, subcutis, and underlying muscle?

cellullitis

130

What infectious disease of the skin is caused by Strep canis and is life threatening due to septic shock?

necrotizing fasciitis

131

What are the acid fast stains, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fite-Faraco stain good at identifying?

mycobacteria

132

How do mycobacteria survive inside macrophages?

preventing fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes

133

What kind of mycobacterium cause tuberculosis and leprosy?

obligate intracellular pathogens - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. lepraemurium

134

*What filamentous bacteria can cause granulomas?

nocardia, actinomyces, streptomyces

135

*What is non-filamentous bacterial granulomas caused?

botryomycosis

136

What species most commonly gets sterile granuloma and pyogranuloma syndrome?

dogs

137

What species and what age get juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis? What is the pathogenesis?

puppies <4 months
path - unknown

138

What are the 4 mechanisms that sepsis can lead to skin lesions by affecting blood vessels?

1. bacterial embolism
2. toxins
3. direct infection of vascular endothelial cells
4. immune complex (type 3)

139

What bacteria is responsible for creating skin lesions by bacterial embolization? *What is an example of the disease?

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
*diamond skin dz

140

What bacteria causes endotoxin induced venous thrombosis?

septicemic salmonellosis

141

What bacteria produces shiga toxin 2e that leads to endothelial damage, vasculitis, and edema dz of pigs?

E. coli

142

What bacteria produces exotoxin that act as superantigens causing dogs to get toxic shock like syndrome?

Staph aureus

143

What bacteria produces an exotoxin that contributes to vascular damage in necrotizing fasciitis?

Strep canis

144

What bacteria directly infects endothelial cells leading to vasculitis and necrotic skin lesions?

R. rickettsia

145

What fungus causes piedra or trichosporosis or trichomycosis nodularis and causes swelling of extrafollicular hair shaft in dogs and horses?

Trichosporon beigelii (superficial mycoses)

146

What parts of the skin get infected in cutaneous mycoses?

hair follicles, claws, epidermis

147

What 2 organisms cause dermatophytosis? What is another name for this disease?

Microsporum and Trichophyton
Ringworm - cats, young animals

148

What is the histological lesion associated with dermatophytosis?

luminal folliculitis

149

What are gross lesions of a candida infection?

exudative and fibrinous cheilitis, stomatitis, esophagitis, otitis externa

150

What are the gross lesions associated with a Malessezia pachydermatis infection?

erythematous, scaly, lichenified and alopecic dermatitis

151

How can an animal get subcutaneous mycoses? What does it lead to?

caused by traumatic implantation
leads to nodular granulomatous panniculitis and dermatitis

152

What kind of fungi cause eumycotic mycetoma in horses and dogs?

saprophytic fungi

153

What fungi causes dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in persian cats?

microsporum canis

154

What kind of fungi causes phaeohyphomycosis?

pigmented fungi

155

What disease is usually caused by Sporothrix schenkii in cats?

Sporotrichosis

156

What disease is caused by Pythium insidiosum? *What is another name for it?

Pythiosis - aka oomycosis, swamp cancer

157

What are the gross lesions associated with Pythiosis?

necrotizing subQ nodules that ulcerate and drain

158

What are the 4 fungi that cause systemic mycoses causing cutaneous lesions?

Blatomyces dermatitidis
Coccidiodes immitis
Crytococcus neoformans
Histoplasma capsulatum

159

What are the gross lesions associated with systemic mycoses?

nodular skin which may have draining tract

160

What are the 2 algae that can cause pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis?

Protothecosis
Chlorellosis

161

What are the gross and histo lesions of demodicosis?

Gross - scaly erythematous, thickened, alopecic areas
Histo - lymphocytic mural folliculitis and occasional furunculosis

162

What are the gross and histo lesions of scabies?

Gross - same as demodex
Histo - marked acanthosis and hyperkaratosis

163

What mite infection is seen mostly in cats and rabbits and is highly contagious and pruritic?

notoedric mites

164

What is a mite that occurs in external ear canal of dogs and cats?

otodectic mites

165

What 2 mites infect horses, cattle, sheep, goats?

Psoroptic - also rabbits and others
Chorioptic mange

166

What mite occurs in sheep in australia and new zealand?

psorergatic mites

167

What mite infection is by larvae of chigger mites?

trombiculiasis

168

What mite lives on surface of skin and induces hyperkeratosis and detritus on dorsal midline?

cheyletiellosis

169

*What are the terms for biting lice? blood sucking lice?

mallophaga - biting lice
anoplura - blood sucking lice

170

What is the term used for lice induced papules, crusts, excoriations and traumatic hair loss?

pediculosis

171

What lice is a vector for pig disease and can lead to hypersensitivities?

Haemotopinus suis

172

*What is a vector for bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic dz and african horse sickness?

Culicoides sp

173

What helminth is transmitted by house/stable flies and causes nodular ulcerated areas on horses?

cutaneous habronemiasis (summer sores)

174

What 2 filarial dermatitis infections cause granulomatous nodules on the ventral midline of horses? Cows?

Onchocerciasis - horses
Stephanofilariasis - cattle (buffalo, goats)

175

What protozoa infection is endemic in foxhounds in the u.s.?

Leishmania infantum (cutaneous leishmaniasis)

176

What are the gross lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis?

alopecia, nodules, ulcers where sandflies feed

177

What 4 protozoal infections are cutaneous lesions RARELY seen?

toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, sarcocystosis, caryosporosis

178

What epidermal tumor is "pre-malignant" and contains high grade dysplasia without invasiveness?

squamous cell carcinoma in situ

179

*What is a frequent site of metastasis for pulmonary cancer in cats?

digits (feline metastatic pulmonary carcinoma)

180

*What are the 2 malignant follicular neoplasms?

malignant trichoepithelioma
malignant pilomatricoma

181

What non neoplastic malformation composed of dermal collagen is common in dogs?

collagenous hamartoma

182

What rare fibrous neoplastic disorder is seen in german shepherds?

Canine nodular dermatofibrosis

183

What is another name for skin tag?

acrochordon

184

What cell shape is a sarcoid?

spindle

185

What is the name for benign endothelial cell tumor seen with UV radiation?

hemangioma

186

What neoplasia arises from pericytes that surround BV and is similar to fibrosarcoma?

hemangiopericytoma

187

What is a merkel cell tumor?

cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor

188

What are other names for benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor(PNST)?

shwannoma, neurofibroma

189

What tumor is patnaik histologic grading scheme used for to determine prognosis?

canine mast cell tumors

190

What age is canine cutaneous histiocytoma seen? What cells does it arise from?

<3 years
langerhans cells

191

What stages of lesions are seen in epitheliotropic lymphoma?

patch -> plaque -> tumor

192

What sterile granulomatous disease is associated with high cholesterol?

xanthogranuloma

193

What breed gets canine zinc-responsive dermatitis characterized by scaling and crusting on the face?

siberian huskies, malamutes

194

What causes feline paraneoplastic alopecia?

old cats - metastatic pancreatic or biliary carcinoma

195

What tumor causes feline exfoliative dermatitis?

old cats with thymoma, also seen in dogs and rabbits

196

What are 2 other names for canine hepatocutaneous syndrome? What is it associated with?

superficial necrolytic dermatitis, diabetic dermatopathy
associated with deranged nutrient metabolism

197

What breed gets nodular dermatofibrosis?

german shepherds

198

What lesions are seen in paraneoplastic pemphigus?

mucosal to mucocutaneous vesicles/pustules, may present before cancer signs

199

*What adnexal glands open directly onto skin surface and undergo merocrine secretion?

atrichial glands

200

*What glands undergo holocrine secretion (by membrane rupture)?

sebaceous glands

201

*What are the apocrine glands that open into the hair follicle?

epitrichial glands

202

*Which form of hyperkeratosis has anuclear squamous epithelial cells?

orthokeratosis

203

*Which form of hyperkeratosis has nuclei in the squamous cells and is seen with zinc responsive dermatosis?

parakeratosis

204

*What are the 3 subtypes of orthokeratosis?

basket weave, compact, laminated

205

*What 2 diseases can cause pigmentary incontinence?

lupus erythromatosus, vitiligo

206

*What causes calcinosis circupscripta?

idiopathic deposition

207

*What disease causes clumping of melanin pigment and increased hair shaft fragility?

color dilution follicular dysplasia

208

* What is a disease that causes bulbitis?

alopecia areata

209

*What virus causes congenial hypertrichosis?

in utero pestivirus

210

*What bacteria causes impetigo?

coagulase positive staph

211

*What are histo features of canine mucocutaneous pyoderma?

lichenoid inflammation and pigmentary incontinence

212

*What gross lesions do horses develop during bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis?

saddle sores, greasy heel, scratches

213

*What bacteria causes necrotizing fascitis?

Strep canis

214

*What kind of bacteria cause mycobacteriosis?

saprophytic mycobacterium

215

*What is the mild condition, piedra, caused by in dogs and horses?

Trichosporon beigelii

216

*What infection do Pythium insidiosum and Lagenidium sp. cause?

Oomycosis (aquatic dimorphic water molds)

217

*What is the vector for swinepox, ASF, and eperthyrozoon suis?

Haemotopinus suis

218

*What 3 orbiviruses are transmitted by cullicoides?

bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic dz, african horse sickness

219

*What disease do Ancylostoma sp or Uncinaria sp cause?

hookworm dermatitis

220

*Which disease are amastigotes found causing nodular granulomatous and ulcerative dermatitis?

cutaneous leishmaniasis

221

*What are the 2 malignant follicular neoplasms?

malignant trichoepithelioma
malignant pilomatricoma