Path Final - Newton Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Path Final - Newton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Path Final - Newton Deck (105):
1

What defines a true hermaphrodite?

has gonads of both sexes (ovotestes)

2

What breed of goats get XX sex reversal? (Polled Intersex Syndrome)

saanan and toggenburg

3

What breed of dog most commonly gets XX sex reversal?

cocker spaniel

4

What is an XX sex reversal dog missing?

SRY gene

5

What is the pathogenesis of androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization of horses)?

1. Androgens produced, but cells has no receptors or can't respond, or
2. lack of 5-alpha-reductase
regression of both Wolffian & Mullerian-duct derived organs
External genitalia is female

6

What breed of dog gets persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS)?

mini schnauzers

7

What are the lesions associated with PMDS?

cryptorchid, persistence of Mullerian ducts

8

What species most commonly gets ovarian HYPOplasia?

Cattle
(Swedish Highland)

9

What disease can cause hemoperitoneum and is seen in the follicular cysts of the bitch and atretic follicles of cows?

intrafollicular hemorrhage

10

What virus causes viral oophoritis?

BVD

11

What are paraovarian cysts made of?

remnants of either mesonephric or paramesonephric tubules or ducts

12

What species most commonly get cystic rete ovarii (cystic tubules)?

bitch and queen

13

What is the most common intraovarian cyst in the mare?

epithelial inclusion cyst - epithelium trapped during ovulation

14

What are the different types of cystic ovarian disease?

anovulatory follicles (follicular, leuteinized cysts)
ovulatory follices (cystic corpora lutea)

15

What defines a follicular cyst (cystic graffian follicle)?

greater than 25 mm, persists longer than 10 days

16

What is the cause of a follicular cyst and luteal cyst?

failure of mature follicle to rupture and ovulate --> LH release is altered

17

What defines a luteal cyst?

single, luteal tissue present

18

What ovarian cyst in cows is non-pathologic?

cystic corpora lutea

19

What are predisposing factors for ovarian cysts in cattle?

genetics, high milk yields, negative energy balance in early postpartum

20

What germ cell neoplasm of the ovary is analogous to the seminoma in the testicles?

dysgerminoma

21

What species get ovarian teratomas? What do they arise from?

bitches
primoridal germ cells

22

What species get granulosa cell neoplasms in the ovary?

mare and cow

23

What are some clinical signs of cystadenomas/carcinomas?

bitches - ascites
sometimes bilateral

24

What is inflammation of the oviduct called?

salpingitis

25

What is the term for accumulation of pus in the oviduct?

pyosalpinx

26

What can cause hydrosalpinx?

obstruction of oviduct lumen by fibrosis, etc
often follows chronic salpingitis

27

What is perisalpingeal adhesions secondary to?

peritonitis, severe salpingitis

28

What developmental abnormality is seen of the uterus in shorthorn cattle?

segmental aplasia (white heifer dz)

29

Where are the fixed points of cow uterus?

mesovarium, cervix

30

What happens in uterine torsion of dogs and cats?

only one horn twists - no intercorneal ligament

31

What conditions is prolapse of the uterus associated with?

dystocia, uterine atony, retained placenta, milk fever

32

Where can rupture of the uterus occur?

uterine body adjacent to pelvic brim

33

When is infection of the uterus most common?

postpartum after abnormal partruition (abortion)

34

What species gets post coital endometritis?

mares with poor conformation

35

What is it called when all layers of the uterine wall are infected?

metritis

36

What is the term for inflammation of uterine serosa?

perimetritis

37

What is the term for inflammation of the uterine suspensory ligaments?

parametritis

38

What conditions is atrophy of the uterus associated with?

inactive ovaries, pituatary problems, old age, seasonal

39

What species most commonly get hyperplasia of the uterus (3)?

dog, cat, sheep

40

What are the different causes of hyperestrogenism leading to uterine hyperplasia in each species?

Ewe - estrogenic pasture
Cow - cystic follicles, granulosa cell tumor, estrogenic pasture
sow - mycotoxin in feed

41

What are the causes of hyperPROGesterone leading to uterine hyperplasia in different species?

dog - retained CL, pseudopregnancy, iatrogenic
cat - retained CL
dog, cat, mares - ovarian tumors

42

What term is used for the hyperplastic growth of endometrial glands seen in dogs?

adenomyosis

43

What is the term for a pedunculated growth that is rare in old dogs and cats in the uterus?

endometrial polyp

44

What is the term for endometrium implanting in the peritoneal cavitiy and happens in primates?

endometriosis

45

What is a secondary lesion commonly seen with cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch?

pyometra

46

Which species gets subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS)?

bitch

47

What are the clinical signs of subinvolution of placental sites?

discharge (lochia) that lasts to weeks to moonths, presistence of placental trophoblasts

48

What are pathological changes that can be seen inn a endometrial biopsy of a mare?

damage, inflammation, fibrosis, dilated lymphatics, cystic glands, atrophy

49

What type of uterine neoplasm do bitches get?

leiomyoma/sarcoma

50

What 2 uterine neoplasms is most commonly seen in the cow?

adenocarcinoma, lymphosarcoma

51

What abnormalities of development of the cervix are commonly seen in the dog?

double cervix, bifuracated cervical canal, dilates, diverticula

52

What development anomaly of the vagina is caused by a non-patent connection of mullerian duct with the urogenital sinus?

imperforate hymen

53

What development abnormality forms a tortuous tube in the lateral floor of the vagina between cervix and urethral opening?

persistent mesonephric ducts (gartner's ducts)

54

When can vestibular glands of the vagina become cystic?

when obstruction of their opening

55

What neoplasm can arise in smooth muscle of the uterus, cervix, or vagina in the bitch?

leiomyoma

56

What species get squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva?

cows, ewes, mares

57

What are the 2 anatomical defenses against mammary diseases?

teat end sphincter
keratin lining of teat canal - bacteriostatic substances and cationic proteins

58

What are the 4 soluble factors that aid in defense against mammary disease?

Lysozyme (cleaves peptidoglycans)
lactoferrin
lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system (bacteriostatic)
complement

59

What are the 4 contagious mastitis bacteria? (transmitted thru milking machines)

Streptococcus agalactiae
Strep dysgalactiae
Staph aureus
Mycoplasma spp.

60

Which contagious mastitis bacteria forms clots and flakes in forestrippings of milk?

Strep dysgalactiae

61

Which contagious mastitis causes loss of milk production due to fibrosis?

Streptococcus agalactiae

62

What can cause environmental coliform mastitis?

E.coli and Klebsiella spp.

63

What are the 4 types of environmental mastitis in cattle?

Coliform
Strep uberis
Coag - staph
Summer mastitis Trueperella pyogenes

64

What type of environmental mastitis is a common cause of abcess? Where do the abcesses occur?

Summer mastitis - Trueperella pyogenes
large and small lactiferous ducts

65

What bacteria cause subclinical mastitis in small ruminants?

coag - staph

66

What are 4 bacteria that cause clinical mastitis in small ruminants?

Staph aureus
Mannhemia hemolytica
Coliforms
mycoplasma agalactiae

67

What are the 3 common agents that cause canine mastitis?

staph, strep, e. coli

68

Which species has the highest incidence of mammary gland neoplasia? Are they usually benign or malignant?

dogs
benign

69

What kind of neoplams do cats get in their mammary gland?

carcinoma (dont buy a big bag of food-lol!)

70

What may look like a mammary gland neoplasm in young intact female cats?

fibroadenomatous hyperplasia

71

What kind of cryptorchid is more likely to develop a sertoli cell tumor? What about a seminoma?

Sertoli - abdominal
seminoma - inguinal

72

When can you diagnose a testicle as "hypoplastic"?

not until puberty

73

What are some causes of hypoplastic testicles?

zinc deficiency, cytogenetic abnormalities, endocrine deficiences

74

What cytogenetic abnormality do tricolor male cats have?

klinefelter syndrome - XXY

75

What is the most common cause of infertility in the male animal?

testicular atrophy

76

What changes do atrophying testicles go through?

initial edema -->death of cells in seminiferous tubules

77

How can you tell the difference between a hypoplastic and atrophied testical?

hypoplastic is freely moveable in scrotum

78

What are some of the important causes of testicular atrophy in regards to nutrition?

obesity, Vit A deficiency, Zinc deficiency

79

What does the regeneration of testicular damage depend on? (2) How long does it actually take?

persistance of spermatogonia and sertoli cells
3-6 months

80

What 2 stromal tumors can occur in the testicle?

leydig cell tumor (interstitial)
sertoli cell tumor

81

What are the 3 conditions are associated with sertoli cell tumors?

feminization, prostatic dz, bone marrow suppression

82

What 2 germ cell tumors can develop in the testes?

Seminoma, teratoma

83

What is the term for dilation and tortuosity of the spermatic veins? Which species?

varicocele - rams

84

What is the term for inflammation of the spermatic cord?

funiculitis - during castration

85

What is the primary developmental anomly affecting the seminal vesicles and ampullae?

segmental aplasia or hypoplasia of mesonephric duct (wolffian)

86

What species is seminal vesiculitis most important in?

bull

87

What can cause bulbourethral metaplasia in male sheep?

grazing clover pastures high in phytoestrogens

88

What species is prostatic disease only important in?

dogs

89

What type of hyperplasia does androgen cause to the prostate?

acinar hyperplasia

90

What type of hypertrophy does estrogen cause to the prostate?

fibromuscular hypertrophy

91

What causes squamous metaplasia of the prostate in dogs?

excess estrogen - most commonly a sertoli tumor

92

What problem can happen in acute prostatitis? chronic?

acute - abscesses
chronic - fibrosis

93

What is the most common neoplasm in the prostate of old dogs?

adenocarcinoma

94

What is the term for failure of the urogenital groove on the VENTRAL surface of the penis to close?

hypospadia

95

What is the term for failure of closure of the urogenital groove on DORSAL surface of penis?

epispadias

96

What causes penile hematomas?

rupture of tunica albugenia in bulls during mating

97

What are some causes of phimosis?

preputial opening too small, penis too large, developmental, neoplasm

98

What is the term for inflammation of the penis?

balanitis

99

What is the term for inflammation of the preputial epithelium?

posthitis

100

What virus causes infectious balanoposthitis?

bovine herpes 1

101

What virus causes equine coital exanthema?

equine herpesvirus 3

102

What parasite can cause eosinophilic granulomatous inlammation in the penis?

cutaneous habronemiasis

103

What bacteria causes pizzle rot in wethers?

Corynebacterium renale

104

What penis tumor invades the sheath and penis of aged horses?

squamous cell carcinoma

105

What neoplasm can be seen in young bulls?

fibropapillomas