Path Final - Urinary TS Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Path Final - Urinary TS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Path Final - Urinary TS Deck (96):
1

What part of the golmerulus supports the capillaries and is composed of glycoprotein matrix?

mesanguim, mesangial cells (smooth muscle cells)

2

What cells are visceral epithelial cells that participate in glomerular filtration?

podocytes

3

What is the order of vasculature in the kidney?

renal artery -> interlobar -> arcuate -> interlobular ->afferent golmerular -> capillaries ->efferent ->preitubular capillary network

4

What kidney arteries are more susceptible to embolism?

interlobular arteries

5

*What roles do kidneys play in endocrine fxn? (4)

renin-angiotensin aldosterone - sodium
erythropoietin
vitamin d conversion
degradation of PTH

6

What hormone stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland and ADH release from post. pituatary?

angiotensin 2

7

What 3 things do interstitial fibroblasts produce?

EPO, prostaglandins, inflammatory mediators

8

What is the functional reserve percentage for the kidney?

75% (then azotemia occurs)

9

What is the term for elevated serum concentration of urea and creatinine?

azotemia

10

What syndrome is characterized by numerous lesions and CS caused by urea in blood with renal failure?

uremia

11

What are the 2 systemic lesion mechanisms caused by uremia?

1. uremic vasculopathy - vasculitis, thrombosis
2. uremic toxicity - caustic injury to mucosa due to ammonia by bacteria

12

What are some additional systemic non renal lesions associated with uremic syndrome?

ulcerative colitis, vascular thrombosis, fibrinous pericarditis, pulmonary edema, endocardial mineralization, intercostal minerlization

13

What are the 3 mechanisms in which renal failure can cause death?

cardiotoxicity of potassium
metabolic acidosis
pulmonary edema

14

What are 2 causes of prerenal acute kidney failure due to imparied renal perfusion?

circulatory collapse
renal ischemia

15

What are the 2 clinical presentations of acute tubular necrosis?

oliguria, anuria

16

What 2 ways can acute tubular necrosis lead to further renal injury?

leakage of tubular ultrafiltrate
intratubular obstruction from sloughing - tubular casts

17

What bacteria and viruses can cause acute tubular necrosis?

bacteria - lepto, e coli, strep, staph, proteus
virus - canine hepatitis, canine distemper, canine herpes

18

What is the most important barrier in the kidney?

glomerular basement membrane of renal corpuscle

19

What part of the kidney prevents ascending bacteria from gaining access to the interstitum?

tubular BM

20

Which tubular injury usually leaves the basement membrane intact to regenerate?

toxic injury (ischemic injury - no BM)

21

What is the single most important cause of acute renal failure in animals? What is it caused by?

acute tubular necrosis
ischemia or nephrotoxicity

22

What is the term for a form of acute tubular necrosis that is not caused by inflammation? What is it caused by?

nephrosis
hypoxic combined with nephrotoxic injury

23

What are the gross lesions of acute tubular necrosis?

swollen pale cortex that bulges, striations or white streaks

24

What is the most common interstitial response to leptospira infection?

lymphofollicular inflammation

25

What are 3 examples of infectious interstitial nephritis?

canine ehrlichiosis, lepto, EIA

26

What kind of necrosis happens during kidney infarction?

coagulative

27

What kidney dysplasia is seen in lhasa apso, shih tzu and golden retrievers?

juvenile progressive nephropathy

28

What species get renal cysts most often?

cattle and pigs - no clinical significance

29

What breeds get polycystic kidney disease?

persian cats and bull terriers

30

What is the disease associated with fibrosis of the glomerulus caused by high blood pressure and high protein diet?

golmerulosclerosis

31

What breeds are genetically predisposed to glomerular amyloidosis?

abyssinian cats and chinese shar peis

32

What stain is used for amyloid?

congo red stain

33

What are examples of bacterial embolic nephritis causes in foals, pigs, sheep, and cattle?

foal - actinobacillus equuli
pigs - erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
sheep - corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
cattle - trueperlla pyogenes

34

What viruses cause viral glomerulitis?

canine hepatitis, equine arteritis, classical swine fever, newcastle, neonatal porcine cytomegalovirus

35

What are 4 drugs that cause chemical glomerulitis?

puromycin aminonucleoside
adriamycin
histamine antagonists
cyclosporin A

36

What developmental disease results in abnormal brush border membrane of PCT?

basenji dog fanconi syndrome

37

What breed gets primary renal glucosuria?

norwegian elkhounds

38

What are some hemolytic compounds that can cause hemoglobinuric nephrosis in different species?

sheep - copper toxicity
cattle - lepto or babesia
dogs - IMHA, babesia
horses - red maple toxicity

39

What are some conditions that cause myoglobinuric nephrosis by causing acute muscle necrosis?

Extertional myopathy in horses
Capture myopathy
severe muscle trauma

40

What histologic changes are seen in acute tubular necrosis caused by heavy metals?

intranuclear inclusion bodies

41

What 4 types of drugs cause acute tubular necrosis?

antimicrobials, NSAIDs, immunosuppressive drugs, antineoplastics

42

How do NSAIDs cause acute tubular necrosis?

decrease prostaglandins that maintain blood flow - ischemic injury
can also cause renal papillary necrosis

43

What mycotoxin causes acute tubular necrosis?

aflatoxin

44

What are the plant toxins that can cause acute tubular necrosis?

pigweed, oxalate rich plants, grapes, lillies, oak

45

What are the 2 pet food contaminants that cause acute tubular necrosis?

melamine and cyanuric acid

46

What nephrotoxic metabolites cause oxalate nephrosis and acute tubular necrosis?

oxalate and glycolic acid

47

How does vitamin D toxicosis lead to acute tubular necrosis?

hypercalcemia - metastatic minerilzation

48

Which bacteria causes acute tubular necrosis by enteric proliferation and producing epsilon exotoxin?

Clostridium perfringes type D

49

What lesions are seen in bacterial toxin induced acute tubular necrosis?

bilateral acute tubular degeneration with interstitial edema and hemorrhage

50

What is the name for bacterial toxin induced acute tubular necrosis in small ruminants?

pulpy kidney

51

What is the term for dilation of the renal pelvis due to obbstruction of urine outflow?

hydronephrosis

52

What are gross and micro lesions associated with pyelonephritis?

gross - expansion by pus
micro - suppurative inflammation of pelvis and medulla with necrotic transitional epithelium

53

What causes papillary necrosis?

ischemic injury caused by NSAIDs

54

Hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, and papillary necrosis are all diseases of what part of the kidney?

renal pelvis

55

Granulomatous nephritis, xanthogranulomas, and renal amyloidosis are all diseases of what part of the kidney?

interstitum

56

Which breed most commonly gets renal interstitial amyloidosis?

abyssinian cats

57

What is the most common primary renal neoplasm of the kidney? Who gets it the most?

renal carcinoma
older dogs - german shepherds

58

What disease is renal carcinomas in german shepherds associated with?

nodular dermatofibrosis

59

What epithelial tumor in the urinary system has a very high metastatic potential?

transitional cell carcinoma (usually in bladder)

60

What embryonal tumor of the kidney is common in pigs?

nephroblastoma

61

What is a common neoplasm that metastasizes to the kidney?

renal lymphoma

62

What 2 invasive tumors can invade the kidney?

pheochromocytoma
adrenocortical carcinoma

63

What is the most common malformation of the urinary bladder?

patent urachus - seen in foals

64

What is the most essential precursor to initiation of crystal and urolith formation?

supersaturation of urine with mineral salts and proetin

65

Which crystal is known as "infection calculi" and occurs normally in mini schnauzers?

struvite

66

What crystal is found normally in horses, rabbits, and goats and doesnt indicate dz?

calcium carbonate

67

What crystal is seen in dalmations and no clinical interpretation can be made?

amorphous

68

What crystal is seen normally in domestic animals but rarely seen in ethylene glycol toxicity?

calcium oxalate dihydrate

69

What crystals are shaped like a picket fence and seen in acute renal failure and ethylene glycol toxicosis?

calcium oxalate monohydrate

70

What crystal is common in small animals with portal vascular anomalies? Which breeds are predisposed to them?

ammonium biurate
seen in dalmations and bulldogs

71

Which crystal is favored in acidic urine and may have a sex linked inheritance for predisposition?

cysteine crystal

72

What is the most common example of a drug associated crystal?

trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, not associated with renal dz

73

What is the most common cause of obstructive uropathy? *What can it predispose the animal to?

urolithiasis
*injury, bacterial cystitis, pyelonephritis, chronic inflammatory dz

74

*Infections of what bacteria/viruses cause tubulointerstitial nephritis?

lepto, adenovirus, lentivirus, herpes

75

*Which causes a larger infarct? Arcuate or interlobular artery?

arcuate

76

*What 2 species are ectopic kidneys most commonly found?

dogs and pigs

77

*What disease causes enlarged glomeruli that look like red pin point foci in the cortex grossly?

immune mediated golmerulonephritis

78

*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesions in horse?

proliferative glomerulonephritis - increased cells

79

*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesions in the cat?

membranous glomerulonephritis - thickened BM

80

*What is the most common type of IM glomerulonephritis histo lesion in dogs?

Membrano-proliferative

81

*What condition is associated with reactive amyloidosis (AA) and occurs with chronic inflammatory dzs?

glomerular amyloidosis

82

*What 2 fungi can cause acute tubular necrosis?

aspergillus and penicillum

83

*What 2 viruses cause granulomatous nephritis?

FIP, porcine circovirus

84

*What 3 fungi cause granulmatous nephritis?

Aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, encephalitozoonosis

85

*What are the 3 morphological types of chronic cystitis?

diffuse, lymphofollicular, polypoid

86

*What protozoa infects the kidneys but usually leaves renal fxn alone?

Klossiella equi

87

*What are 3 common bacteria to cause emboliic nephritis?

E coli, salmonlla, brucella

88

*What 3 leptospira serovars cause interstitial nephritis?

hardjo, pomona, grippotyphosa

89

*What is the disease caused by bracken fern in cattle kidney?

enzootic hematuria - hemolysis, BM damage, immunosuppression

90

*What 3 leptospira serovars cause significant clinical dz in pigs?

pomona, tarassovi, australis

91

*What strongyloid nematode migrates to the kidney after cycling through the liver in pigs?

Stephanurus dentatus (kidney worm)

92

*What virus of pigs causes viral interstitial nephritis?

circovirus (PMWS)

93

*What 2 leptospira serovars are found in dogs?

icterohaemorrhagiae and canicola

94

*What disease in cats is usually associated with urethral obstruction by calculi in males?

hemorrhagic urocystitis (feline urologic syndrome)

95

*What are the 3 toxicosis of cats that cause tubulointerstitial nephritis?

melamine, cyanuric acid, lillies

96

*What causes parasitism of the kidney of dogs resulting in hemorrhagic and purulent pyelitis?

Dioctophyma renale (giant kidney worm)