Flashcards in CBRN Deck (107):
What is the current US policy on NBC?
To deter enemy NBC use through a strong nuclear force and conventional capabilities that include:
Active and passive defense
Consequence management to enable US forces to survive, fight, and win in an NBC environment
What does NBC stand for?
Nuclear, biological, chemical
What are 4 capabilities of counterproliferation?
The Us military response to the threat and actual use of NBC weapons is counterproliferation - what is counterproliferation?
A multitiered, integrated approach intended to deter NBC use and enable US forces to survive, fight and win in an NBC environment
What is counterforce under counterproliferation?
Attacks adversary NBC weapons and their associated production, transportation, and storage facilities before their use in order to reduce the NBC threat to friendly operations and US interests
What are two classification types of NBC hazards?
Immediate hazards - produce casualties immediately after attack
Residual hazards - delayed effects
What are the 6 major types of chemical agents?
What forms do chemical agents come in?
What must a unit be able to do in order to survive a NBC attack?
1) take immediate and correct action upon warning of an imminent NBC attack or arrival of a CB agent or radiological fallout
2) determine the presence and nature of NBC hazards in the units area and take effective measures to mitigate, to the extent possible, the effects of a NBC attack
3) properly use unit NBC protective equipment and supplies and maintain the. In a high state of serviceability and readiness
4) enforce a high order of health, hygiene, and sanitation to minimize the spread of disease following a biological attack
What is the number of Antidote Treatment Nerve Agent Auto injectors that must be given as immediate first aid treatment for nerve agent poisoning?
What is the number of Nerve Agent Antidote Kits (NAAKs) that must be given as immediate first aid treatment for nerve agent poisoning?
How many Mark I nerve agent antidote kits does a soldier receive?
The two chamber auto injector in the Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK) provides both antidote agents (atropine and pralidoxime chlorine) through a single injection - which antidote is injected first?
Atropine is injected first followed by the pralidoxime
How long should you apply pressure when using the Auto injector?
What do you do with the auto injector after injecting?
Stick it through the pocket flap (upper left) so that you do not lose count and so that someone that happens to come across the casualty will know that they have already been given X amount of injections and will not give them more than needed
Whose auto injectors would you use when giving Buddy Aid?
The other person's auto injectors (the receiver of medical attention)
When giving buddy aid, how long of a wait is taken to administer the 2nd nerve agent antidote (MK1) if still experiencing symptoms of nerve agent?
Immediately give the 2nd and 3rd
When giving self aid, how long should you wait before administering a 2nd MK1 if still experiencing symptoms of a nerve agent?
Wait 10-15 minutes, and 10-15 minutes between 2nd and 3rd as well
What is MOPP?
Mission Oriented Protective Posture
What are the proper masking procedures?
1) stop breathing, close eyes
2) don protective mask
3) clear mask
4) check seal of mask
5) sound alarm to alert others
6) continue mission
What are the 5 levels of MOPP?
What are the 3 types of procedures for MOPP gear exchange?
1) buddy team
2) triple buddy
What two types of gases will the protective mask not protect against?
Ammonia vapors and carbon monoxide
Once masked, who can make the decision to unmask?
How often should you check your protective mask during peacetime?
- before, during, and after training events
- monthly (minimum)
What does CPOG stand for?
Chemical Protective Outer Garment
What is the first step in putting on your M17 series mask?
What actions are taken in MOPP Level 2?
Over garment - worn
Overboots - worn
Hood/mask - carried
Gloves - carried
What chemical is used when checking the operation of the protective mask?
What does JSLIST stand for?
Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology
What are two features of the JSLIST suit?
1) washable up to 6 times
2) reduces heat stress
What are 3 types of alarms and signals that units use to respond quickly and correctly to NBC hazards?
1) audible alarms
2) automatic alarms
3) visual alarms
When do you give warning when under NBC attack?
After you mask
The primary means of warning units of an actual or predicted NBC hazard is the NBC warning and reporting system (NBCWRS), consisting of six reports - which report is the most widely used report?
The NBC 1 report (observing unit uses this report to provide NBC attack data)
What is an NBC 1 report?
It is an initial observer's report of any type of NBC attack
What communications precedence is an NBC 1 report?
FLASH precedence - all others are immediate
What is DA Form 1971-7-R?
NBC 1 observer's initial or follow-up report (observing unit uses this report to provide NBC attack data)
Describe some of the information contained on an NBC 1 nuclear attack report?
1) date and time of attack
2) flash-to-bang time
3) illumination time
4) type of burst
5) location of GZ (ground zero) or azimuth to attack
6) stabilized nuclear cloud measurements
What are 3 fundamentals of NBC defense?
1) avoid contamination
What should a unit do when a NBC 3 report is received?
Continuous chemical monitoring - continuous surveillance for radiation in the unit are or position
During the monitoring for a series NBC 4 report, at what distance does the operator take a dose rate reading?
Maximum 150 meters out - no more than 300 meters apart
What are the dimensions of a NBC marker?
11 1/2 " on the top by 8" on either side
What is the shape of the contamination markers?
What does the process of absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing chemical and biological agents or removing radioactive material that is around or clinging to a person, object, or area in order to make it safe?
What are the 3 levels of decontamination?
What are the colors for both Gas and Chemical Marker and Bio Marker?
Background is yellow with red lettering - gas
Background is blue with red lettering - bio
What is the color of a nuclear (radiological) contamination marker?
White background with ATOM in black letters
What two things should you avoid doing when crossing a contaminated area?
Stirring up dust
How should an area be crossed that is suspected of contamination?
Quickly, avoiding depressions and vegetation
What's the first step performed during a crossing of a contaminated area?
What is the current US policy regarding the use of nuclear assets?
-last resort - may use to terminate a conflict or war at the lowest acceptable level of hostilities
-this is interpreted to mean that the US may use nuclear weapons first only if necessary
What is the current US policy regarding the use of chemical weapons?
The US will never use chemical weapons
What is the current US policy regarding the use of biological weapons?
The US will never use biological weapons
Who had the authority to order the use of nuclear weapons?
Only the US President
What are Flash Burns?
Direct burns produced by the flash of thermal radiation from the fireball
What causes the most casualties in a nuclear attack?
The initial blast and the heat of detonation
What are the 3 types of nuclear bursts?
Which nuclear burst would you rather use for maximum radiation effect?
What is the difference between Dose Rate and Total Dose?
Dose rate is the amount of radiation per hour
Total Dose is the actual accumulation
What does an AN VDR-2 detect and measure?
Nuclear radiation from fallout and radioisotopes
What is meant by Biological Warfare?
The intentional use by an enemy of germs or toxins to cause death and disease among personnel, animals, plants, or more rarely, to deteriorate material
What are the 2 broad categories of biological agents?
Pathogens and Toxins
What are pathogens?
Living microorganism pas (infectious agents) that cause disease in man, animals, or plants
What are toxins?
Poisonous substances produced as by-products of microorganisms (the pathogens), plants, and animals
What are the protective measures taken for a biological attack?
- use of IPE, individual protective equipment (mask)
- good hygiene
- proper sanitation
- up-to-date immunizations
What is the best way to protect against biological agents?
What is the color of a biological contamination marker?
Blue background with BIO in red letters
What are 4 types of microorganisms found in biological agents?
What is the best decontamination for biological agents?
Warm soapy water
Where would a biological attack be most effective?
Cities, large troop concentrations, animals and vegetation crops
What is the first signal that a unit may have been exposed to a biological agent?
When large numbers of personnel become sick
Determining that a biological attack occurred will pose considerable difficulties for soldiers - what are some usual indicators of CB attack during the "windows of vulnerability"?
- low flying aircraft
- spraying mists or fogs
- munitions with little or no explosive effect
- ground generators spraying a fog or mist
What type of attack does an M22 ACADA (automatic chemical agent detection alarm) alarm warn?
What are the protective actions taken for a chemical attack?
- use MOPP 4
- give attack warnings
What 3 categories of chemical agents does the US use to classify chemical agents?
What are the most effective times to use chemical agents?
Evening and early morning because of the lack of wind and the sun allows the agents to persist
How may chemical agents be deployed?
Individuals (pollution of water, food, supplies)
What is the color of the chemical contamination marker?
Yellow with GAS in red letters
What are the 4 types of chemical agents?
Which causes the most casualties of the 3 agents: nerve, blood, or blister?
What is the best defense against enemy use of chemical and biological (CB) weapons?
What are the 4 steps to contamination avoidance?
1) implement passive defensive measures
2) warn and report CB attacks
3) locate, identify, track and predict CB hazards
4) limit exposure to CB hazards
What is M8 paper used to detect?
Nerve agents G and V
Blister agent H
What is M9 paper used to detect?
Provides nonspecific detection for nerve and blister agents
How is M9 paper worn?
Opposite sides of the body (ex. Left leg, right wrist, left arm)
What chemical agent detector kit will you use to detect chemical agents?
M256 series (M256A1)
What piece of TA-50 can be used as overhead cover during a chemical or biological attack from the air?
When conducting unmasking procedures with the use of a M256 detector kit, how long do you have the initial one or two soldiers unmask?
What is the difference between the direct monitoring technique and the indirect monitoring technique in radiation monitoring?
Indirect is taken inside of a shelter
Direct is taken outside of a sheltered area
How may biological and chemical agents be delivered in an attack?
Artillery shells with less powerful explosives than HE rounds
Aerial bombs, bomblets or rockets that pop rather than explode
Mist or fog sprayed by aircraft mortars
What is a vector?
An insect used to disseminate biological agents (fleas, ticks, lice, mosquitos)
What is the dose-rate range of the IM 174-series radiacmeter?
1-500 centigray (cGy) per hour
When positioning the M8 chemical agent alarm, what is the maximum distance from the unit and how far apart are the detectors spaced?
Maximum of 150 meters out
No more than 300 meters apart
What is the next step after using the M256 or M256A1 chemical agent detector kit in a NBC environment?
Report results to your supervisor
What actions should a supervisor take before crossing a chemically contaminated area?
Select the shortest possible route
Ensure all vehicle operators close all doors, windows, etc
Assume MOPP4 and have soldiers attach M9 chemical paper to clothing and equipment
Can M258 packet #2 be used by itself?
No. Both packets must be used in their respective order to effectively decontaminate the skin
On standardized alarm signals subject to NBC - what does a 3-5 minute wavering tone on sirens or other device indicate?
Attack is imminent, in progress, or the arrival of nuclear fallout is imminent
On standardized alarm signals subject to NBC - what does 3-5 minutes of shirt blasts from horns, whistles, or other devices indicate?
Attack is imminent, in progress, or the arrival of nuclear fallout is imminent (same as wavering)
On standardized alarms signals for OCONUS bases and stations subject to NBC - what does it mean when a soldier hears: alarm "black" or a siren (steady tone) or sees: black flag?
The attack is over and NBC contamination under/or UXO hazards are suspected or present
On standardized alarm signals for OCONUS bases and stations subject to NBC - what does it mean when a soldier hears: alarm "yellow" or sees: yellow flag?
Attack is probable in less than 30 minutes
- don MOPP2 or as directed
- protect and cover assets
- go to protective shelters or seek the best protective with overhead cover
How much more radiation protection does each layer of sand/clay-filled sandbags provide than the same thickness of soil/soil-filled sandbags?
Up to 66%
Why is it that the smaller opening of a one person fighting position reduces gamma radiation "2-4 times" below the amount that a two person foxhole allows to enter?
Most of the gamma radiation in the bottom of a fighting position enters through the opening
What is an important aspect of NBC defense; although it does not replace MOPP gear, but it allows the commander to reduce MOPP levels while in a contaminated environment?
Collective Protection (COLPRO)
What is COLPRO? (Collective protection)
Facilities or systems equipped with air filtration devices and air locks to provide personnel with a toxic-free environment for performing critical work and obtaining rest and relief in order to sustain combat operations
What are 4 primary areas that erode quickly in an NBC environment that COLPRO supports?
1) task performance
2) medical care
3) personnel rest/relief
4) sustained operations
What are the tactical considerations taken if CB weapons are used?
Enemy: their plans and how and where they are likely to use CB weapons
Terrain (hills disrupt contamination)
Troops (physical condition level)
Time (tasks may take longer in a CB environment)
Training (well trained survive and fight better on a contaminated battlefield)