Category C: Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Category C: Anatomy Deck (222)
1

What part of the horse is used mainly to support the horse at rest?

Front legs

2

Which legs have more lameness and unsoundnesses?

Front legs because they support more weight

3

Which feet grow faster, the front or the hind?

Hind because they support less weight

4

Why should a horse have large nostrils?

because they cant breathe through their mouth

5

How many bones are found in the horses neck regardless of how long or short the neck is?

Seven

6

What is the ideal angle of the shoulder and pasterns of the horse?

45 degrees

7

What are the feeler hairs on the horse's muzzle and eyes commonly called?

Whiskers

8

A healthy horses hooves grow how much per month?

3/8 to 1/2 inch

9

When a normal healthy horse is walking, what part of the hoof is the last to touch the ground: the heel, toe or frog?

toe

10

The lateral cartilages are wing-like structures attached to the sides or wings of the what?

Coffin bone (Pedal bone)

11

Which teeth are used to determine the age of the horse?

Front teeth or incisors

12

How many teeth will a ten month old foal of either sex have?

24--12 incisors (front teeth) and 12 pre molars (grinding teeth)

13

How many teeth will a mature male horse have?

40 (42 if they have wolf teeth) --24 molars (grinding teeth), 12 incisors (front teeth) and 4 canine teeth

14

How many teeth will a mature mare have?

36 -- 12 incisors and 24 molars. mares do not usually have canine teeth

15

Muscles that control leg movement end at what part of the horses leg?

At the knees and hocks

16

What is the average number of cheek teeth located on each side of the jaw?

6 teeth on each jaw

17

What is the part of the hoof that lies between the wall and the frog and covers most of the bottom surface of the hoof?

sole

18

what part of the hoof lies between the wall and the sole and forms a light colored line around the inside of entire hoof wall?

White line

19

What is the triangular shaped wedge that lies in the middle of the hoof between the sole and the heel?

frog

20

What part of the horse is located on top of the head and between the ear?

poll

21

What part of the horse is located at the very bottom of the horse leg and needs to be trimmed every 6-8 weeks?

hoof

22

What is the long hair that falls down the horses face and helps keeps bugs out of the horses eyes?

forelock

23

What is the long hair that the horses uses to swish away flies and other pest found at the rear end of the horse?

tail

24

What is the long hair found along the neck of the horse between the ears and the withers?

mane

25

How many cheek teeth does an adult horse have?

24

26

How many permanent teeth does a full grown mare have?

36 teeth

27

What are the slender teeth in front used for biting grass, feed and etc?

Incisors

28

What is another name for the loin?

Coupling

29

What part of the tooth fist appears as a narrow yellow mark in the front of the central enamel ring and changes to dark circles near the center of the tooth as the horse ages?

Dental star

30

At what age does a horse become smooth mouthed?

11 years

31

What provides the main propulsive force for forward movement?

Hindlegs

32

What part of the horse serves as the powerhouse or propeller?

Hindquarters

33

Where on the legs would you find the gaskin?

Above the hock on the leg

34

what part of the hoof acts as a sponge where blood pools when the pressure on the hoof decreases and forces blood into the veins and up the leg when it is compressed and pressured is increased?

plantar cushion

35

Name 2 places that horses can not see in due to blind spots.

Directly in from of him or directly behind him.

36

A horses front legs support how much more weight that the hind legs?

9%-10% more

37

Where is the horses center of gravity located?

About 6 inches behind the elbow.

38

Where is the horses center of motion located?

About 10 inches behind he center of gravity or above the 15the vertebrae.

39

What part of the horse should be clean cut and free of any fatty tissue to help movement if the head near the poll and allow easy breathing?

Throatlatch

40

What are the 2 types of check teeth?

Molars and premolars

41

What is the term for the artificially altering teeth by burning or chemically to make them look younger than their actual age?

Bishoping

42

Which teeth are smaller, whiter, rounder, and have a noticeable neck and are usually gone by the time that the horse is 5 years old?

Milk (temporary) Teeth

43

What are the rear or grinding teeth called?

Molars

44

If the incisor shape is round, his shape is about how old?

About 15 years old

45

A dovetail notch appears on the upper corner incisor at what 2 ages?

7 years and between 12-15 years

46

Name the structure in the horse's foot that is responsible for absorbing the shock of it's stride.

Frog

47

What part of the tooth first appears as a narrow yellow mark in front of the central enamel ring & changes to dark circles near the center of the tooth as the horse ages?

Dental Star

48

At what age to permanent premolars erupt?

2 1/2, 3 & 4 years old

49

What are deciduous teeth?

Baby teeth

50

At what age does Galvayne's groove first appear?

10 years on upper corner incisor

51

when a normal healthy horse is walking, what part of the hoof is the last to touch the ground: the heel, the frog or the toe?

The toe

52

The lateral cartilages are wing-like structures attached to the sides or wings of what?

The coffin bone (pedal bone)

53

The digital arteries supply blood to the sensitive structures located where?

In the foot

54

What are the centers, when referring to teeth?

2 central pairs of incisors above and below

55

What are the intermediates, when referring to teeth?

Pair adjacent to the central incisors or centers

56

Name 4 major ways to estimate the age of horses by the appearance of their teeth.

Occurrence of permanent teeth, disappearance of cups, angle of bite, shape of the surface of permanent teeth

57

What are the 2 small teeth that may appear just in front of the upper molars of the male horse & they may interfere with the bit while riding?

Wolf teeth

58

What horse will have more teeth, a two week old foal, a 2 year old mare or a 10 year stallion?

10 year old stallions (40-42).

59

What part of the horse is located between the back and the rump & is the area that the second rider sits on wile riding double?

Loin

60

What part of the horse is located between the barrel & thigh & has a swirl of hair that goes in a different direction than the other hair in the area?

Flank

61

What part of the horse is located forearm & cannon & is comparable to the hock in the hind leg?

Knee

62

What part of the horse is located between the loin and the tail?

Croup or rump

63

What of the horse is a joint located between the gaskin & scanning on the hind leg?

Hock

64

Name 4 ways to identify a permanent tooth from a temporary one.

Permanent teeth are larger and longer, have broader her neck area between the root and the crown, parallel grooves and ridges on face of incisors, are darker in color and are flatter.

65

What is the term for when upper permanent incisors have contact with the corresponding bottom incisor?

They are in wear

66

What causes the sharp enamel points on the horses teeth?

Wear resulting from lower jaw being more narrow than upper jaw

67

What are the deep indentures in the center surface of the young permanent incisors which are used to help determine age?

Cups

68

Which occurs first for a smooth mouth or a full mouth?

Full mouth (5 yrs) (smooth mouth -11 yrs)

69

At what age does a horse have a Full mouth when referring to its teeth?

5 years

70

What is the nature's hoof conditioner?

Water

71

Where on the horse is the gaskin muscle located?

Between hock and stifle

72

What acts as a fulcrum point to redirect the deep flexor tendon against the coffin bone as the horse move forward?

Navicular bone (distal sesamoid)

73

What appears in the incisor, as the cups disappear?

Dental stars

74

What provides the main propulsive fourth for forward movement?

Hindlegs

75

What are the retained deciduous teeth called?

Caps

76

What is the proper name for the cleft of the frog in the horse's foot?

Central sulcus of the frog

77

How many deciduous teeth does a 1 year old foal have?

24

78

Where, specifically, is the external loin are coupling located on the horse?

On the back between the last rib and the croup

79

What are the wing-like structures attached to the side of the coffin bone?

Lateral cartilage

80

What disappears and then reappears later as dark circles near the center of the tooth?

Dental stars

81

What is the part of the back just in front of the base of the tail and in back of the loin?

Croup (or rump)

82

What are the horny growth on the inside of the horse's legs found above the knees & below the hocks?

Chestnuts

83

Which legs support more weight while the horse is at rest?

Front legs

84

What part of the horse is located at the end of the neck & between the back & forms a raised bony ridge?

Withers

85

What is the elastic, fibro-fatty portion of the coronary band that is covered by a sensitive portion of the coronary band & produces & nourishes the hoof wall?

Coronary cushion

86

Name the 4 external parts of the horse's topline.

Withers, back, loin (coupling), croup

87

What does monocular vision mean?

Ability to see separate objects with each eye at the same time

88

Since there are no muscles in the lower legs, what controls the cannon, pastern & foot action?

Tendons & ligaments

89

When do the permanent intermediate incisors erupt?

3 1/2 years old

90

Which teeth do male horses have that female often do not?

Canine teeth

91

The loin acts as a bridge between which 2 parts of the horse?

Rib cage & hips

92

What are the teeth that appear in the interdental space on the male horse at about 5 years of age?

Canine or tushes

93

At rest the front legs of the horse support how much more weight than the hind legs?

9-10% more

94

How many teeth does a mature mare have?

36

95

What is the proper angle for a good shoulder?

45 degrees

96

What is the primary function of the front legs & feet?

Support the horse at rest

97

What term refers to a lower jaw that is shorter than the upper jaw?

Parrot mouth

98

Why are large nostrils a valuable asset for the horse?

It is the only way for the horse to get air into the lungs

99

When does a horse become completely unreliable & pays no attention to his own safety?

When he is frightened

100

What is the wedge-shaped area located on the bottom surface of the hoof?

Frog

101

Where is the pituitary gland located?

At the base of the brain

102

What part of the horse serves as the powerhouse or propeller?

Hindquarters

103

What is the interdental space?

The gum space between the incisors & molars

104

How many incisors are on the top jaw of the horse?

6

105

What is a star shaped or circle-like structure near the center of the wearing surface of the permanent incisors?

Dental star

106

What is the hollow space on the wearing surface of the incisor?

Cups

107

All of the intake of air into the lungs must first pass through what part of the horse?

Nostrils

108

What is the term that describes the outer angle at which the upper & lower incisors meet?

Angle of bite

109

The front legs of the horse are not attached to the main skeleton by joints. How are they held in position?

By muscular structures

110

At what age is the horse said to be smooth mouthed?

11 years old

111

What is another name for the teeth called tushes?

Canine teeth

112

What is the thin, lighter area between the wall & sole?

White line

113

What is the first part of the digestive tract?

Mouth

114

Coarseness about the head also indicates coarseness where?

Entire body

115

At what age do the permanent corner incisors erupt?

4 1/2 years old

116

Name the joints that attach the front legs of the horse to the main skeleton.

None--front legs are attached by muscular structures.

117

How many cervical vertebrae do all horses have?

7

118

Where are cervical vertebrae found?

In the neck

119

What do large nostrils allow for?

Maximum intake of air

120

What is the science of the structure of the animal's body & the relation of its parts?

Anatomy

121

What is the deep depressions between the frog & bars of the hoof?

Commissures

122

Name 2 places where bars are located on the horse.

Bottom of the hoof and in mouth

123

Which is found closer to the coronary band inside the hoof: sole, insensitive frog, sensitive frog or plantar cushion?

Plantar cushion

124

What could cause a horse's teeth to appear different than his actual age?

Grazing on sandy soils

125

What does the periople prevent?

Evaporation or drying out of the hoof

126

What part of the horse is located between the coronet & the ground?

Hoof

127

What part of the horse lies between the knee & fetlock?

Cannon

128

Where would you find the sensitive laminae on the horse?

In the foot

129

What is the name for the thin outer layer of the hoof?

Periople

130

What are the 3 main functions of the hoof?

Shock absorption, locomotion, circulation

131

What is the bony structure that is the most upright member of the spinal column on a mature horse?

15th vertebrae

132

Name 2 ways to determine the age of the horse by his teeth.

Look at wear & slant of front teeth (incisors), size & color of teeth, number of milk or temporary teeth, number of permanent teeth, disappearance of cups

133

What body system of the horse is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine & large intestine?

Digestive system

134

Which body system of the horse is made up of the ovary, oviduct, uterus & birth canal?

Female reproductive system

135

How many teeth does the adult male horse have?

40 (42 if wolf teeth are present)

136

Give 2 reasons why a horse needs a clean throatlatch.

Facilitate movement of head at the poll & allow for easy breathing

137

Describe a good topline of a horse.

Short back & loin coupled with a desirable shoulder & withers

138

Cannon bones should give what appearance when viewed from the side?

Flat

139

Small, narrow, squinty eyes are often correlated to what type of quality & disposition?

Coarseness in quality & a lazy, sluggish disposition

140

Describe a good shoulder.

Long, flat, smooth with a 45 degree slope

141

At what age have the cups disappeared on the upper incisors?

11 years old

142

What is the capacity of the large intestine in gallons?

32 gallons

143

Name 2 nutrients that are not primarily digested & absorbed in the small intestine.

Water & fiber

144

What is the primary site of digestion & absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract?

Small intestine

145

What is the term for acetic, proprionic & butyric acids?

Volatile fatty acids

146

What is the term for the top of a tooth protruding above the gum?

Crown

147

What is the term for having a pleasing, graceful, alert general appearance?

Stylish

148

Name the small, finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase its surface area and aid in digestion.

Villi

149

Which part of the hoof acts as a sponge where blood pools when the pressure of the hoof decreases & when compressed it forces blood into veins & up the leg?

Plantar cushion

150

Which incisor teeth are the intermediate?

Second set of incisors located between the center & corners

151

When moving, a lame horse will jerk his head up as what happens?

Head jerks up as lame limb strikes the ground

152

The powerful gaskin muscle gives strength to the legs to help the horse in what 2 ways?

Enables propulsion, gives horse a long & powerful stride

153

How many canine teeth does a gelding or stallion have?

4

154

Name 2 parts of the horse located between the stifle & cannon.

Gaskin and hock

155

Name the 3 parts of a temporary tooth.

Crown, neck & fang

156

Describe 3 features of a good rump.

Long, wide & level with strong muscles

157

Young horses have a total of how many temporary teeth?

24

158

What is the term used to refer to the back & loin together on a horse?

Topline

159

Name 2 parts of the horse located below the arm & above the knee.

Forearm and elbow

160

Why is the loin the weakest part of the top line?

There is no bone structure for support

161

What is an abnormal bony growth on the cannon bone usually found on the inside of the front legs?

Splints

162

When the hoof strikes the ground properly, name 2 parts that will hit the ground before the toe.

Heel and frog

163

What is the more common term for mastication?

Chewing

164

The horse is divided into what 4 anatomical areas?

Head & neck, forequarters, body or trunk, rear quarters

165

What is the scientific name for the shoulder blade?

Scapula

166

At what age do the permanent center incisors erupt?

2 1/2 years

167

Where is the center of motion located?

Approximately over the 15th vertebrae

168

What are the 2 types of vision possessed by the horse?

Monocular and binocular

169

What common action defect can be caused by a short underline?

Forging

170

The hoof wall grows out perpendicularly to what part of the foot?

Coronary band

171

Where do the muscles that control leg movement stop?

At the knees and hocks

172

The toe of the hoof should have the same angle as what other part?

Angle of the pastern

173

Which tendon is attached to the coffin bone and cause the extension of the hoof at each step?

Extensor tendon

174

At what age have all the milk teeth erupted?

6-9 months

175

Give 2 features of a good ear.

Medium size, attractive set, carried at a 45 degree angle

176

What is the common term for deglutition?

Swallowing

177

Where is the primary site of fiber breakdown and digestion by bacterial fermentation?

Cecum

178

Where would the lumbar vertebrae be found?

Coupling or loin

179

Which nutrient does gastric lipase help to digest?

Fats

180

What part of the digestive system lies close to the skin on the left side of the neck and is about 5 feet long?

Esophagus

181

As far as behavior is concerned, what is the most important physical feature of the horse's head and neck?

Eye

182

Name 4 parts of the horse located between the head and barrel, excluding the leg.

Neck, crest, mane, shoulder, point of shoulder, arm, withers

183

What is the stomach opening into the small intestine?

Pyloric sphincter

184

What begins to happen to the incisors at age 6 and ends at 11 years old?

Cups disappear at regular intervals beginning with the centers

185

What part of the digestive system of the horse is the longest?

Small intestine

186

What is the term for grasping of food by the lips to bring it into the mouth?

Prehension

187

Shoes that are left on too long can cause excessive strain on which tendons?

Flexor tendons

188

When a horse becomes interested or excited enough to lift his head and point his ears forward, he is said to be using what type of vision?

Binocular

189

Name 3 parts of the horse located above the hoof and below the cannon.

Coronet, pastern, ankle, fetlock, ergot

190

Name 2 blind spots caused by the position of the eyes on the horse's head.

Directly behind the horse & directly downward below the head

191

What is the name of the tendon that is attached to the coffin bone and hoof that flexes the hoof during each step?

Deep flexor tendon

192

Where would the wolf teeth be found on a horse?

In front of the premolars

193

What first appears as narrow yellow marks in front of the central enamel ring after the cups have disappeared?

Dental star

194

Which teeth can cause a great deal of pain when the hit hits them?

Wolf teeth

195

What is the term for the curved covering of horn over the foot or the foot as a whole?

Hoof

196

What is the term for the horny-grooved part of the hoof found inside of the hoof and on the outside of the coffin bone?

Laminae

197

What tendon is attached to the coffin bone and hoof and flexes the hoof for each step of locomotion?

Deep flexor tendon

198

What tendon is attached to the coffin bone and causes extension of the hoof at each step?

Extensor tendon

199

Bile is produced in the liver, where does it go from there?

Directly into the small intestine

200

When is the slope of the hoof considered to be normal?

When the toe of the hoof and the pastern have the same angle

201

Name 4 important features of a horse's anatomy that play an important part in his stride.

Long neck, high withers, length and angle of shoulders and pasterns, length of forearm and gaskins

202

What is the length and capacity of the large intestine?

Length is 25-29 feet; Capacity is 32 gallons (130 quarts)

203

Name the 3 functional divisions of the horse.

Head and neck, Forehand assembly, Rearhand assembly

204

Name 8 parts of the hoof.

Toe, heel quarter, wall, sole, frog, white line, bars, bulb, commissure, point of frog, seat of corn, buttress of heel, cleft of frog

205

Name the 9 parts of the front leg in order starting with the elbow and going downward.

Elbow, forearm, knee, cannon, ankle, fetlock pastern, coronet, hoof

206

What is the length, diameter and capacity of the small intestine?

65-68 feet long, 3 inches in diameter, capacity of 12 gallons (48 quarts)

207

Name 3 reasons a topline must be strong.

To protect internal organs, support riders weight, transmit the propulsion generated by the hind legs to the front end

208

Place the following terms in order: mastication, defecation, prehension, deglutition.

Prehension, mastication, deglutition, defecation

209

Name 5 parts of the hoof found on the inside of the hoof wall and sole.

Sensitive laminae, insensitive frog, sensitive frog, plantar cushion, coffin bone, short pastern bone, deep flexor tendon (navicular bone also acceptable)

210

Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands.

Parotid, submaxillary, sublingual

211

Name the 6 accessory organs of the digestive system.

Lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas

212

Name 4 types of teeth present in the stallion.

Incisors, molars, premolars, canine (wolf teeth also acceptable)

213

The length of the horse's stride is related to the length of what 4 other parts?

Length and angle of shoulders and pasterns, length of forearms and gaskins, length of neck

214

Describe the difference between smooth mouthed and full mouthed.

Full mouthed--horse has complete set of permanent incisors.
Smooth mouthed--cups on the permanent incisors have disappeared on both the upper & lower jaws

215

Name the 6 parts of the digestive system.

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

216

Name 8 parts of the trunk of the horse.

Shoulders, withers, chest, point of shoulder, arm, barrel, girth, back, loin (coupling),croup (rump), point of hip, buttock, thigh, flank, abdomen

217

Name the 3 types of incisors.

Centers, intermediates and corners

218

Name the 9 parts of the hind leg in order beginning with the stifle and moving downward.

Stifle, gaskin, hock, cannon, ankle, fetlock, pastern, coronet, hoof

219

Name 4 bones located below the knee or hock.

Cannon, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bones (also navicular bone)

220

Name 5 parts of the horse found inside the hoof between the sole and coronary band.

Coffin bone, short pastern bone, sensitive laminae, insensitive laminae, sensitive frog, insensitive frog, plantar cushion, deep flexor tendon (also navicular bone)

221

Name 6 parts of the hoof when viewed from the bottom side.

Wall, bars, heel, bulb, commissures, frog, cleft of frog, point of frog, white line, sole, buttress of heel, seat of corn, toe, quarter

222

Name 6 parts of the hoof.

Heel, white line, quarter, toe, wall, sole, buttress of heel, bulb, bars, seat of corn, cleft of frog, point of frog, commissures