Category A: Nutrition--DONE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Category A: Nutrition--DONE Deck (333)
1

How much water will a 1000 pound horse drink per day?

6-12 gallons.

2

In extremely cold weather, which will produce more body heat when eaten, hay or grain?

Hay produces more heat.

3

What is the most important factor affecting the quality of a forage at the time of harvesting?

Stage of maturity.

4

What are the 2 basic classifications of forages?

Legumes and grasses.

5

What is the most common method used to process forages?

Baling.

6

What is the oldest & most common method of selecting hay?

Visual appraisal.

7

What is the most economical source off supplemental protein?

Soybean meal.

8

What are the 2 most important dietary energy components in feeds?

Fats & carbohydrates.

9

What is the most commonly cubed forage?

Alfalfa.

10

What is the device used to collect samples for analysis is baled hay?

Bale probe or bale core.

11

How much water will a 1000 pound horse drink per day?

10-12 gallons.

12

What is the deficient amino acid in hays and grains?

Lysine.

13

Typically horses receive nutrients from what 3 general sources?

Hay, Pastures & Grains.

14

Which feed is used extensively in diets for horses that have respiratory problems such as heaves?

Beet pulp.

15

What is possibly the simplest and least expensive dry method of processing grain?

Grinding.

16

Which nutrients are usually considered to be the body's fuel?

Energy nutrients( fats and carbs).

17

Describe the color of a good quality hay.

Bright, leafy, green.

18

Where is most of the nutrient value found in hay?

Leaves.

19

What is the most readily available grain in most sections of the country?

Corn.

20

What type hay is the best type of hay for horses?

Good quality grass-legume mixed hay.

21

Which hays tend to be the least dusty?

Good grass hays.

22

What are the two basic types of forages?

Grasses and legumes.

23

Name the two minerals that the horse relies on most heavily for bone formation.

Calcium and phosphorus.

24

Name the two basic classifications of forages.

Legumes and grasses.

25

Name two ways that barley and milo should be processed before using them in a horse feed.

Crimped or rolled.

26

Pelleting horse feed can reduce the storage space requirements by how much?

Up to 75%.

27

How much more digestible energy is contained in grains than hays?

Grains have 50-60% more.

28

Lysine is a type of what nutrient?

Protein (amino acid)

29

Lysine is a type of what nutrient

Protein (amino acid)

30

Name two disadvantages of feeding straight oats for grain

Cost per unit of energy and variations in quality

31

Which feed by-product is made by drying the residual beet chips after the sugar has been extracted

Beet pulp

32

If you put extruded and pelleted feed each in a separate container of equal volume which would weigh more

Pelleted feeds may weigh twice as much as extruded feeds

33

In feeding management what is the wicking effect

Uptake of ground moisture into a bale of hay

34

What nutrients are harder for an older horse to digest

Fiber

35

What are five forms of harvested forages

Square bales, round bales, hay cubes, chopped hay, pelleted hay and silage

36

how can the likelihood of blister beetle poisoning be reduced when feeding alfalfa hay from the southwest

feed early season first cutting alfalfa

37

how many mineral elements are required in diets of horses

twenty one

38

what percentage of protein should be in a suckling foals creep feed

sixteen to eighteen percent protein

39

how much concentrate can be fed at one time

never more than 0.75 of the horses body weight

40

what is quidding

dropping partially chewed feed from the mouth

41

which nutrient is commonly involved as a cofactors for the enzymes that convert fat and carbohydrates into energy

vitamins

42

feral and other free ranging horses will spend how long grazing per day in good forage

ten to twelve hours

43

what is the form of stored fuel for exercise of high intensity and short duration

glycogen

44

what is the primary site for digestion and absorption of fats

small intestines

45

what is the average weight of a small bale of hay

40-80 pounds

46

what is the maximum amount of concentrates that should be fed at any one feeding

no more than.75 of a horses body weight

47

how many different minerals are required in the diet of horses and what are the 2 classifications of them

21 different minerals classified as micro and macro (major) minerals

48

what class of nutrients do thiamine, riboflavin, and folic acid belong to

vitamins

49

which nutrient is an important structural component for muscle tissue, growth, and tissue maintenance

proteins

50

what is the term for the units of measure that describes the amount of energy needed by a horse and is equal to 1000 calories

mega calories

51

there are considerable differences in density among horse feeds. therefore, feeding should not be by volume but by what method

feed by weight

52

when does a pregnant mare have the greatest nutritional requirements

during the third trimester of her gestation period

53

what are the organic compounds required in small amounts for the normal functioning of the body that are classified as water soluble and fat soluble

vitamins

54

what is a by-product of sucrose refined from sugar cane, sugar beets or from the manufacture of dried citrus pulp

molasses

55

what are the 21 different elements found in organic ash of feeds after burning off the organic matter

minerals

56

what are oat groats

oats with the hulls removed

57

if the percentage of protein in the form of lysine is higher in animal products such as dried skim milk and fish meal why is soybean meal more commonly used

soybean meal is less expensive

58

do most grains have more calcium than phosphorus

6-8 times more phosphorus

59

which type of hay should not be fed to horses with kidney problems

alfalfa

60

what are the 2 classifications of amino acids

essential and non-essential

61

When buying or selling and using a hay analysis report, what factor should be a prime consideration

RFV (relative feeding value)

62

grain processing may be roughly divided into 2 catagories, name them

dry processing and wet procssing

63

What is the primary objective of most grain processing methods

to improve the availability of starch

64

what factor is determined by the amount of seed heads of grasses and the flowers of legumes present at the time of harvest

stage of maturity

65

what part of alfalfa provides the mast nutrition

its leaves

66

what percent of fat in the diet can a horse tolerate and use for energy

10-15%

67

what method of processing feeds forces ground feed through a die under pressure and steam and heat produces a feed that has the consistency of dry dog food

extruded

68

name 2 grains that must be processed before feeding

Rye, milo, barley, and wheat.

69

name a way feed might be processed to aid in digestion for older horses or horses with poor teeth

ground, crimped, or pelleted

70

what are the 5 types of nutrients

water, energy, vitamins, minerals, protien

71

how much of the adult horses body is made up of water

65-85%

72

how much of the foals body is made up of water

75-80%

73

a loss of what percent of the bodies total water content can be fatal

12-15%

74

fresh green pasture contains about how much water

75%

75

how long can a horse live without water

a few days

76

how long can a horse live without food

a few weeks

77

feeds that are low in fiber and high in TDN are called what

concentrates

78

feeds that are high in fiber and low in TDN are called what

forages

79

what is the general term for the less digestible form of carbohydrates found in foodstuffs

Fiber

80

what is the complex compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which mainly supply building material for the body

protiens

81

What is the term for the part of each nutrient which is digested, taken into the body and used?

Digestible nutrient

82

what is the compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which mainly supply energy to the body

carbohydrates

83

what is the term for the entire feed allowed to an animal during a 24 hour day whether it is all given at 1 time or at different times

ration

84

what is the term for a ration that contains all of the digestible nutrients that will properly nourish an animal for 24 hours

balanced ration

85

what is the term for a ration that furnishes just enough of each of the nutrients required to support an animal which is doing no work and yielding no product so that it will neither gain nor lose weight

maintenance ration

86

what is the sum of the digestible protein, digestible carbohydrates and digestible fat

TDN

87

what is the term for that which is left in a feed sample after the water has been removed

dry matter

88

what is the term for the minerals that are needed in very small amounts for the normal function of the body

trace minerals

89

what do the initials,CHO stand for in regards to nutrients

carbohydrates

90

which of the nutrients is the primary energy nutrient

carbohydrates

91

name 2 examples of simple carbohydrates

sugars and starches

92

name a complex carbohydrate

cellulose

93

which type of carbohydrates would be most commonly found in molasses, grains and lush young grasses

simple carbohydrates

94

digested fats are very dense and provide how much more usable energy than carbohydrates

2.25 times more

95

what is the by-product feed produced from the outer layer of the wheat kernal

wheat bran

96

which nutrients are required to give power to muscles, the brain, and the digestive system

energy nutrients (carbohydrates and fats)

97

excess fat that is eaten is stored as what

fat

98

dry matter is what is left in a feed sample after what has been removed

water

99

what are the "building blocks" of protein from which the bodies are built

Amino acids

100

what are the material that forms in all body tissues

amino acids

101

proteins consist of long chains of what materials

Amino acids

102

When are proteins broken down into amino acids?

during digestion

103

Without iron in the blood, what could not be carried to the body cells?

Oxygen

104

what are considered to be the body's "building blocks"?

proteins

105

How are amino acids carried to the muscle, internal organs, bones, blood, skin and hair to be used to form body tissues?

Carried by the blood

106

Beta carotene is converted in the body into which vitamin?

Vitamin A

107

what is the term for minerals that are needed in larger amounts?

macro minerals

108

What is the term for minerals that are needed in tiny amounts?

Trace or micro minerals

109

Name the vitamin that the horse gets from the sunlight or from skin cured hays and uses this vitamin for making strong bones.

Vitamin D

110

What term describes the feed nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, copper, sodium, and iron?

Minerals

111

there are tow main forms of forages, one is dry forages such as hays and straw, what is the other form of green forage?

Pastures

112

What is a common problem with hay that can cause breathing problems for the horse and makes the hay not taste very good?

Too much dust in the hay or mold

113

In very cold weather, which will produce more body heat and keep the horse warmer -- feeding more grain, more hay or more salt?

more hay

114

What is the normal body temperature of a normal healthy adult horse?

100-101.5

115

what is the normal pulse or heart rate for a normal healthy idle horse?

45-60 beats per minute

116

What is the normal breathing or respiration rate for a normal adult healthy idle horse?

8-15 breathes per minute

117

Which part of grasses can be used to determine it's stage of maturity?

The head of grass

118

In referring to nutrients, what do the initials, Ca stand for?

Calcium

119

Dehydrated forages are made by processing lush-growing, highly nutritious forages through a heated dryer called what?

dehydrator

120

Which type of forage is used mostly as vitamin and protein supplements, a high fiber content and are processed through a heated dryer?

dehydrated forages

121

Horses should be rotated to fresh pastures, how often?

every 2 weeks

122

which grain is high in TDN but is low in protein, fiber, calcium, and phosphorus?

Corn

123

What health problem can be caused by feeding dusty hay?

Heaves or respiratory problems

124

What should be suspected if you find dull, dark hay with dust and mold inside the bale of hay to be purchased?

hay was baled before it was dry enough

125

Name a dehydrated forage.

Alfalfa leaf meal

126

Hay that is baled too wet may have fermentation within the bale, which sometimes can cause serious problems within the hay loft?

Fire form spontaneous combustion

127

What is the general percentage of molasses that is added to commercially mixed grain rations?

5-15%

128

Excessive exposure to sunlight and air can decrease the content of which nutrient in hay?

Carotene ( vitamin A)

129

Finely ground corn should not be fed alone because it may increase the risk of what problem?

colic

130

What are 2 physical forms in which salt may be offered to horses for consumption?

block and loose

131

Allowing a hot horse to drink large quantities of water, may cause what problem?

Founder (laminitis)

132

name 2 ways milo can be fed to horses.

Crushed or ground

133

Which part of legumes can be used to determine its stage of maturity?

Bud or bloom

134

Why should you feed more hay in the winter that grain if grain has a higher energy content?

Fermentative digestion of hat produces more body heat and keeps horse warmer

135

it is a good idea to feed what prior to placing horses in good pasture for the first time in the spring

Hay before turning them in to the pasture

136

In winter a horse should not be forced to eat snow to meet its water needs. How much snow would have to be eaten to equal one quart of water?

12 quarts

137

When classifying feeds, into which category do grains, energy-rich supplements, by product feeds, vitamin and mineral supplements fall?

Concentrates

138

When classifying feeds, into which category do pastures and hays fall?

Forages

139

Which of the 2 main forms of forages has a higher dry matter content?

Dry forages

140

Corn oats, by-product feeds and supplemental vitamins, minerals or protein would be classified in which of the 3 main types of feeds?

Concentrates

141

Grass and legume hays, straw and pastures would be classified in to which of the 3 main types of feeds?

Forages

142

Diclacium phosphate is a good source of which 2 minerals?

Calcium and phosphorus

143

A horse weight tape can be used to estimate the weight of a horse by measuring where on the horse?

Around the heart girth

144

An excess of which mineral can interfere with the complete utilization of phosphorus in a ration?

Calcium

145

What is the term for the "hard to digest" carbohydrates in grasses?

Cellulose

146

What is the component that mineral have that vitamins lack?

Carbon

147

Fats are higher in the percentage of which 2 elements than carbohydrates?

Carbon and hydrogen

148

Hay that is pale yellow or of a brownish color, is likely to have what happened to it prior to baling?

Rained on or baled before it was dry

149

Hay stored indoors for one to two years will lose about what percentage of its nutrient content?

15-20%

150

Dehydrated forages are made by processing lush-growing, highly nutritious forages through a heated dryer is called what?

Dehydrator

151

Excessive exposure to sunlight and air can decrease the content of which nutrient in hay?

Carotene (vitamin A)

152

What is the general term for a feed component that aids in the support of life?

Nutrient

153

What is the term for the term for the amount of a nutrient found in feed?

Crude or total nutrient

154

What type of amino acids can be built within the horses body by breaking down and reconstructing the essential amino acids?

non-essential amino acids

155

Proteins are considered high in quality when they contain more of what?

essential amino acids

156

Name the chemical elements that make up proteins.

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometimes sulfur, phosphorus and iron

157

Why are there different levels of protein in grain mixtures?

protein levels in grain should compliment protein levels in the forages. pastures\ hays with lots of legumes require less protein in grain mix. mature grasses have lower protein level and require more protein in the grain . growing foals need more protein

158

what type of nutrient is most important to increase in the diet of the horse that is increasing the amount of work it is performing?

carbohydrates and fats (energy nutrients)

159

name 3 different body tissues that use protein from the diet.

muscle, skin, hair, bones, internal organs, blood, hooves

160

what are 2 main types of vitamins?

fat soluble and water soluble

161

name the 4 fat soluble vitamins.

A, D, E, K

162

which vitamins are considered to be water soluble vitamins ?

B and C

163

what 2 parts of the body are fat soluble vitamins stored?

fat cells and liver

164

what type of vitamins are not stored in the body and secreted with water?

water soluble vitamins

165

which 2 vitamins are essential in the diet because they can not be manufactured in the body ?

vitamins A and E

166

name 2 vitamins that are produced by metabolic reactions inside the horses body.

vitamins C and D, niacin

167

name two vitamins that are produced by bacteria in the horses cecum and large colon.

all of the B vitamins and vitamin K

168

Which mineral works with vitamin E to protect the body tissue and maintains muscle coordination?

Selenium

169

Which mineral is needed for the production of cobalamin, a B-complex vitamin?

Cobalt

170

What is cobalamin?

a B-complex vitamin

171

If feeding a protein supplement is high in energy value, why not always add it to a ration?

It is useless if protein requirements are complete in balanced rations, it is expensive and can cause digestive upsets

172

Spring pastures can be quite laxative, which type of pastures tend to be the most laxative?

Legume Pastures

173

What are 2 different kinds of salt used for horses?

White salt and trace mineral salt

174

What do the initials TDN stand for?

Total digestible nutrients

175

Name 4 by-product feeds from grain milling industry commonly used in horse feeds.

Wheat bran, rice bran, wheat middling, rye middling

176

oats nutritional value varies considerably due to the proportions of what two parts of the grain?

Fibrous hull to nutritious inner kernel of grain

177

Before purchasing hay, it is a good idea to do what simple test of quality?

Open several bales and examine them for quality

178

name 3 nutrients that are found in higher levels in legumes than grasses.

Protein, energy, calcium, phosphorus

179

what is the term for colorized salt with small amounts of minerals?

Trace mineral salt

180

Because it's sticky, sweet and smells good this is added to a grain ration to increase the horse's appetite, what is it?

Molasses

181

Name 2 ways barley can be fed to horses.

Rolled or ground

182

Since barley can cause colic if fed alone, it should be mixed with at least what percent of oats?

At least 25% oats

183

Other than a source of nutrition, what is another use of pasture?

Exercise

184

Of the following which 2 will have the highest percentage of TDN: grains, grasses, hays, protein supplements?

Grains and protein supplements

185

What is the safest and easiest grain to feed?

Oats

186

What grain is higher in protein and fiber but lower in energy than corn?

Oats

187

Name 4 commonly used mineral supplements added to horse feed.

Salt iodized salt, ground limestone, steamed bone meal, dicalcium phosphate

188

Of the for most commonly used protein supplements, which one is the lowest in protein and usually is not the most economical source of protein.

Linseed Meal

189

Name two problems that can be caused by heavy rain on nearly cured mowed hay.

Loss of carotene (vitamin A) carbohydrates and protein

190

Why should salt be available to horses at all times, especially in the summer?

They lose significant amounts of salt through swaet, which may not be replaced by the grain portion of the ration alone.

191

What is the term for the number of horses that can be properly grazed on a plot of land?

Carrying Capacity

192

Which hays tend to be the most dusty?

Pure Legumes

193

Always feed grain concentrates by what unit of measure?

Weight

194

What is the term for a commercially balanced coarse, tasty mixture of grain, a protein source, vitamins and lots of molasses?

Sweet feed

195

Name 2 reasons why you should rotate your pastures.

reduce internal parasite infection and increase productivity of pasture.

196

what are the 4 energy-rich grains commonly used in horse feeds/

corn, oats, barley, and milo

197

Of the different types of grass hays, which type of grass hay is lowest in protein?

Prairie grass

198

Name 4 protein supplements that are commonly used for horses.

Soybean meal, linseed meal, cottonseed meal, and peanut meal

199

Name 5 factors that help select a good quality hay.

stage of maturity, species of hay, leafiness, color smell, lack of dust and mold, nutrient value.

200

name 2 grains that are usually ground rather than used whole in a horse feed.

Barley and milo

201

name 2 by-product feeds that are good sources of thiamine and niacin and also supply fair amount of protein and energy.

Wheat bran and rice bran

202

Which type of hay is most likely to have a calcium to phosphorus ratio imbalance?

Legumes

203

name 5 grass hays commonly used for horses.

timothy, orchard grass, brome, bermuda, native western mountain, and prairie grass

204

Of the following which 2 will have the higher content of moisture: grains, protein supplements, silage's, hays or pastures?

silages and pastures

205

Name 2 problems that dust in hay can cause.

makes hay unpalatable (not taste good) and can cause heaves and other respiratory problems

206

what is used in grain mixture as a concentrated appetizer and dust settler?

molasses

207

what is usually added to mixed feeds to increase palatability?

molasses

208

What are the 2 main forms of forages?

dry forages and pastures

209

When classifying feeds, into which category do cereal grains, combined with protein source, balanced with vitamins and minerals and possibly added molasses fall?

mixed feeds

210

Which of the 2 main forms of forages has a higher water content?

pastures

211

name 2 things that are found in higher quantities in grasses than in legumes.

fiber and dry matter

212

name 4 factors to consider when selecting a horse feed.

suitability of feed, availability, cost, nutrient content, quality, convenience, function of the horse, experience of horse owner.

213

commercially prepared sweet feeds and complete pelleted feeds would fall into which of the 3 main types of feeds?

mixed feeds

214

Soil fertility, soil type and climate influence what 2 important qualities in good hay?

productivity and nutrient content

215

Most commercially prepared feed will fall into which of the 3 main types of feeds?

mixed feeds

216

which type of concentrate is somewhat laxative and bulky and usually contains about 65% of TDN?

brans

217

What is the more common term for sodium chloride?

salt

218

name the only nutrient of any significance that is obtainsed by addedin molasses to a feed.

energy

219

Since molasses offers very little in nutritional value, why is it added to horse feed?

settles dust and makes it taste better

220

Name 3 important factors about your horse to consider when balancing a ration.

age, weight, type of work, horse is performing

221

Generally speaking, which type of horse will require the least amount of feed, digestible protein, TDN, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin A content in a ration.

Mature, idle, horse doing less than one hour of riding daily

222

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 400 pound weanling?

11-12 pounds daily

223

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 600-700 pound yearling?

13-14 pounds daily

224

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound mature idle horse?

16-17 pounds daily

225

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound lactating mare?

28-30 pounds daily

226

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound breeding stallion doing moderate breeding?

20-22 pounds daily

227

what is the best way to determine the actual weight of a horse?

use a scale

228

The nutrient composition of a feed, the quantities of nutrients in feeds being fed, daily nutrient requirements, age, weight and type of work performed by the horse are all used to calculate what?

balance feed ration for the horse

229

name 3 things that happen to hay that has started to ferment.

energy value is lost, hay becomes dusty, moldy and has a dark, dull color, heating occurs and can start a fire

230

name 4 factors that can cause the requirements of nutrients to change.

age, size, health, environment (heat, cold, humidity), activity (maintenance, performance, reproduction, growth, lactation)

231

name 5 factors that will affect the water needs of the horse.

age, health, size, activity (maintenance, gestation, lactation, work), type of feed eaten, enviroment

232

name 2 activities that would cause the greatest increase in the water needs of a horse.

lactation and moderate to heavy work

233

Name 4 important functions of water as a nutrient.

regulates body temperature, necessary of life and shape of all cells, transports nutrients to and wastes away from cells lubricates and protects body, necessary part of all body fluids.

234

name 5 of the essential amino acids needed by the horse.

lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, isoleucine, histadine, arginine, trytophan, methionine, phenylalamine

235

Name 8 of the essential amino acids needed by the horse.

Lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, histadine, arginine, tryptophan, methionine, phenylalamine

236

How is excess consumed protein used by the body?

nitrogen is removed from the amino acids and excreted in the urine. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen remaining from the amino acid is used for energy like charbohydrates

237

name 4 b-complex vitamins.

thiamine, riboflavin, biotin, follic acid, cobalamin, niacin, choline, pryidoxine, and pantothenic acid.

238

Name 4 micro-minerals.

copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, selenium, cobalt

239

Name 4 macro minerals.

calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride

240

Name 3 micro-minerals and 3 macro-minerals.

micro- copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, selenium, cobalt
macro- calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride

241

Name 3 things that will increase the water needs of a horse.

lactation, growth, and work

242

Name 4 factors that affect the leafiness of a hay.

Kind and species of forage, stage of maturity when cut, weather conditions while growing and while curing procedures.

243

Name 3 major factors used to evaluate the potential of land selected for a pasture.

Carry capacity (number of horses that can properly be grazed), potential nutritional value, present condition (renovate, reestablish or left alone)

244

Name 4 general ingredients that may be found in commercially mixed feeds.

cereal grains for energy, protein source, correctly balanced vitamins and minerals, molasses to increase patability

245

name 3 times when a protein supplement may be necessary.

forages being fed are of poor quality, pregnant or lactating mare, growing young stock requires extra protein to balance ration.

246

Name 6 important factors used to determine a balanced ration for a horse.

age, weight, and type of work performed, nutrient composition of feed, amount of nutrients in feed being fed, daily nutrient requirements for horse, any ration deficiencies or supplements needed.

247

What are 5 important considerations you should make when selecting a horse feed?

Cost, quality, suitability, availability, and convenience

248

What are 4 good qualities of goody hay?

leafiness, bright green color, aromatic and pleasant odor, no dust or mold, fine stems

249

What is the term for the number of horses that can be properly grazed on a plot of land

Carrying capacity

250

Which hays tend to be the most dusty

Pure legumes

251

From what two (2) sources is molasses derived

Sugar cane and sugar beets

252

Name three (3) ways oats can be fed to horses

Whole, rolled, crimped

253

What term describes a processed mixture of grain and forage, or may consist of only a grain or forage in a ground form of a pellet

Pelleted feed

254

Why is loose salt a better form in which to offer to horses compared to block salt

Horses tend not to be big lickers and may not lick enough off block to meet their needs

255

What is usually the most expensive feed grain in terms of cost per unit of nutrients

Oats

256

A lack of smell indicates what in hay

Overly matured, bleaching, leaching or old hay

257

Name three (3) legumes used as hays for horses

Alfalfa, lespedeza, clovers

258

What does a stale, musty unpleasant odor indicate in a hay

Excessive fermentation has occurred

259

Name three (3) ways corn can be fed to horses

Ear corn, shelled corn, cracked corn

260

Name three (3) problems that can be determined by the smell of hay

Old hay, excessive fermentation, overly matured hay,bleaching, leaching, mold present, dust present

261

Because beet pulp is a highly digestible fiber source, it is used to add extra fiber and energy to a ration containing poor quality or if a horse has what two (2) types of problems

Difficulty chewing long stemmed forage or respiratory problems

262

Name five (5) ways forages change as they get older as related to the nutritional value

Less leafy, more stemmy, more fibrous, less digestible, mineral and vitamin levels decrease

263

Name 4 problems that can be associated with imbalances in vitamins and minerals in a horse feed.

Muscle disorders, bone problems, hormone imbalances, poor hair coat, eye problems, decreased immune functions

264

Which vitamin is lost as a hay ages?

Vitamin A

265

Name 2 good sources of calcium and phosphorus.

Steamed bone meal and dicalcium phosphate.

266

What is an easy method of reducing dust in a hay before feeding it to horses?

Sprinkle it with water or mixture of water and molasses

267

What is the sorghum grain used as a horse feed?

milo

268

Unless you are an experienced nutritionist, it is easiest and perhaps best to feed what type of feed?

mixed feeds

269

What is the most commonly used protein supplement for horse feed rations?

Soybean meal

270

Adding ground limestone to a ration will increase the level of which mineral?

Calcium

271

If a balanced grain ration with adequate pasture and/or hay is being fed, how much vitamin mineral supplements are required?

None

272

Besides the amount of snow that must be eaten to fulfill the water needs in the winter, what is another concern about using snow as the only source of water?

Tremendous amount of energy is used to change snow to water within the body and this can affect the horse's condition and maintenance requirements

273

Name 4 factors that can affect the nutritional value of a pasture.

Soil fertility, soil type, moisture, and temperature

274

Because of the higher level of calcium found in legumes, a supplement of what may be needed?

Phosphorus

275

Which important factor can be determined by examining the bud or bloom of legumes?

Stage of maturity

276

Always feed grain concentrates by what unit of measure?

Weight

277

What is the term for a commercially balanced coarse, tasty mixture of grain, a protein source, vitamins and lots of molasses?

Sweet feed

278

Name 2 reasons why you should rotate your pastures

Reduce internal parasite infestation and increase productivity of pastures

279

What are the 4 energy-rich grains commonly used in horse feeds?

Corn, oats, barley and milo

280

Of the different types of grass hays, which type of grass hay is lowest in protein?

Prairie grass

281

Name 4 protein supplements that are commonly used for horses.

Soybean meal, linseed meal, cottonseed meal, and peanut butter meal

282

Name 5 factors that help select a good quality hay.

Stage of maturity, species of hay, leafiness, color, smell, lack of dust and mold, nutrient value

283

Name 2 grains that are usually ground rather than used whole in a horse feed.

Barley and milo

284

Name the 2 by-product feeds that are good sources of thiamine and niacin and also supply a fair amount of protein and energy.

Wheat bran and rice bran

285

Which type of hay is most likely to have a calcium to phosphorus ratio imbalance?

Legumes

286

Name 5 grass hays most commonly used for horses.

Timothy, orchard grass, brome, bermuda, native western mountain, prairie grass

287

Of the following which 2 will have the higher content of moisture: grains, protein supplements, silages, hays or pastures?

Silages and pastures

288

Name 2 problems that dust in hay can cause.

Makes hay unpalatable (not taste good)and can cause heaves and other respiratory problems

289

What is used in grain mixture as a concentrated appetizer and dust settler?

Molasses

290

What is usually added to mixed feeds to increase palatability?

Molasses

291

What are the 3 main types of feeds?

Forages, concentrates, mixed feeds

292

What are the 2 main forms of forages?

Dry forages and pastures

293

When classifying feeds, into which category do cereal grains, combined with protein source, balanced with vitamins and minerals and possibly added molasses fall?

Mixed feeds

294

Which of the 2 main forms of forages has a higher water content?

Pastures

295

Name 2 things that are found in higher qualities in grasses than in legumes.

Fiber and dry matter

296

Name 4 factors to consider when selecting a horse feed.

Suitability of feed, availability, cost, nutrient content, quality, convenience, function of the horse, experience of horse owner

297

Commercially prepared sweet feeds and complete pelleted feeds would fall into which of the 3 main types of feeds?

Mixed feeds

298

Soil fertility, soil type and climate influence what 2 important qualities in good hay?

Productivity and nutrient content

299

Most commercially prepared feed will fall into which of the 3 main types of feeds?

MIxed feeds

300

Which type of concentrate is somewhat laxative and bulky and usually contains about 65% of TDN?

Brans

301

What is the more common term for sodium chloride?

Salt

302

Name the only nutrient of any significance that is obtained by adding molasses to a feed.

Energy

303

Since molasses offers very little in nutritional value, why is it added to horse feeds?

Settles dust and makes it taste better

304

Name 3 important factors about your horse to consider when balancing a ration.

Age, weight, type of work horse is performing

305

Generally speaking, which type of horse will require the least amount of feed, digestible protein, TDN, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin A content in ration?

Mature, Idle horse doing less than 1 hour of riding daily

306

Generally speaking, which type of horse will require the most amount of feed, digestible protein, phosphorus, and vitamin A content in ration?

Lactating mare

307

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 400 pound weanling?

11-12 pounds daily

308

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 600-700 pound yearling?

13-14 pounds daily

309

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound mature idle horse?

16-17 pounds daily

310

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound lactating mare?

28-30 pounds daily

311

Approximately how many pounds of feed are necessary for a 1,000 pound breeding stallion doing moderate breeding?

20-22 pounds

312

What is the best way to determine the actual weight of a horse?

Use a scale

313

The nutrient composition of a feed, the quantities of nutrients in feeds being fed, daily nutrient requirements, age, weight and type of work performed by the horse are all used to calculate what?

Balance feed ration for the horse

314

Name 3 things that happen to hay that has started to ferment.

Energy value is lost, hat becomes dusty, moldy and has a dark, dull color, heating occurs and can start a fire

315

Name 4 factors that can cause the requirements of nutrients to change.

Age, size, health, environment (heat, cold humidity), activity (maintenance, performance, reproduction, growth, lactation)

316

Name 5 factors that will affect the water needs of the horse.

Age, health, size, activity (maintenance, gestation, lactation, work), type of feed eaten, enviroment

317

Name 2 activities that would cause the greatest increase in the water needs of a horse.

Lactation and moderation to heavy work

318

Name 4 important functions of water as a nutrient.

Regulates body temperature, necessary of life and shape of all cells, transports nutrients to and wastes away from cells, lubricates and protects body, necessary part of all body fluids

319

Name 5 of the essential amino acids needed by the horse.

Lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, histadine, arginine, tryptophan, methionine, phenylalamine

320

Name 8 of the essential amino acids needed by the horse.

Lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, histadine, arginine, tryptophan, methionine, phenylalamine

321

How is excess consumed protein used by the body.

Nitrogen is removed from the amino acids and excreted in the urine. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen remaining form the amino acid is used for energy like carbohydrates.

322

Name 4 B-complex vitamins.

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pryidoxide, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, folic acid, cobalamin

323

Name 4 macro minerals.

Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride

324

Name 4 trace or micro-minerals.

Copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, selenium, cobalt

325

Name 3 micro-minerals and 3 macro-minerals.

micro--Copper, zinc, iron, manganese, iodine, selenium, cobalt, Macro --Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride

326

Name 3 things that will increase the water needs of a horse.

Growth, lactation, work

327

Name 4 factors that affect the leafiness of a hay.

Kind and species of forage, stage of maturity when cut, weather conditions while growing and while curing, curing procedures.

328

Name 3 major factors to used to evaluate the potential of land selected for a pasture.

Carry capacity (number of horses that can properrly be grazed), potential nutritional value, present condition (renovate, reestablish or left alone).

329

Name 4 general ingredients that may be found in commercially mixed feeds.

Cereal grains for energy, protein source, correctly balanced vitamins and minerals, molasses to increase palatability

330

Name 3 times when a protein supplement may be necessary.

Forages being fed are of poor quality, pregnant or lactating mare, growing young stock require extra protein to balance ration.

331

Name 6 important factors used to determine a balanced ration for a horse.

Age, weight and type of work performed, nutrient composition of feed, amount of nutrients in feed being fed, daily nutrient requirements for horse, any ration deficiencies or supplements needed.

332

What are 5 important considerations you should make when selecting a horse feed?

Cost, quality, suitability, availability, convenience

333

What are 4 good qualities of good hay?

Leafiness, bright green color, aromatic and pleasant odor, no dust or mold, fine stems