Flashcards in Path Final - Newton Deck (105):
What defines a true hermaphrodite?
has gonads of both sexes (ovotestes)
What breed of goats get XX sex reversal? (Polled Intersex Syndrome)
saanan and toggenburg
What breed of dog most commonly gets XX sex reversal?
What is an XX sex reversal dog missing?
What is the pathogenesis of androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization of horses)?
1. Androgens produced, but cells has no receptors or can't respond, or
2. lack of 5-alpha-reductase
regression of both Wolffian & Mullerian-duct derived organs
External genitalia is female
What breed of dog gets persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS)?
What are the lesions associated with PMDS?
cryptorchid, persistence of Mullerian ducts
What species most commonly gets ovarian HYPOplasia?
What disease can cause hemoperitoneum and is seen in the follicular cysts of the bitch and atretic follicles of cows?
What virus causes viral oophoritis?
What are paraovarian cysts made of?
remnants of either mesonephric or paramesonephric tubules or ducts
What species most commonly get cystic rete ovarii (cystic tubules)?
bitch and queen
What is the most common intraovarian cyst in the mare?
epithelial inclusion cyst - epithelium trapped during ovulation
What are the different types of cystic ovarian disease?
anovulatory follicles (follicular, leuteinized cysts)
ovulatory follices (cystic corpora lutea)
What defines a follicular cyst (cystic graffian follicle)?
greater than 25 mm, persists longer than 10 days
What is the cause of a follicular cyst and luteal cyst?
failure of mature follicle to rupture and ovulate --> LH release is altered
What defines a luteal cyst?
single, luteal tissue present
What ovarian cyst in cows is non-pathologic?
cystic corpora lutea
What are predisposing factors for ovarian cysts in cattle?
genetics, high milk yields, negative energy balance in early postpartum
What germ cell neoplasm of the ovary is analogous to the seminoma in the testicles?
What species get ovarian teratomas? What do they arise from?
primoridal germ cells
What species get granulosa cell neoplasms in the ovary?
mare and cow
What are some clinical signs of cystadenomas/carcinomas?
bitches - ascites
What is inflammation of the oviduct called?
What is the term for accumulation of pus in the oviduct?
What can cause hydrosalpinx?
obstruction of oviduct lumen by fibrosis, etc
often follows chronic salpingitis
What is perisalpingeal adhesions secondary to?
peritonitis, severe salpingitis
What developmental abnormality is seen of the uterus in shorthorn cattle?
segmental aplasia (white heifer dz)
Where are the fixed points of cow uterus?
What happens in uterine torsion of dogs and cats?
only one horn twists - no intercorneal ligament
What conditions is prolapse of the uterus associated with?
dystocia, uterine atony, retained placenta, milk fever
Where can rupture of the uterus occur?
uterine body adjacent to pelvic brim
When is infection of the uterus most common?
postpartum after abnormal partruition (abortion)
What species gets post coital endometritis?
mares with poor conformation
What is it called when all layers of the uterine wall are infected?
What is the term for inflammation of uterine serosa?
What is the term for inflammation of the uterine suspensory ligaments?
What conditions is atrophy of the uterus associated with?
inactive ovaries, pituatary problems, old age, seasonal
What species most commonly get hyperplasia of the uterus (3)?
dog, cat, sheep
What are the different causes of hyperestrogenism leading to uterine hyperplasia in each species?
Ewe - estrogenic pasture
Cow - cystic follicles, granulosa cell tumor, estrogenic pasture
sow - mycotoxin in feed
What are the causes of hyperPROGesterone leading to uterine hyperplasia in different species?
dog - retained CL, pseudopregnancy, iatrogenic
cat - retained CL
dog, cat, mares - ovarian tumors
What term is used for the hyperplastic growth of endometrial glands seen in dogs?
What is the term for a pedunculated growth that is rare in old dogs and cats in the uterus?
What is the term for endometrium implanting in the peritoneal cavitiy and happens in primates?
What is a secondary lesion commonly seen with cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch?
Which species gets subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS)?
What are the clinical signs of subinvolution of placental sites?
discharge (lochia) that lasts to weeks to moonths, presistence of placental trophoblasts
What are pathological changes that can be seen inn a endometrial biopsy of a mare?
damage, inflammation, fibrosis, dilated lymphatics, cystic glands, atrophy
What type of uterine neoplasm do bitches get?
What 2 uterine neoplasms is most commonly seen in the cow?
What abnormalities of development of the cervix are commonly seen in the dog?
double cervix, bifuracated cervical canal, dilates, diverticula
What development anomaly of the vagina is caused by a non-patent connection of mullerian duct with the urogenital sinus?
What development abnormality forms a tortuous tube in the lateral floor of the vagina between cervix and urethral opening?
persistent mesonephric ducts (gartner's ducts)
When can vestibular glands of the vagina become cystic?
when obstruction of their opening
What neoplasm can arise in smooth muscle of the uterus, cervix, or vagina in the bitch?
What species get squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva?
cows, ewes, mares
What are the 2 anatomical defenses against mammary diseases?
teat end sphincter
keratin lining of teat canal - bacteriostatic substances and cationic proteins
What are the 4 soluble factors that aid in defense against mammary disease?
Lysozyme (cleaves peptidoglycans)
lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system (bacteriostatic)
What are the 4 contagious mastitis bacteria? (transmitted thru milking machines)
Which contagious mastitis bacteria forms clots and flakes in forestrippings of milk?
Which contagious mastitis causes loss of milk production due to fibrosis?
What can cause environmental coliform mastitis?
E.coli and Klebsiella spp.
What are the 4 types of environmental mastitis in cattle?
Coag - staph
Summer mastitis Trueperella pyogenes
What type of environmental mastitis is a common cause of abcess? Where do the abcesses occur?
Summer mastitis - Trueperella pyogenes
large and small lactiferous ducts
What bacteria cause subclinical mastitis in small ruminants?
coag - staph
What are 4 bacteria that cause clinical mastitis in small ruminants?
What are the 3 common agents that cause canine mastitis?
staph, strep, e. coli
Which species has the highest incidence of mammary gland neoplasia? Are they usually benign or malignant?
What kind of neoplams do cats get in their mammary gland?
carcinoma (dont buy a big bag of food-lol!)
What may look like a mammary gland neoplasm in young intact female cats?
What kind of cryptorchid is more likely to develop a sertoli cell tumor? What about a seminoma?
Sertoli - abdominal
seminoma - inguinal
When can you diagnose a testicle as "hypoplastic"?
not until puberty
What are some causes of hypoplastic testicles?
zinc deficiency, cytogenetic abnormalities, endocrine deficiences
What cytogenetic abnormality do tricolor male cats have?
klinefelter syndrome - XXY
What is the most common cause of infertility in the male animal?
What changes do atrophying testicles go through?
initial edema -->death of cells in seminiferous tubules
How can you tell the difference between a hypoplastic and atrophied testical?
hypoplastic is freely moveable in scrotum
What are some of the important causes of testicular atrophy in regards to nutrition?
obesity, Vit A deficiency, Zinc deficiency
What does the regeneration of testicular damage depend on? (2) How long does it actually take?
persistance of spermatogonia and sertoli cells
What 2 stromal tumors can occur in the testicle?
leydig cell tumor (interstitial)
sertoli cell tumor
What are the 3 conditions are associated with sertoli cell tumors?
feminization, prostatic dz, bone marrow suppression
What 2 germ cell tumors can develop in the testes?
What is the term for dilation and tortuosity of the spermatic veins? Which species?
varicocele - rams
What is the term for inflammation of the spermatic cord?
funiculitis - during castration
What is the primary developmental anomly affecting the seminal vesicles and ampullae?
segmental aplasia or hypoplasia of mesonephric duct (wolffian)
What species is seminal vesiculitis most important in?
What can cause bulbourethral metaplasia in male sheep?
grazing clover pastures high in phytoestrogens
What species is prostatic disease only important in?
What type of hyperplasia does androgen cause to the prostate?
What type of hypertrophy does estrogen cause to the prostate?
What causes squamous metaplasia of the prostate in dogs?
excess estrogen - most commonly a sertoli tumor
What problem can happen in acute prostatitis? chronic?
acute - abscesses
chronic - fibrosis
What is the most common neoplasm in the prostate of old dogs?
What is the term for failure of the urogenital groove on the VENTRAL surface of the penis to close?
What is the term for failure of closure of the urogenital groove on DORSAL surface of penis?
What causes penile hematomas?
rupture of tunica albugenia in bulls during mating
What are some causes of phimosis?
preputial opening too small, penis too large, developmental, neoplasm
What is the term for inflammation of the penis?
What is the term for inflammation of the preputial epithelium?
What virus causes infectious balanoposthitis?
bovine herpes 1
What virus causes equine coital exanthema?
equine herpesvirus 3
What parasite can cause eosinophilic granulomatous inlammation in the penis?
What bacteria causes pizzle rot in wethers?
What penis tumor invades the sheath and penis of aged horses?
squamous cell carcinoma