Flashcards in Path Final - Urinary TS Deck (96):
What part of the golmerulus supports the capillaries and is composed of glycoprotein matrix?
mesanguim, mesangial cells (smooth muscle cells)
What cells are visceral epithelial cells that participate in glomerular filtration?
What is the order of vasculature in the kidney?
renal artery -> interlobar -> arcuate -> interlobular ->afferent golmerular -> capillaries ->efferent ->preitubular capillary network
What kidney arteries are more susceptible to embolism?
*What roles do kidneys play in endocrine fxn? (4)
renin-angiotensin aldosterone - sodium
vitamin d conversion
degradation of PTH
What hormone stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland and ADH release from post. pituatary?
What 3 things do interstitial fibroblasts produce?
EPO, prostaglandins, inflammatory mediators
What is the functional reserve percentage for the kidney?
75% (then azotemia occurs)
What is the term for elevated serum concentration of urea and creatinine?
What syndrome is characterized by numerous lesions and CS caused by urea in blood with renal failure?
What are the 2 systemic lesion mechanisms caused by uremia?
1. uremic vasculopathy - vasculitis, thrombosis
2. uremic toxicity - caustic injury to mucosa due to ammonia by bacteria
What are some additional systemic non renal lesions associated with uremic syndrome?
ulcerative colitis, vascular thrombosis, fibrinous pericarditis, pulmonary edema, endocardial mineralization, intercostal minerlization
What are the 3 mechanisms in which renal failure can cause death?
cardiotoxicity of potassium
What are 2 causes of prerenal acute kidney failure due to imparied renal perfusion?
What are the 2 clinical presentations of acute tubular necrosis?
What 2 ways can acute tubular necrosis lead to further renal injury?
leakage of tubular ultrafiltrate
intratubular obstruction from sloughing - tubular casts
What bacteria and viruses can cause acute tubular necrosis?
bacteria - lepto, e coli, strep, staph, proteus
virus - canine hepatitis, canine distemper, canine herpes
What is the most important barrier in the kidney?
glomerular basement membrane of renal corpuscle
What part of the kidney prevents ascending bacteria from gaining access to the interstitum?
Which tubular injury usually leaves the basement membrane intact to regenerate?
toxic injury (ischemic injury - no BM)
What is the single most important cause of acute renal failure in animals? What is it caused by?
acute tubular necrosis
ischemia or nephrotoxicity
What is the term for a form of acute tubular necrosis that is not caused by inflammation? What is it caused by?
hypoxic combined with nephrotoxic injury
What are the gross lesions of acute tubular necrosis?
swollen pale cortex that bulges, striations or white streaks
What is the most common interstitial response to leptospira infection?
What are 3 examples of infectious interstitial nephritis?
canine ehrlichiosis, lepto, EIA
What kind of necrosis happens during kidney infarction?
What kidney dysplasia is seen in lhasa apso, shih tzu and golden retrievers?
juvenile progressive nephropathy
What species get renal cysts most often?
cattle and pigs - no clinical significance
What breeds get polycystic kidney disease?
persian cats and bull terriers
What is the disease associated with fibrosis of the glomerulus caused by high blood pressure and high protein diet?
What breeds are genetically predisposed to glomerular amyloidosis?
abyssinian cats and chinese shar peis
What stain is used for amyloid?
congo red stain
What are examples of bacterial embolic nephritis causes in foals, pigs, sheep, and cattle?
foal - actinobacillus equuli
pigs - erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
sheep - corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
cattle - trueperlla pyogenes
What viruses cause viral glomerulitis?
canine hepatitis, equine arteritis, classical swine fever, newcastle, neonatal porcine cytomegalovirus
What are 4 drugs that cause chemical glomerulitis?
What developmental disease results in abnormal brush border membrane of PCT?
basenji dog fanconi syndrome
What breed gets primary renal glucosuria?
What are some hemolytic compounds that can cause hemoglobinuric nephrosis in different species?
sheep - copper toxicity
cattle - lepto or babesia
dogs - IMHA, babesia
horses - red maple toxicity
What are some conditions that cause myoglobinuric nephrosis by causing acute muscle necrosis?
Extertional myopathy in horses
severe muscle trauma
What histologic changes are seen in acute tubular necrosis caused by heavy metals?
intranuclear inclusion bodies
What 4 types of drugs cause acute tubular necrosis?
antimicrobials, NSAIDs, immunosuppressive drugs, antineoplastics
How do NSAIDs cause acute tubular necrosis?
decrease prostaglandins that maintain blood flow - ischemic injury
can also cause renal papillary necrosis
What mycotoxin causes acute tubular necrosis?
What are the plant toxins that can cause acute tubular necrosis?
pigweed, oxalate rich plants, grapes, lillies, oak
What are the 2 pet food contaminants that cause acute tubular necrosis?
melamine and cyanuric acid
What nephrotoxic metabolites cause oxalate nephrosis and acute tubular necrosis?
oxalate and glycolic acid
How does vitamin D toxicosis lead to acute tubular necrosis?
hypercalcemia - metastatic minerilzation
Which bacteria causes acute tubular necrosis by enteric proliferation and producing epsilon exotoxin?
Clostridium perfringes type D
What lesions are seen in bacterial toxin induced acute tubular necrosis?
bilateral acute tubular degeneration with interstitial edema and hemorrhage
What is the name for bacterial toxin induced acute tubular necrosis in small ruminants?
What is the term for dilation of the renal pelvis due to obbstruction of urine outflow?
What are gross and micro lesions associated with pyelonephritis?
gross - expansion by pus
micro - suppurative inflammation of pelvis and medulla with necrotic transitional epithelium
What causes papillary necrosis?
ischemic injury caused by NSAIDs
Hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, and papillary necrosis are all diseases of what part of the kidney?
Granulomatous nephritis, xanthogranulomas, and renal amyloidosis are all diseases of what part of the kidney?
Which breed most commonly gets renal interstitial amyloidosis?
What is the most common primary renal neoplasm of the kidney? Who gets it the most?
older dogs - german shepherds
What disease is renal carcinomas in german shepherds associated with?
What epithelial tumor in the urinary system has a very high metastatic potential?
transitional cell carcinoma (usually in bladder)
What embryonal tumor of the kidney is common in pigs?
What is a common neoplasm that metastasizes to the kidney?
What 2 invasive tumors can invade the kidney?
What is the most common malformation of the urinary bladder?
patent urachus - seen in foals
What is the most essential precursor to initiation of crystal and urolith formation?
supersaturation of urine with mineral salts and proetin
Which crystal is known as "infection calculi" and occurs normally in mini schnauzers?
What crystal is found normally in horses, rabbits, and goats and doesnt indicate dz?
What crystal is seen in dalmations and no clinical interpretation can be made?
What crystal is seen normally in domestic animals but rarely seen in ethylene glycol toxicity?
calcium oxalate dihydrate
What crystals are shaped like a picket fence and seen in acute renal failure and ethylene glycol toxicosis?
calcium oxalate monohydrate
What crystal is common in small animals with portal vascular anomalies? Which breeds are predisposed to them?
seen in dalmations and bulldogs
Which crystal is favored in acidic urine and may have a sex linked inheritance for predisposition?
What is the most common example of a drug associated crystal?
trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, not associated with renal dz
What is the most common cause of obstructive uropathy? *What can it predispose the animal to?
*injury, bacterial cystitis, pyelonephritis, chronic inflammatory dz
*Infections of what bacteria/viruses cause tubulointerstitial nephritis?
lepto, adenovirus, lentivirus, herpes
*Which causes a larger infarct? Arcuate or interlobular artery?
*What 2 species are ectopic kidneys most commonly found?
dogs and pigs
*What disease causes enlarged glomeruli that look like red pin point foci in the cortex grossly?
immune mediated golmerulonephritis
*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesions in horse?
proliferative glomerulonephritis - increased cells
*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesions in the cat?
membranous glomerulonephritis - thickened BM
*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesion in dogs?
*What condition is associated with reactive amyloidosis (AA) and occurs with chronic inflammatory dzs?
*What 2 fungi can cause acute tubular necrosis?
aspergillus and penicillum
*What 2 viruses cause granulomatous nephritis?
FIP, porcine circovirus
*What 3 fungi cause granulmatous nephritis?
Aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, encephalitozoonosis
*What are the 3 morphological types of chronic cystitis?
diffuse, lymphofollicular, polypoid
*What protozoa infects the kidneys but usually leaves renal fxn alone?
*What are 3 common bacteria to cause emboliic nephritis?
E coli, salmonlla, brucella
*What 3 leptospira serovars cause interstitial nephritis?
hardjo, pomona, grippotyphosa
*What is the disease caused by bracken fern in cattle kidney?
enzootic hematuria - hemolysis, BM damage, immunosuppression
*What 3 leptospira serovars cause significant clinical dz in pigs?
pomona, tarassovi, australis
*What strongyloid nematode migrates to the kidney after cycling through the liver in pigs?
Stephanurus dentatus (kidney worm)
*What virus of pigs causes viral interstitial nephritis?
*What 2 leptospira serovars are found in dogs?
icterohaemorrhagiae and canicola
*What disease in cats is usually associated with urethral obstruction by calculi in males?
hemorrhagic urocystitis (feline urologic syndrome)
*What are the 3 toxicosis of cats that cause tubulointerstitial nephritis?
melamine, cyanuric acid, lillies