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Flashcards in Category B: Reproduction--DONE Deck (325)
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1

what is the term for a mare that is not pregnant but was bred in the previous or current season?

Barren Mare

2

What is the term for a mare that is nursing a foal?

Wet mare

3

What is the recommended age to wean foals?

4-6 months

4

What term describes a mare that is not pregnant and was NOT bred in the previous or current season?

Open Mare

5

What term describes a mare that has never been bred?

Maiden mare

6

At what age does the mares reproductive abilities start to decrease?

After about 16 years

7

How long does estrous period usually last in a mare?

5-7 days

8

What is a weanling?

Young horse of either sex that has just been taken way from it's mother usually 6 months up to one year

9

What is the female parent of a horse called?

Dam

10

How many testicles does a stallion have?

two

11

What is a colt or filly under one year old?

foal

12

What is a filly?

Female foal up to 3 years of age

13

What is an altered or castrated horse called?

gelding

14

What is the primary sex organ of the mare?

Ovary

15

What is the primary sex organ of the stallion?

testicles

16

What is the most easily recognized phase of the estrous cycle?

Estrus

17

What is the scientific name for the womb?

Uterus

18

How many sperm does it take to fertilize a singe egg?

one

19

Name the 2 specialized sex cells that join to start the development of a foal.

Ovum and sperm

20

the 2 basic types of gene actions are quantitative and qualitative, which is most common?

Most traits in horses are influenced by quantitative gene action

21

What is the term for characteristics that ultimately result in death?

Delayed Lethal

22

What is the study of hormones & their effects?

Endocrinology

23

What is the term for characteristics that predispose an animal to disease conditions because of environmental factors, but do not in themselves cause disease?

Partial lethal

24

Wat is the external opening to the mares reproductive canal?

Vulva

25

What is a major site for bacterial invasion into the newborn foals body that should be treated with an iodine solution to prevent infection?

Naval stump

26

What is the more common term for the rupture of the chorio-allantoic membrane during pregnancy?

Breaking of the water bag

27

What is the primary function of the scrotum?

Temperature regulation of the testes

28

What are the 3 most genetically common colors of horses?

Bay, black, and chestnut

29

What is a synthetic progestin compound that does not interact with the mare's natural progesterone and is used to regulate estrus early in the breeding season?

Regumate

30

At what time do most mares foal?

Between 7pm and 7am

31

What type of gene action is when many genes have an effect on the same trait and they are added together to produce that trait in a horse such as speed?

quantitative gene action

32

what type of gene action is when a particular trait is influenced by a single pair of genes or maybe 2 or 3 pairs of genes such as the dilution of bay to buckskin?

Qualitative gene action

33

What is the 6-8 inch long muscular mucous membrane-lined tube which communicates the vestibule------ of the vulva to the cervix?

Vagina

34

Why would you put a stallion under artificial light?

Increase testicular activity

35

Which 2 hormones stimulate the gonads?

FSH and LH ---------

36

What is the term for a condition that results in empryonic ----death?

True lethal

37

Horses have 33 chromosome strings, the X and Y chromosomes are called sex chromosomes, what are the other ones called?

Autosomes

38

Where is the site of spermatogenesis------- and production of testosterone?

Testes

39

Why don't females suffer from X-linked heredity diseases?

Females have to be homozygous-------- for trait to suffer from it and would have to receive abnormal gene from both parents. Most affected males do not live to reproductive and therefor do not sire foals

40

Which pinto pattern is associated with the lethal white foal syndrome?

Overo

41

What is the name of the hormone that signals the start of the reproductive season?

Gonadotropic releasing hormone---

42

What type of chromosomes are the X and Y chromosomes?

sex chromosomes

43

Fetal development is greatest during the third trimester but most of the body weight gained during pregnancy occurs when?

Second trimester

44

Which gene is responsible for mottled, varnish roan, blanket with spots, blankets, frost, leopard and a few leopard spots in horses?

Leopard gene, LP

45

What is the length of the gestation period for the American Miniature Horse?

11 months

46

What happens to the offspring of roans and white horses whose genetic pattern is homozygous?

They die in early fetal development

47

What is the average length of the mare's estrous cycle?

4.5-7.5 days

48

Blood type is an example of which gene?

Co-dominance ----------

49

What is the name of the enlarged pre-ovulatory-------- follicle?

Graafian follicle

50

What is the main body of the penis called?

Shaft

51

What is the simplest method of bringing a mare into estrus prior to the natural breeding season?

Artifcial lighting

52

Most traits in horses are influenced by what type of gene action?

Quanitative

53

Name the 2 types of genetic hernias.

umbilical and inguinal

54

What are the gonads?

Ovaries and testicles

55

What hormone causes receptive behavior patterns observed in mares during heat and acts to prepare the uterus for receiving the embryo?

Estrogen

56

The genetic material is located within what cell structure?

Nucleus

57

What is the ability to pass on characteristics and qualities to offspring?

Prepotency of genes

58

Which hormone stimulates the growth of follicles?

FSH

59

How often can a stallion's semen be collected without interfering with the stallions ability to produce sperm?

Up to 3 times daily for short periods

60

What is the powerful middle layer of the uterus that is responsible for contractions which expel the foal at birth?

Myometrium

61

What is the general term for the secretion of the testes, epididymis and accessory glands mixed with spermatozoa?------

Semen

62

What are the 3 types of qualitative gene actions?

Dominance, co-dominance, and partial dominance

63

Spermatogenesis is made up of a series of events leading to the release of spermatozoa. How many days are required for these events to occur?

57 days

64

Name 2 basic colors that the color 'chestnut' is recessive to .

Black and bay

65

What is the medical procedure used to close the mare's vulva to prevent her from sucking air an debris into her reproductive tract?

Caslick operation (episoplasty)

66

When does a mare's reproductive ability begin to decrease?

usually after 16 years of age

67

During the first 3 moths after foaling, a mare will produce how much milk per their body weight?

Up to 3% of their body weight

68

The ovaries are responsible for the production of which two hormones?

Estrogen and progesterone

69

What i mastitis?

Inflammation and infection of the udder

70

What is the name of the procedure used to identify mares in estrus?

Teasing

71

At what stage of pregnancy does the mare's nutritional need increase?

Last 3 months of gestation

72

What are the 2 basic types of genetic actions?

Qualitative and quanititative

73

What is the name for the thin, transparent membrane that surrounds the foal at birth and must be removed so the foal can breathe?

Amnion

74

What are the 3 main colors of horses that provide the basis for most of the other colors in color genetics?

Black, bay, and chestnut

75

Why are all roan colored horses heterozygous Rnrn?

All homozygous roan horse die in early fetal development and are never born

76

What part of the ovary contains the ova when a filly is born?

Cortex

77

What reproductive hormone is secreted by the hypothalamus in response to environmental cues such as day length?

Gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH)

78

In the stallion, the hormone FSH exerts its effect on which cells?

Sertoli cells

79

What is the short estrus period soon after foaling called?

Foal heat

80

Why are all white horses heterozygous?

Because white homozygotes die early in development

81

How does the length of daylight hours affect the breeding season and the reproductive response of the stallion and the mare?

Longer daylight horses (16 hrs) stimulate the reproductive systems, shorter hours suppresses and decreases hormones needed for reproduction

82

What hormone is responsible for stimulating ovulation and supporting the initial stages of corpus lutuem development?

LH

83

Which gland signals the start of the reproductive season by producing a chemical signal in the form of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH)?

Hypothalamus

84

When is a mare usually anestrus?

In winter/during shorter daylight hours

85

What is the term for the oil product of the sebaceous glands that build up in the end of the penis?

Smegma

86

Conception rates are highest when the mares are bred when?

1 - 2 days prior to ovulation

87

How long does it take for the foal's immune system to become functional and to be able to produce significant levels of antibodies to guard against diseases?

2 - 4 months

88

What are the 2 most common methods used to manipulate the estrous cycle?

Artificial lighting and hormonal stimulation

89

What is the heritability estimate when looking at the horse's traits?

Percentage of a horse's expressed traits that is due to genetcis

90

What kind of bedding is preferred for a foaling stall?

Straw

91

When do 'wax beads' appear on the teats of a mare?

a few hours to 2 - 4 days before foaling

92

During parturition, what happens at the end of stage one that prepares the birth canal for the delivery of the foal?

Rupture of the water bag (chorion or chorio-allantoic membrane)

93

A brown discoloration of the placenta with meconium in it, may indicate what?

Foal may have had a low oxygen supply during birth

94

What acts as a physical barrier between the vagina and uterus?

Cervix

95

Name the wedge-shaped area of the ovary from which ova are shed.

Ovulation fossa

96

What is the term for the number of spermatozoa which can be collected per a 24-hour period from a stallion and is determined by collecting the stallion daily for 7 days?

Daily sperm output (DSO)

97

Name 3 modes of inheritance.

Autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X-linked mode

98

What is the fluid portion of the semen consisting of testicular, epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions called?

Seminal Plasma

99

Which hormone can be used on pregnant mares to cause abortions?

Prostaglandin

100

What is a colt?

Young male horse under 4 years of age

101

What is the term used to describe the sexual drive?

Libido

102

What vaccine should be given to brood mares at the fifth, seventh and ninth months of pregnancy?

Rhinopneumonitits

103

What is the length of time required for spermatogenesis and epididymis maturation in the stallion?

About 65 days

104

Colostrum contains a high level of immunoglobulins, why are these important to the foal?

Foals are born with no protectoin from diseases, immunoglobulins are antibodies to protect the foal against disease.

105

Which highly contagious disease causes about 90% of all foal diarrhea outbreaks and usually occurs in foals about 70 days old?

Rotavirus

106

What virus is the most devastating bacterial cause of pneumonia in foals?

Rhodococcus equi (Pronounced road-o-cock-us)

107

What is a non-infectious disorder of the central nervous system in about 1-2% of newborn foals with gross abnormal behavior?

Neonatal maladjustment syndrome (Also called convulsive syndrome)

108

What are foals called that suffer from Neonatal Maladjustment syndrome?

Dummy or convulsive foals, Barker, Wanderer

109

What is it called when organs or tissue project through an abdominal opening and usually occur in the naval or scrotum areas?

Hernia

110

Name a breed of horse that is homozygous for the Dn gene.

Fjord horse

111

Usually 'wax beeds', which are actually drops of colostrum, appear on the mare's udder about how long prior to foaling?

2-4 days before foaling

112

What is the hormone necessary for normal sexual behavior and function in stallions?

Testerone

113

What is endometritis?

Infections of the uterus (inflammation of endometrium, the mucous membrane of the uterus)

114

What are the finger-like projections from the end of the incunabulum that surround the ovary?

Fimbriae

115

Out of the colors, black, bay, and chestnut; tell which one is recessive and which one is dominant to the others.

Chestnut is recessive, black is dominant

116

What is the production of spermatozoa called?

Spermatogenesis

117

Define the term seasonally polyestrus.

Reproductive habits of the mare in which she undergoes multiple estrous cycles only during a circumscribed portion of the year.

118

What is the multi-layered, hollow, Y-shaped organ in the female reproductive system?

Uterus

119

What is the distensible muscle that acts as a physical barrier between the vagina and the uterus?

Cervix

120

Name the hair-like projections that line the mare's oviducts and are responsible for transporting ova down the oviduct.

Cilia

121

The short estrus period soon after foaling is called what?

Foal heat

122

Brood mares can be protected against rhinopneumonitis by immunization with an inactivated vaccine during which months of pregnancy?

Third, fifth, seventh and ninth

123

Which organ is considered to be the 'master organ' of the male reproductive system because it is the for production of spermatozoa and testosterone?

Testes

124

Colostrum is secreted during which period post-parturition?

First 24-28 hours

125

What term describes the minimum number of spermatozoa produced within a 24-hour period?

Daily sperm production (DSP)

126

About how long is a mare pregnant before giving birth to a fully developed foal?

11 months

127

Name the only 2 places where single chromosomes exist.

In sex cells, sperm and egg

128

What is the term for a female foal?

Filly

129

What sex has the genotype XX?

Female

130

How many ovaries does the mare have?

Two

131

What are the substances that are the carriers of inheritance?

Genes and chromosomes

132

In days, how long does the mare carry foal before birth?

335-342 days

133

Which parent determinses the sex of teh foal?

Stallion

134

What event stimulates the foal to start breathing on its own after being born?

Breaking of the naval cord (umbilical cord)

135

Which part of the female reproductive system is the largest?

Uterus

136

What sex will have a genotype of XY?

Male

137

How long is the average length of gestation of the mare?

335-342 days

138

What is a sire?

Male parent of a foal

139

What is the pouch that suspends the testicles?

Scrotum

140

What is the progeny of a mare?

produce

141

How old should a stallion be before being first used for breeding?

2 years old

142

Name the bubble-like structure on the female ovary which contains the egg.

Follicle

143

What is the term for the length of time for development of the foal from time of fertilization to its birth?

gestation

144

What are the 2 terms for describing a male and female foal?

Filly is a female, Colt is a male

145

What are long, thread-like structures made of complex proteins that carry genes?

Chromosomes

146

In what organ does the fetus develop?

Uterus

147

What is the term for a gene that can hide another genes characteristics?

Dominant

148

What 2 parts are included in the birth canal of the mare?

Cervix and vagina

149

How many chromosomes does a horse have?

32

150

What is the more common term for the gestation period?

Pregnancy

151

After a foal is born, what happens to the placenta?

It is expelled

152

what is the scientific name for the egg?-------

Ovum

153

What percent of foals would be considered chestnut if a chestnut stallion were bred to a chestnut mare?

100%

154

Which organ is the site of male sex hormone production?

Testicles or testes

155

The characteristics that a foal inherits from its parents must come from what 2 cells?

Egg and sperm

156

What connects the fetus to the placenta?

Naval cord (umbilical cord)

157

The most raped period of growth in the fetus is during what part of gestation?

last 3-4 months

158

What is the common name for the estrus period in a mare?

Heat

159

What is the term for the muscular spongy organ of the female where the unborn animal develops?

Uterus of womb

160

What percent of foals will be male and what percent would be female?

50% male and 50% female

161

What term describes a mare that is not in foal?

Barren Mare

162

What term describes the removal of the testicles from the male?

Castration (geld or alter)

163

What hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and causes follicle growth?

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

164

What do the initials, FSH stand for?

Follicle stimulating hormone

165

What is the gland located at the base of the brain that secretes hormones that regulate the body?

Pituitary gland

166

What is the male horse with one or both testicles retained in his body cavity?

Ridgling

167

What is another term for afterbirth?

Placenta

168

what is the scientific name for the naval cord?

umbilical cord

169

What is the period of raped follicle growth at the termination of the diestrus period?

Proestrus

170

When are mares most likely to be anestrus?

Winter months

171

What usually happens to the length of the estrus period during late summer?

Decreases in length

172

What happens if 2 eggs are released and fertilized?

Twin embryos

173

Although several million sperm may be present in the reproduction tract of the female after mating, how many will eventually fertilize the egg if pregnancy occurs?

One

174

What occurs at the end of a successful pregnancy?

Birth of the foal

175

What is a mixed group of sucklings and weanlings called?

foals

176

Name 3 functions of the placenta during the gestation period.

Carries oxygen to fetus, carries nutrients to fetus, carries waste products away from the fetus

177

What is a female weanling called?

filly

178

What is a mature, breeding female called?

Mare

179

What is a mature, breeding male horse called?

Stallion

180

What is a mixed group of mature breeding and non-breeding mares, gelding and stallions called?

Horses

181

What is a mature non-breeding male horse?

Gelding

182

What is a mature non-breeding female horse?

Spayed mare

183

What is the first nutrition the foal receives after parturition?

Colostrum

184

How long does the entire process of birth usually take?

Several hours

185

What is the term for the charge for the service of a stallion in breeding a mare?

Stud fee

186

Define fetus.

Unborn animal as it develops in the uterus

187

What is the term for a male foal?

Colt

188

Which organ is the site of male sex hormone production?

Testicles

189

Which organ produces the eggs in the mare?

Ovaries

190

What are genes?

Units of inheritance that pass characteristics from parent to offspring

191

What is the average length of the estrous cycle in a mare?

21 days

192

What is the genotype of the female?

XX

193

What is the genotype of the male?

XY

194

Color and other physical characteristics of an offspring are caused by what?

Genes

195

What do we call the "Units of inheritance"?

Genes

196

What is a colt?

Male foal

197

What is a sperm?

male sex cell

198

Nutrients and oxygen are carried from the mare to the fetus through what?

Placenta

199

What is the term fro a gene which can hide the effects of another gene?

Dominant

200

Bile is produced in the liver, where does it go from there?

Directly into the small intestine

201

If a homozygous black stallion is bred to a chestnut mare, what color will the foals be?

All foals would be black with a recessive gene for chestnut

202

What do we call sperm that is mixed with cluid from the accessory glands?

Semen

203

What is a cross between a stallion and a jennet called?

Hinny

204

What is a mass of tubes connected to the testicles where sperm is stored while they mature?

Epididymis

205

What does phenotype mean?

Outward appearance

206

Why are twin embryos undesirable?

Because they are generally aborted prematurely

207

Which substance is important to the newborn foal because it has immune factors which provides resistance to infections and is high in protein?

Colostrum

208

Name the 2 tiny cells that merge to form the fetus and tell where each one comes from.

Sperm (from the male) and egg or ovum (from the female)

209

What is the name of the tube that carries the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra?

Vas deferens

210

Define the term, seasonally polyestrus.

Seasonal fluctuations of the estrus cycle with regards to length, intensity, and regularity

211

What are the sons or daughters of a mare called?

Produce (foals can also be accepted)

212

What is the study of how characteristics are passed from parent to offspring?

Genetics

213

What structure on the ovary contains the egg?

Follicle

214

What part of the male reproductive tract connects the testicles to the vas deferens?

Epididymis

215

During the winter months, most mares show no signs of estrus, what is the term for this?

Anestrus

216

Name the glands that nourish and preserve the sperm.

Prostate, seminal cesicles, cowpers gland

217

What is the main function of the infundibulum?

Catch the egg when it is released by the ovary

218

What is the steroid hormone secreted by the hypertrophied cells of the corpus luteum?

Progesterone

219

What is the term for sex cell division?

Meiosis

220

Where are sperm stored within the male reproductive tract?

Epididymis

221

How long is diestrus?

10-18 days

222

What is the term for normal cell division?

Mitosis

223

What is in the center of a cell that contains genetic material?

Nucleus

224

What is the term for a mare that is not in foal?

Barren mare

225

What is the term for the change that occurs in an animal that results in the animals ability to produce sex cells?

Puberty

226

When a breeder guarantees a live foal, what must the foal do to fulfill the guarantee?

Stand and suck after being born

227

What is the solid mass that forms in the follicle after the egg has left and produces a hormone that helps to maintain pregnancy?

Corpus Luteum

228

The various parts of the female reproductive system are connected together and attached to the upper body wall by which means?

Ligaments

229

What is the science of genetics?

Study of how characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring

230

What is the term for the funnel-like membrane that surrounds the ovary?

Infundibulum

231

Which hormone stimulates milk secretion?

Prolactine

232

Which hormone regulates testosterone in the male?

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

233

What is fertilization?

Sperm entering the egg (or ovum)

234

What is an abnormal condition that an animal possesses at birth?

Congenital

235

What is the membrane by which the fetus is attached to the uterus?

Placenta

236

What forms in the follicle after the egg has left?

Corpus Luteum

237

How large is the ovary of the mare?

2-3 inches

238

What do you call the period after estrus during the mare's estrous cycle?

Diestrus

239

What kind of hormones stimulate the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics?

Estrogenic hormones

240

What is another term for the cervix and vagina of the mare?

Birth canal

241

What is the general term for the egg and sperm?

Sex cells

242

what is the sac-like pouch that suspends the testicles outside of the male animal?

Scrotum

243

Chromosomes exist in pairs in all body cells except which two?

Sperm and egg

244

Where are the testicles and epididymis located?

in the scrotum

245

Why is it especially important for a foal to nurse soon after being born?

To get colostrum, first milk, which is very high in protein and provides resistance to infections

246

What is the term for a mare that cycles continuously throughout the breeding season?

Polyestrus

247

If a black stallion with the genotype of Bb is bred to a black mare of the same genotype, what percentage of the foals would be red?

25%

248

what is the narrow passage between the mare's vagina and the uterus?

Cervix

249

Name the tube that carries the egg from the ovary to the uterus.

Oviduct (Fallopian tube)

250

How long after birth is the colostrum replaced by normal milk?

About 2 days after initial nursing

251

What is another term for parturition?

Birth

252

If the sperm cell contributes a Y chromosome when it fertilizes an egg, what sex will the foal be?

male

253

what is the difference in the body temperature versus the temperature of the scrotum?

Scrotal temperature is cooler than body temperature

254

Why is it important for the temperature of the scrotum to be several degrees lower than the rest of the body?

To aid in normal sperm development

255

When does the placenta attach to the wall of the uterus and begins to provide nourishment for the fetus?

6 weeks into the pregnancy

256

Milk secretion is initiated by hormones secreted by which gland?

Pituitary gland

257

What is the term for a seasonal fluctuation of the estrous cycle with regards to length intensity and regularity?

Seasonally polyestrous

258

How many chromosomes does the donkey have?

31

259

Name the cross that produces a mule.

Jack and mare

260

What cross produces a hinny?

Stallion and jennet

261

Why are mules and hinnys usually sterile?

Because of imbalance of chromosomes prevents functioning of the sex cells (32 chromosomes from horse and 31 chromosomes for the donkey)

262

Name 3 traits of the horse that are influenced by genes.

Conformation, temperament, physical performance, size, muscularity, longevity, coat color.

263

Where are the accessory glands found in the male?

Along the urethra

264

What do the initials, LH stand for?

Luteinizing hormone

265

Which hormone initiates lactation?

Prolactine

266

What is the time when the follicle bursts and the egg is released called?

Ovulation

267

Which reproductive organ has thick wall with a heavy layer of muscles and is the largest of all organs in the female reproductive tract?

Uterus

268

Name 2 main functions of testosterone in the male.

Masculine appearance, regulates and maintains male reproductive tract, masculine behavior of the stallion.

269

Name the hormone that inhibits the actions of estrogens, aids in development of the uterus for implantation and nutrition of the embryo and is secreted by the corpus luteum.

Progesterone

270

What size is the fluid-filled follicle just prior to releasing the egg?

about 1 inch in diameter

271

What term applies to the hormones that stimulate the development and maintenance of feminine sexual characteristics?

estrogenic hormones

272

Name the 4 parts of the female reproductive tract that make u p the duct system.

Oviducts, uterus, cervix, and vagina

273

Name 2 parts of the female reproductive tract that the fetus must pass through from the uterus during the birth process.

Cervix and vagina

274

What is the very thin membrane that surrounds the ovary and traps the newly released egg?

Infundibulum

275

Many mares are capable of first reproduction at what age?

3 years old

276

What is the period of the estrous cycle where the mare i receptive to the stallion?

Estrus (heat)

277

Which phase of the estrous cycle is often referred to as the quiet period?

Diestrus

278

Which phase of the estrous cycle is often referred to as the preparation period?

Proestrus

279

Which phase of the estrous cycle is often referred to as the heat period?

Estrus

280

What is the normal range of the estrous cycle?

17-30 days

281

What is the average range of the estrous period?

2-11 days

282

Where in the female reproductive tract is sperm deposited by the male?

Vagina

283

What is the tube through which both semen and urine pass through the penis of the male?

urethra

284

where does fertilization occur in the foal?

oviduct

285

when does ovulation usually occur during the estrous cycle?

One day before the end of estrus

286

what term applies to the irregularity of the estrous cycle in early spring?

Transitional

287

Which hormone is secreted in large amounts during the state of rapid and maximum follicle growth during the heat period of the estrous cycle?

Estrogen

288

Where does the fertilized egg usually undergo its initial cleavages or divisions?

Oviduct

289

What must occur before the egg starts to divide and create a new embryo?

Fertilization

290

Where is the genetic material found in the egg?

Nucleus

291

Which hormone assist in regulating the reproductive tract of the female during pregnancy and is secreted by the corpus luteum?

Progesterone

292

What part of the sperm cell provides locomotion?

tail

293

What is the normal range of the gestation period in days?

305-400 days

294

What does the term, stud fee each service mean?

A stud fee will be charged for each service of the stallion

295

What does the term, return privilege in season mean?

Mare can be brought back for re-breeding until she is in foal for that breeding season only. Second stud fee will be charge after current breeding season is over if mare is returned

296

Milk production and let down of milk is initiated by hormones secreted by which gland?

Pituitary gland

297

What is the name of the ovarian structure that normally develops shortly after estrus?

Corpus luteum

298

What is a yeld mare?

Mare that did not produce a foal during the current season

299

What are the 3 parts of a sperm cell?

Head, midpiece, tail

300

What is a cross between a jack and a mare called?

Mule

301

Chromosomes are made of what materials?

Complex protein

302

When does puberty usually occur in stallions?

Approximately 1 year old

303

What is the name for the male gland which produce the sperm?

Testicle

304

What term describes the genetic makeup of an animal?

Genotype

305

What is the term that describes a cell that duplicates itself and then divides into 2 identical cells?

Mitosis

306

What is a hormone?

Body regulating chemical secreted by a gland into the blood stream

307

what is colostrum?

First milk after birth

308

how does the embryo receive its nutrition before attaching to the uterus?

uterine secretions

309

Most reproductive processes are regulated by which gland?

pituitary gland

310

What is the function of the expelled fluids of the male's accessory glands during mating?

Wash sperm forward through the penis

311

Explain how meiosis and mitosis differ.

Mitosis-- chromosomes duplicates itself before division and one pair (2) of the duplicated chromosomes goes to each new cell (normal cell division). Meiosis-- chromosome pairs divide, one chromosome of each pair goes to each new cell (sex cell division)

312

Which gland produces the follicle stimulating hormone and what is the hormones purpose?

Maintain and regulate male reproductive tract, responsible for masculine appearance and behavior of the stallion.

313

Name the 3 main functions a mare's reproductive organs as it contributes to reproduction.

Produces eggs, receives sperm from the stallion and provides place for the unborn offspring to develop.

314

What are the 2 types of cell division?

Mitosis and meiosis

315

What are the 5 parts of the female reproductive system?

Ovaries, oviducts (Fallopian tubes), uterus, cervix and vagina

316

Name the accessory glands of the male reproductive tract.

Prostate, seminal cesicles, cowpers gland

317

What are the 3 principal estrogenic hormones of the mare?

Estradiol, estrone, estriol

318

Name the 2 main functions of LH.

Regulates corpus luteum in the mare and testosterone secretion in the male

319

Place the following reproductive terms in the correct order: Ovulation, gestation, fertilization, and puberty.

Puberty, ovulation, fertilization and gestation

320

What are the 3 main phases of the estrous cycle?

Diestrus (quiet period), proestrus (preparation), estrus (heat period)

321

Name 3 hormones secreted by the pituitary gland.

Prolactin, LH, FSH

322

What is a male weanling called?

colt

323

Name 5 organs of the male reproductive tract.

Testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, penis

324

Name 5 parts of the mare's ovary.

Follicle, egg, follicular fluid, ovary, old corpus luteum

325

Starting with the testicles, name in order, the movement of sperm through the stallion's reproductive tract.

Testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, penis