Flashcards in Field Sanitation Deck (46):
What is the mission of the Unit Field Sanitation Team?
To assist commanders in maintaining the health and the well-being of the soldiers assigned to the unit.
-performing arthropod and rodent management control measures within the unit area
-supervising the disinfection of unit bulk water supplies and monitoring residual chlorine levels
Who makes up the Unit Field Sanitation Teams?
One NCO and one enlisted soldier. Soldiers appointed to field sanitation teams should have at least 6 months of service remaining with the unit after completion of certification training.
In nits with organic medical personnel, the NCO should be a medical NCO
The rigors of extended deployments and conducting operations in austere environments present significant challenges to a soldier's ability to maintain basic standards of hygiene and sanitation- what are some of the health threats to soldiers in the field?
Food and waterborne diseases
Entomological hazards (nuisance pests and disease-carrying vectors)
Toxic industrial materials (industrial and agricultural)
Climatic or environmental extremes (heat, cold, wind-blown sand, or other particulates)
AR 40-5 states that every soldier is responsible for his own well-being and that he will implement and employ all protective measures possibly to preserve his health- what will each soldier, at minimum, protect against?
Heat injury-follow work/rest and water consumption guidelines, by properly adhering to uniform wear policies, and by using sunscreen on exposed body parts
Cold injury-wear proper cold-weather clothing and frequently changing socks to keep feet dry, by careful handling of gasoline-type liquids, and by avoiding contact between skin and cold metal
Mosquito, fly, tick (anthropodborne diseases)by using insect repellent, netting, and insecticide aerosols; by taking approved chemoprophylaxis; and by wearing the uniform properly
Enteric diseases by using water purification tablets whenever water quality is uncertain and by avoiding foods prepared by unapproved food vendors, and by properly disposing of bodily wastes
Skin diseases by washing the body as often as practicable
What is one of the most effective practices that soldiers can perform to protect themselves and others from the spread of diseases?
To thoroughly wash or sanitize their hands frequently
Soldiers who fail to wash their hands frequently increase the risk of spreading germs picked up from other sources, and infecting others.
When should a soldier wash and/or sanitize the hands, at minimum?
-before handling and/or preparing food
-after using the latrine
-after handling anything that could potentially transfer germs
-frequently during the work day to keep hands germ-free
-after coming into contact with any local flora or fauna
-after physical contact with local nationals
What must soldiers do to avoid potential heat injury?
Soldiers must become acclimatized (at least 3-5 days. Full acclimatization can take up to 2 weeks)
Use sunscreen on all exposed body parts
Drink plenty of water, depending on heat/activity level, soldiers may need to drink from 1/2 to 1 1/2 quarts of water per hour. 3 gallons or 12 quarts per day in hot, dry climates
Use work/rest cycles, as leaders direct-a rest period helps prevent dangerous increases in body temperatures by minimizing heat production
Eat all meals to replace salts; eating all meals in the field will usually provide the body's requirements for salts-field rations are designed to meet the daily requirements for mineral and electrolytes
Modify the uniform, when directed/authorized by the commander to reduce heat stress and to protect against UV radiation
What must soldiers do to avoid potential cold injury?
-Wear clothing as directed by commanders and leaders
-Wear clothing in loose layers. Avoid tight clothing, including tight underwear
-Keep clothing clean and dry
-Remove or loosen excess clothing when working or in heated areas to prevent sweating
-Wear headgear to prevent body heat loss-the body loses large amounts of heat through the head
-Change wet/damp clothes as soon as possible
-Keep the body warm by continuing to move, if possible
-Exercise large muscle groups (arms, shoulders, trunk, legs) frequently to keep warm
-If soldiers must remain in a small area, exercise the toes, fee, fingers and hands
-Avoid standing directly on cold, wet ground
-Avoid tobacco products. (tobacco decreases blood flow to the skin)
-Eat all meals to maintain energy
-Drink plenty of water and/or warm nonalcoholic fluids
-Buddies should monitor each other for cold-weather injury
Do not attempt to rewarm frozen body parts unless under medical supervision
What is the body's normal response to the cold?
For the blood vessels in the skin and remote parts of the extremities to constrict and conserve warmed blood for the vital organs.
How much of needed sleep will sustain a soldier's performance indefinitely?
7-8 hrs of sleep in a 24 hr period. Sleep periods do not need to be taken all at one time; they can be divided into two or more sleep periods per 24 hr period as long as 7 or more hours are obtained.
What is probably the most important item of supply to a military force?
What are the rules of water discipline?
-Drink water from approved sources only
-Prevent water waste
-Protect water sources with good sanitary practices
What is potable water?
Water from a source that has been treated and approved by preventive medicine personnel to meet the short-term potability or long-term potability standards, and is therefore considered safest to drink for the period that the standards apply
(may or may not be palatable)
What is non-potable water?
Water from an untreated source or treated source (including bottled water) that is not safe to drink-in the operational environment, water from any source that has not been tested and determined to be safe by preventive medicine personnel or another local medical authority for use as drinking water is considered non-potable
What is palatable water?
Water that is cool, aerated, significantly free from color, turbidity, taste, and odor, and is generally pleasing to the senses.
In terms of water, what is disinfection?
A water treatment process in which pathogenic (disease-producing) organisms are destroyed or otherwise inactivated-common methods of disinfecting include boiling, UV radiation, and various procedures using chlorine, chlorine dioxide, iodine, or ozone.
(preferred method in US-chlorination)
Essentially, what are two sources of water found in the field?
Raw water sources: fresh or seawater that has not been previously used, treated or purified
Other water sources: approved for use by preventive medicine personnel
What are pathogens?
Biological agents that cause disease or illness to its host - waterborne pathogens can cause diseases that constitute a serious health threat to soldiers in the field
What pathogens are most commonly associated with waterborne disease?
Bacteria, protozoa, and viruses
What chemicals do member of unit field sanitation teams and soldiers in the field rely on to disinfect drinking water?
-Water purification tablets, chlorine and/or iodine
What bulk water storage and distribution equipment is found at the unit level?
-Unit water pod systems (Camel)
-Water trailers M149A2, and M1112 trailers
-Five gallon plastic water cans
What are the procedures used to purify water in a one-quart and two-quart canteen with calcium hypochlorite ampoules?
1) Fill the canteen with the cleanest, clearest water available, leaving an air space of an inch or more below the neck of the canteen
2) Fill a canteen cup half full of water and add the calcium hypochlorite from one ampule, stirring with a clean utensil until this powder is dissolved
3) Fill the cap of a plastic canteen half full of the solution in the cup and add it to the water in the canteen. Then place the cap on the canteen and shake it thoroughly
4) Loosen the cap slightly and invert the canteen, letting the treated water leak onto the threads around the next of the canteen
5) Tighten the cap on the canteen and wait at least 30 minutes before using the water for any purpose
How do you disinfect the water in your canteen using iodine tablets?
1) Fill the canteen with the cleanest, clearest water available
2) Add two iodine tablets to two-quart canteens. A two percent solution of tincture of iodine may be used in place of iodine tablets
3) Put the cap on the canteen. Shake the canteen to dissolve tablets
4) Wait five minutes. Loosen the cap and tip the canteen over to allow leakage around the canteen threads
5) Tighten the cap and wait an additional 25 minutes before drinking
What is critically important and cannot be overemphasized in the prevention of food-borne disease?
Hand hygiene - thorough hand washing remains one of the most effective methods of preventing the spread of food-borne disease
What are the steps taken in rat and mouse control?
1) Prevent entry into the storage facility - holes should be covered or filled in and doors should close tightly
2) Eliminate rodent hiding places by placing subsistence on pallets away from walls
3) Food sources should be eliminated by proper garbage disposal and good housekeeping
What are the primary options for disposal of nonhazardous solid waste in the field?
Burning, burial, backhauling
If burning or contract removal is not an option solid waste must be buried - how far away must burial sites be from any Natural water source and kitchens (or food consumption sites)?
At least 300 feet away from any natural water source used for cooking or drinking such as a stream, lake, or well
The burial site should also be at least 100 feet from kitchens (or food consumption sites) to minimize problems with insects, rodents, and odor
On the march, or in the field for less than one week in duration, where should solid waste be buried?
In pits or trenches - pits are preferred for overnight halts (4x4x4 deep for 1 day for a unit of 100 people).
Trench preferred for longer than a 2 day stay. Filled not more than 1' form the top
What are the two categories of wastewater?
1) Black water - refers to latrine wastewater containing human waste
2) Gray water - refers to wastewater from nonlatrine sources such as showers, laundry, kitchen operations, vehicle was racks, and hand wash devices.
What are the 3 traditional field expedient methods for disposal of gray water?
Soakage pits, soakage trenches, and evaporation beds
Evaporation field is the simplest method of disposing of large amounts of gray water
There are 4 types of latrine systems that can be employed to meet the requirements of soldiers in the field - what are these types of latrines?
1) Portable/disposable latrine system - useful for soldiers who are mobile, or will only be in place for a short period of time
2) Chemical latrine systems - prefabricated latrines that are placed and serviced under contract from a trusted vendor
3) Containerized latrine systems - latrines that are dug and/or constructed from readily available materials by the soldiers who will use them - these systems are generally used when soldiers are mobile or when they are just establishing a new base of operations.
What is the cat-hole latrine?
Used when the unit is on the move - its a hole approximately 1' deep and 1' in diameter. After using a cat hole it must be completely filled in and the dirt packed down
What latrine is used if the unit remains in one place for up to 3 days?
The straddle trench latrine
Each trench is dup one foot wide, 2 1/2 fee deep, and at least 4' long. Multiple trenches should be dug at least 2 feet apart. Each 4' trench will accommodate two soldiers
What latrine is used if a unit will remain in one place longer than three days?
The deep pit latrine
(uses a two or four seat box either issued to, or built by, the unit using)
What is meant by "closing a latrine"?
1)When a trench or pit latrine has been filled to within one foot of the surface, or when it is to be abandoned, it must be closed
2)The contents of the pit, the side walls, and the ground surface (to a distance of 2' from the side walls) should be sprayed with an approved insecticide
3) The pit is then filled to ground level with successive, 3" layers of earth
4) Each layer is packed down and its surface is sprayed with a DOD-approved insecticide before the next layer is added
5) The latrine pit is then mounded over with at least 1' of compacted earth
6) The purpose of this method of closing is the prevent emergence of flies that may hatch in the closed latrine
7) The location of the latrine should then be marked with a CLOSED LATRINE sign and dated, provided the tactical situation permits
What is the best improvised device for urine disposal in the field?
A urine soakage pit
(dug 4' square and 4' deep and filled with an aggregate material. A border is placed along each edge so that each side of the soakage pits surface is 5' long. The border should be 6" wide, 4" deep, and composed of small stones. Depending on available materials, use either pipe urinals or trough urinals with this pit. For the urine soakage pit to function properly, soldiers must not be allowed to urinate on the surface of the pit
What rodents are most commonly encountered by soldiers and pose the greatest health threat to soldiers in the field?
1) Norway (rattus norvegicus)
2) Roof rat (rattus, rattus)
3) house mouse (mus musculus)
Most soldier's physiological responses to heat stress improve in 10-14 days of exposure to heat and regular strenuous exercise - what factors are there to consider when acclimatizing soldiers?
1) The wet bulb-globe temperature index
2) Work rates and duration
3) Uniform and equipment
4) Soldiers physical and mental conditions
What are heat cramps?
Painful muscle cramps that may occur after exposure to heat and are caused primarily by the excessive loss of mineral salts from the body - heat cramps normally involve the muscles of the arms, legs, and abdomen and may be severe enough to render a soldier ineffective
What is heat exhaustion - the most common form of heat injury?
It is a result of peripheral vascular collapse due to excessive salt depletion and dehydration - this condition is the result of excessive loss of both salt and water, usually due to profuse sweating as the body attempts to cool itself
Symptoms include: profuse sweating, trembling, weakness, loss of coordination
What is the result when the body's heat balance mechanism collapses and the primary method of heat loss (cooling by evaporation of sweat) shuts down?
Early signs: headache, dizziness, delirium, weakness, nausea, vomiting, may not be sweating
How is hypothermia defined?
As a core temperature below 95 degree F (35 C), which represents a fall from normal body temperature of about 3.5 degrees F (2 C)
Early sign: intense shivering
What is immersion syndrome?
A nonfreezing cold injury that develops when tissues are exposed to cold-wet conditions - usually between 32 F and 60 degrees F for prolonged periods more than 12 hours increases risk usually taking about 3-5 days minimum for full onset
What are four properties or characteristics of noise determine whether a given noise is likely to be hazardous to workers' hearing?
3) Nature of the noise
4) Exposure duration
What are 2 early signs of hearing loss?
1) Ringing ears
2) Speech that sounds muffled - speech and other important sounds have to be louder to be heard or understood