Flashcards in Category C: Anatomy Deck (222)
What part of the horse is used mainly to support the horse at rest?
Which legs have more lameness and unsoundnesses?
Front legs because they support more weight
Which feet grow faster, the front or the hind?
Hind because they support less weight
Why should a horse have large nostrils?
because they cant breathe through their mouth
How many bones are found in the horses neck regardless of how long or short the neck is?
What is the ideal angle of the shoulder and pasterns of the horse?
What are the feeler hairs on the horse's muzzle and eyes commonly called?
A healthy horses hooves grow how much per month?
3/8 to 1/2 inch
When a normal healthy horse is walking, what part of the hoof is the last to touch the ground: the heel, toe or frog?
The lateral cartilages are wing-like structures attached to the sides or wings of the what?
Coffin bone (Pedal bone)
Which teeth are used to determine the age of the horse?
Front teeth or incisors
How many teeth will a ten month old foal of either sex have?
24--12 incisors (front teeth) and 12 pre molars (grinding teeth)
How many teeth will a mature male horse have?
40 (42 if they have wolf teeth) --24 molars (grinding teeth), 12 incisors (front teeth) and 4 canine teeth
How many teeth will a mature mare have?
36 -- 12 incisors and 24 molars. mares do not usually have canine teeth
Muscles that control leg movement end at what part of the horses leg?
At the knees and hocks
What is the average number of cheek teeth located on each side of the jaw?
6 teeth on each jaw
What is the part of the hoof that lies between the wall and the frog and covers most of the bottom surface of the hoof?
what part of the hoof lies between the wall and the sole and forms a light colored line around the inside of entire hoof wall?
What is the triangular shaped wedge that lies in the middle of the hoof between the sole and the heel?
What part of the horse is located on top of the head and between the ear?
What part of the horse is located at the very bottom of the horse leg and needs to be trimmed every 6-8 weeks?
What is the long hair that falls down the horses face and helps keeps bugs out of the horses eyes?
What is the long hair that the horses uses to swish away flies and other pest found at the rear end of the horse?
What is the long hair found along the neck of the horse between the ears and the withers?
How many cheek teeth does an adult horse have?
How many permanent teeth does a full grown mare have?
What are the slender teeth in front used for biting grass, feed and etc?
What is another name for the loin?
What part of the tooth fist appears as a narrow yellow mark in the front of the central enamel ring and changes to dark circles near the center of the tooth as the horse ages?
At what age does a horse become smooth mouthed?
What provides the main propulsive force for forward movement?
What part of the horse serves as the powerhouse or propeller?
Where on the legs would you find the gaskin?
Above the hock on the leg
what part of the hoof acts as a sponge where blood pools when the pressure on the hoof decreases and forces blood into the veins and up the leg when it is compressed and pressured is increased?
Name 2 places that horses can not see in due to blind spots.
Directly in from of him or directly behind him.
A horses front legs support how much more weight that the hind legs?
Where is the horses center of gravity located?
About 6 inches behind the elbow.
Where is the horses center of motion located?
About 10 inches behind he center of gravity or above the 15the vertebrae.
What part of the horse should be clean cut and free of any fatty tissue to help movement if the head near the poll and allow easy breathing?
What are the 2 types of check teeth?
Molars and premolars
What is the term for the artificially altering teeth by burning or chemically to make them look younger than their actual age?
Which teeth are smaller, whiter, rounder, and have a noticeable neck and are usually gone by the time that the horse is 5 years old?
Milk (temporary) Teeth
What are the rear or grinding teeth called?
If the incisor shape is round, his shape is about how old?
About 15 years old
A dovetail notch appears on the upper corner incisor at what 2 ages?
7 years and between 12-15 years
Name the structure in the horse's foot that is responsible for absorbing the shock of it's stride.
What part of the tooth first appears as a narrow yellow mark in front of the central enamel ring & changes to dark circles near the center of the tooth as the horse ages?
At what age to permanent premolars erupt?
2 1/2, 3 & 4 years old
What are deciduous teeth?
At what age does Galvayne's groove first appear?
10 years on upper corner incisor
when a normal healthy horse is walking, what part of the hoof is the last to touch the ground: the heel, the frog or the toe?
The lateral cartilages are wing-like structures attached to the sides or wings of what?
The coffin bone (pedal bone)
The digital arteries supply blood to the sensitive structures located where?
In the foot
What are the centers, when referring to teeth?
2 central pairs of incisors above and below
What are the intermediates, when referring to teeth?
Pair adjacent to the central incisors or centers
Name 4 major ways to estimate the age of horses by the appearance of their teeth.
Occurrence of permanent teeth, disappearance of cups, angle of bite, shape of the surface of permanent teeth
What are the 2 small teeth that may appear just in front of the upper molars of the male horse & they may interfere with the bit while riding?
What horse will have more teeth, a two week old foal, a 2 year old mare or a 10 year stallion?
10 year old stallions (40-42).
What part of the horse is located between the back and the rump & is the area that the second rider sits on wile riding double?
What part of the horse is located between the barrel & thigh & has a swirl of hair that goes in a different direction than the other hair in the area?
What part of the horse is located forearm & cannon & is comparable to the hock in the hind leg?
What part of the horse is located between the loin and the tail?
Croup or rump
What of the horse is a joint located between the gaskin & scanning on the hind leg?
Name 4 ways to identify a permanent tooth from a temporary one.
Permanent teeth are larger and longer, have broader her neck area between the root and the crown, parallel grooves and ridges on face of incisors, are darker in color and are flatter.
What is the term for when upper permanent incisors have contact with the corresponding bottom incisor?
They are in wear
What causes the sharp enamel points on the horses teeth?
Wear resulting from lower jaw being more narrow than upper jaw
What are the deep indentures in the center surface of the young permanent incisors which are used to help determine age?
Which occurs first for a smooth mouth or a full mouth?
Full mouth (5 yrs) (smooth mouth -11 yrs)
At what age does a horse have a Full mouth when referring to its teeth?
What is the nature's hoof conditioner?
Where on the horse is the gaskin muscle located?
Between hock and stifle
What acts as a fulcrum point to redirect the deep flexor tendon against the coffin bone as the horse move forward?
Navicular bone (distal sesamoid)
What appears in the incisor, as the cups disappear?
What provides the main propulsive fourth for forward movement?
What are the retained deciduous teeth called?
What is the proper name for the cleft of the frog in the horse's foot?
Central sulcus of the frog
How many deciduous teeth does a 1 year old foal have?
Where, specifically, is the external loin are coupling located on the horse?
On the back between the last rib and the croup
What are the wing-like structures attached to the side of the coffin bone?
What disappears and then reappears later as dark circles near the center of the tooth?
What is the part of the back just in front of the base of the tail and in back of the loin?
Croup (or rump)
What are the horny growth on the inside of the horse's legs found above the knees & below the hocks?
Which legs support more weight while the horse is at rest?
What part of the horse is located at the end of the neck & between the back & forms a raised bony ridge?
What is the elastic, fibro-fatty portion of the coronary band that is covered by a sensitive portion of the coronary band & produces & nourishes the hoof wall?
Name the 4 external parts of the horse's topline.
Withers, back, loin (coupling), croup
What does monocular vision mean?
Ability to see separate objects with each eye at the same time
Since there are no muscles in the lower legs, what controls the cannon, pastern & foot action?
Tendons & ligaments
When do the permanent intermediate incisors erupt?
3 1/2 years old
Which teeth do male horses have that female often do not?
The loin acts as a bridge between which 2 parts of the horse?
Rib cage & hips
What are the teeth that appear in the interdental space on the male horse at about 5 years of age?
Canine or tushes
At rest the front legs of the horse support how much more weight than the hind legs?
How many teeth does a mature mare have?
What is the proper angle for a good shoulder?
What is the primary function of the front legs & feet?
Support the horse at rest
What term refers to a lower jaw that is shorter than the upper jaw?
Why are large nostrils a valuable asset for the horse?
It is the only way for the horse to get air into the lungs
When does a horse become completely unreliable & pays no attention to his own safety?
When he is frightened
What is the wedge-shaped area located on the bottom surface of the hoof?
Where is the pituitary gland located?
At the base of the brain
What part of the horse serves as the powerhouse or propeller?
What is the interdental space?
The gum space between the incisors & molars
How many incisors are on the top jaw of the horse?
What is a star shaped or circle-like structure near the center of the wearing surface of the permanent incisors?
What is the hollow space on the wearing surface of the incisor?
All of the intake of air into the lungs must first pass through what part of the horse?
What is the term that describes the outer angle at which the upper & lower incisors meet?
Angle of bite
The front legs of the horse are not attached to the main skeleton by joints. How are they held in position?
By muscular structures
At what age is the horse said to be smooth mouthed?
11 years old
What is another name for the teeth called tushes?
What is the thin, lighter area between the wall & sole?
What is the first part of the digestive tract?
Coarseness about the head also indicates coarseness where?
At what age do the permanent corner incisors erupt?
4 1/2 years old
Name the joints that attach the front legs of the horse to the main skeleton.
None--front legs are attached by muscular structures.
How many cervical vertebrae do all horses have?
Where are cervical vertebrae found?
In the neck
What do large nostrils allow for?
Maximum intake of air
What is the science of the structure of the animal's body & the relation of its parts?
What is the deep depressions between the frog & bars of the hoof?
Name 2 places where bars are located on the horse.
Bottom of the hoof and in mouth
Which is found closer to the coronary band inside the hoof: sole, insensitive frog, sensitive frog or plantar cushion?
What could cause a horse's teeth to appear different than his actual age?
Grazing on sandy soils
What does the periople prevent?
Evaporation or drying out of the hoof
What part of the horse is located between the coronet & the ground?
What part of the horse lies between the knee & fetlock?
Where would you find the sensitive laminae on the horse?
In the foot
What is the name for the thin outer layer of the hoof?
What are the 3 main functions of the hoof?
Shock absorption, locomotion, circulation
What is the bony structure that is the most upright member of the spinal column on a mature horse?
Name 2 ways to determine the age of the horse by his teeth.
Look at wear & slant of front teeth (incisors), size & color of teeth, number of milk or temporary teeth, number of permanent teeth, disappearance of cups
What body system of the horse is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine & large intestine?
Which body system of the horse is made up of the ovary, oviduct, uterus & birth canal?
Female reproductive system
How many teeth does the adult male horse have?
40 (42 if wolf teeth are present)
Give 2 reasons why a horse needs a clean throatlatch.
Facilitate movement of head at the poll & allow for easy breathing
Describe a good topline of a horse.
Short back & loin coupled with a desirable shoulder & withers
Cannon bones should give what appearance when viewed from the side?
Small, narrow, squinty eyes are often correlated to what type of quality & disposition?
Coarseness in quality & a lazy, sluggish disposition
Describe a good shoulder.
Long, flat, smooth with a 45 degree slope
At what age have the cups disappeared on the upper incisors?
11 years old
What is the capacity of the large intestine in gallons?
Name 2 nutrients that are not primarily digested & absorbed in the small intestine.
Water & fiber
What is the primary site of digestion & absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract?
What is the term for acetic, proprionic & butyric acids?
Volatile fatty acids
What is the term for the top of a tooth protruding above the gum?
What is the term for having a pleasing, graceful, alert general appearance?
Name the small, finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase its surface area and aid in digestion.
Which part of the hoof acts as a sponge where blood pools when the pressure of the hoof decreases & when compressed it forces blood into veins & up the leg?
Which incisor teeth are the intermediate?
Second set of incisors located between the center & corners
When moving, a lame horse will jerk his head up as what happens?
Head jerks up as lame limb strikes the ground
The powerful gaskin muscle gives strength to the legs to help the horse in what 2 ways?
Enables propulsion, gives horse a long & powerful stride
How many canine teeth does a gelding or stallion have?
Name 2 parts of the horse located between the stifle & cannon.
Gaskin and hock
Name the 3 parts of a temporary tooth.
Crown, neck & fang
Describe 3 features of a good rump.
Long, wide & level with strong muscles
Young horses have a total of how many temporary teeth?
What is the term used to refer to the back & loin together on a horse?
Name 2 parts of the horse located below the arm & above the knee.
Forearm and elbow
Why is the loin the weakest part of the top line?
There is no bone structure for support
What is an abnormal bony growth on the cannon bone usually found on the inside of the front legs?
When the hoof strikes the ground properly, name 2 parts that will hit the ground before the toe.
Heel and frog
What is the more common term for mastication?
The horse is divided into what 4 anatomical areas?
Head & neck, forequarters, body or trunk, rear quarters
What is the scientific name for the shoulder blade?
At what age do the permanent center incisors erupt?
2 1/2 years
Where is the center of motion located?
Approximately over the 15th vertebrae
What are the 2 types of vision possessed by the horse?
Monocular and binocular
What common action defect can be caused by a short underline?
The hoof wall grows out perpendicularly to what part of the foot?
Where do the muscles that control leg movement stop?
At the knees and hocks
The toe of the hoof should have the same angle as what other part?
Angle of the pastern
Which tendon is attached to the coffin bone and cause the extension of the hoof at each step?
At what age have all the milk teeth erupted?
Give 2 features of a good ear.
Medium size, attractive set, carried at a 45 degree angle
What is the common term for deglutition?
Where is the primary site of fiber breakdown and digestion by bacterial fermentation?
Where would the lumbar vertebrae be found?
Coupling or loin
Which nutrient does gastric lipase help to digest?
What part of the digestive system lies close to the skin on the left side of the neck and is about 5 feet long?
As far as behavior is concerned, what is the most important physical feature of the horse's head and neck?
Name 4 parts of the horse located between the head and barrel, excluding the leg.
Neck, crest, mane, shoulder, point of shoulder, arm, withers
What is the stomach opening into the small intestine?
What begins to happen to the incisors at age 6 and ends at 11 years old?
Cups disappear at regular intervals beginning with the centers
What part of the digestive system of the horse is the longest?
What is the term for grasping of food by the lips to bring it into the mouth?
Shoes that are left on too long can cause excessive strain on which tendons?
When a horse becomes interested or excited enough to lift his head and point his ears forward, he is said to be using what type of vision?
Name 3 parts of the horse located above the hoof and below the cannon.
Coronet, pastern, ankle, fetlock, ergot
Name 2 blind spots caused by the position of the eyes on the horse's head.
Directly behind the horse & directly downward below the head
What is the name of the tendon that is attached to the coffin bone and hoof that flexes the hoof during each step?
Deep flexor tendon
Where would the wolf teeth be found on a horse?
In front of the premolars
What first appears as narrow yellow marks in front of the central enamel ring after the cups have disappeared?
Which teeth can cause a great deal of pain when the hit hits them?
What is the term for the curved covering of horn over the foot or the foot as a whole?
What is the term for the horny-grooved part of the hoof found inside of the hoof and on the outside of the coffin bone?
What tendon is attached to the coffin bone and hoof and flexes the hoof for each step of locomotion?
Deep flexor tendon
What tendon is attached to the coffin bone and causes extension of the hoof at each step?
Bile is produced in the liver, where does it go from there?
Directly into the small intestine
When is the slope of the hoof considered to be normal?
When the toe of the hoof and the pastern have the same angle
Name 4 important features of a horse's anatomy that play an important part in his stride.
Long neck, high withers, length and angle of shoulders and pasterns, length of forearm and gaskins
What is the length and capacity of the large intestine?
Length is 25-29 feet; Capacity is 32 gallons (130 quarts)
Name the 3 functional divisions of the horse.
Head and neck, Forehand assembly, Rearhand assembly
Name 8 parts of the hoof.
Toe, heel quarter, wall, sole, frog, white line, bars, bulb, commissure, point of frog, seat of corn, buttress of heel, cleft of frog
Name the 9 parts of the front leg in order starting with the elbow and going downward.
Elbow, forearm, knee, cannon, ankle, fetlock pastern, coronet, hoof
What is the length, diameter and capacity of the small intestine?
65-68 feet long, 3 inches in diameter, capacity of 12 gallons (48 quarts)
Name 3 reasons a topline must be strong.
To protect internal organs, support riders weight, transmit the propulsion generated by the hind legs to the front end
Place the following terms in order: mastication, defecation, prehension, deglutition.
Prehension, mastication, deglutition, defecation
Name 5 parts of the hoof found on the inside of the hoof wall and sole.
Sensitive laminae, insensitive frog, sensitive frog, plantar cushion, coffin bone, short pastern bone, deep flexor tendon (navicular bone also acceptable)
Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands.
Parotid, submaxillary, sublingual
Name the 6 accessory organs of the digestive system.
Lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas
Name 4 types of teeth present in the stallion.
Incisors, molars, premolars, canine (wolf teeth also acceptable)
The length of the horse's stride is related to the length of what 4 other parts?
Length and angle of shoulders and pasterns, length of forearms and gaskins, length of neck
Describe the difference between smooth mouthed and full mouthed.
Full mouthed--horse has complete set of permanent incisors.
Smooth mouthed--cups on the permanent incisors have disappeared on both the upper & lower jaws
Name the 6 parts of the digestive system.
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Name 8 parts of the trunk of the horse.
Shoulders, withers, chest, point of shoulder, arm, barrel, girth, back, loin (coupling),croup (rump), point of hip, buttock, thigh, flank, abdomen
Name the 3 types of incisors.
Centers, intermediates and corners
Name the 9 parts of the hind leg in order beginning with the stifle and moving downward.
Stifle, gaskin, hock, cannon, ankle, fetlock, pastern, coronet, hoof
Name 4 bones located below the knee or hock.
Cannon, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bones (also navicular bone)
Name 5 parts of the horse found inside the hoof between the sole and coronary band.
Coffin bone, short pastern bone, sensitive laminae, insensitive laminae, sensitive frog, insensitive frog, plantar cushion, deep flexor tendon (also navicular bone)
Name 6 parts of the hoof when viewed from the bottom side.
Wall, bars, heel, bulb, commissures, frog, cleft of frog, point of frog, white line, sole, buttress of heel, seat of corn, toe, quarter