Flashcards in Survival Deck (71):
What FM covers Survival?
What are 9 common senses of dehydration?
1) dark urine with a strong odor
2) low, urine output
3) dark, sunken eyes
5) loss of skin elasticity
6) emotional instability
8) "trench line" down the center of tongue
9) delayed capillary refill in the fingernail beds
What heat effects must be considered in an arid area?
-reflective heat gain
-conductive heat gain
-hot blowing winds
What are the basic rules for water consumption in an arid area?
Temperatures below 100 degrees F-drink one pint of water every hour
Temps above 100, drink one quart of water every hour
What are the 4 difficulties in operating in arid areas?
-hard to find food, water, shelter
-physical movement is demanding
-land navigation is difficult
-limited cover and concealment
Is it always safe to eat and drink what the animals eat and drink?
What are 6 key areas to focus on to maintain good personal hygiene to prevent infection and disease?
Keep your hands, hair, clothes, teeth clean
Take care of your feet
Get sufficient rest
What are 4 crucial factors in staying healthy?
Having adequate food and water
Good personal hygiene
Getting sufficient rest
Keeping your immunizations up to date
What are 3 rules must you follow in order to maintain your health?
Eat sufficient food
Maintain high personal hygiene
What 6 items must be included in a soldier's survival pattern that are placed in order of importance?
What 3 separate but intertwined parts is a Survival plan dependent on to be successful?
What is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit?
In preparing your survival kit, how should items be selected?
To be multi-purpose, compact, lightweight, durable, and FUNCTIONAL
What is stress?
-Reaction to pressure
-A condition we all experience as we physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually respond to life's tensions
-not a disease that you cure and eliminate
What positive benefits are there from stress?
Provides chances to learn about our values and strengths
Note: the goal is to have stress, but not an excess of it
What are common signs of distress found in yourself or fellow soldiers?
1) difficulty making decisions
2) angry outbursts
4) low energy levels
5) constant worrying
6) propensity for mistakes
7) thoughts about death or suicide
8) trouble getting along with others
9) withdrawing from others
10) hiding from responsibility
Name 6 natural reactions/emotions a soldier may likely experience in a survival situation?
Anger and frustration
Loneliness and boredom
Name 6 types stresses that you could be exposed to in a survival setting?
Injury, illness or death
Uncertainty and lack of control
Hunger and thirst
Name 4 methods of improving the taste of wild plants?
Why should you only drink milk from green coconuts rather than ripe, mature coconuts?
Milk from mature, ripe coconuts contain an oil that acts like a laxative
What is the depth of a hasty fighting position?
What is Dead Space?
An area that cannot be fired upon within a weapons sector
What is Scanning?
Focusing your attention on an object without looking directly at it
Moving your eyes in short, irregular movements
What are the 3 types of movement techniques used in combat?
When is the high crawl used?
When concealment is good but enemy fire prevents you from getting up
When would a soldier use the low crawl?
Moving when concealment is limited
Enemy fire prevents getting up
What should soldiers do before moving when they have been firing from one position?
Roll or crawl a short distance from their firing position
What is "manually supporting fire?"
When weapons are placed in support of neighboring fighting positions (interlaced fields of fire)
What are the 3 basic sources of food?
Issued rations - use rations to augment plant/animal foods, which will extend and help maintain a balanced diet
What do plant foods provide?
Carbohydrates - the main source of energy
In any situation, what is an important factor in preventing infection and disease?
What is the most important need in a survival situation?
How long does it take for your eyes to develop their "night vision"?
About 30 minutes
What 3 reactions would you take to an overhead flare at night?
Immediately crouch or lie down
Stop all movement
Close one eye to keep night vision in one while scanning with the other
What are 5 factors for selecting a hide site when evading the enemy?
B-blends with surroundings
L-low in silhouette
I-irregular in shape
S-small in size
What are the 8 rules for avoiding detection?
1) identify the threat's capabilities
2) avoid detection
3) use countermeasures against the enemy
4) apply realistic camouflage
5) minimize movement
6) use decoys
7) continuously avoid detection
8) avoid operational/terrain patterns
What is a "rally point"?
An area where a platoon or section moves to when it has become dispersed
Why do soldiers change direction from time to time when they move through tall grass?
To avoid being seen by the enemy
What is a "hole up area"?
After hiding for several days, it is an area where you can recuperate and get or prepare food
What is a recon patrol's mission?
To provide accurate information on the enemy and terrain
What time of day is it most feasible to travel while in a survival situation?
When should an evader attempt to contact friendly troops who are near?
When there is enough light to be identified by friendly forces
What are the 3 types of operation orders?
What are the 5 parts to a combat order?
Command and control
What is the recommended distance between soldiers when marching on roads during the day?
2-5 meters between soldiers
50 meters between platoons
100 meters between companies
What is the recommended distance between soldiers when marching on roads during night hours?
1-3 meters between soldiers
25 meters between platoons
50 meters between companies
What should the rest of the platoon or squad be doing when platoon or squad is constructing a defensive position?
When marching, what is the distance that should be covered (pace) during the night on a road and cross country?
Cross country-1.6 km/hr
When marching, what is the distance that should be covered during the day on a road or cross country?
Cross country-2.4 km/hr
What formation is normally used during tactical road marches?
Column of two, one file on each side of the road
What basic principle is the one that a soldier must always follow regarding survival?
Spot your location on your map and relate it to the surrounding terrain
What are the 2 greatest enemies in a combat survival and evasion situation that if uncontrolled, can destroy a soldier's ability to make an intelligent decision?
Fear and panic
Being prepared involves knowing that your reactions in a survival setting are productive, not destructive - what are the 7 principles to follow that will help yourself prepare?
Adopt a positive attitude
Remind yourself what is at stake
Learn stress management techniques
What rule should a soldier follow if he cannot remember the exact location of the pressure points to stop bleeding?
Apply pressure at the end of the joint just above the injured area - on hands, feet, and head, this will be the wrist, ankle and neck, respectfully
What is a soldier's primary shelter in a survival situation?
His uniform - a uniform protects you
What is a common error made when making a shelter for survival?
Making it too large - it must be large enough to protect you and small enough to contain your body heat, especially in cold climates
What should you avoid when seeking shelter?
Existing buildings or shelters
Understanding the concept of the fire triangle is very important in correctly constructing and maintaining a fire - what do the three sides of the triangle represent?
If any of these is removed, the fire goes out
What are the most abundant and easy caught life-forms on earth?
Insects (ants, termites, beetles)
Many insects provide 65-80% protein compared to 20% for beef
What type of insects should be avoided when eating?
All adults that sting or bite
Hairy or brightly colored insects
Caterpillars and insects that have a pungent odor
Spiders and common disease carriers such as ticks, flies, mosquitos
What factors can help a soldier identify plants?
What are the basic leaf margins?
Toothless or smooth
There is no one rule to aid in identifying poisonous plants - what is the best policy for being able to positively identify plants?
Identify by sight and know their uses or dangers
What is your most valuable tool in a survival situation?
Cold is a far greater threat to survival than it appears - why?
-decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything except to get warm
-cold is an insidious enemy; as it numbs the mind and body, it subdues the will to survive
There are basic principles to follow to keep warm - what are they?
C - keep clothing clean
O - avoid overheating
L - wear your clothing loose and in layers
D - keep clothes dry
E - examine your uniform for worn areas, tears,and cleanliness
R - repair uniform early before it tears and holes become too large to patch
How much body heat can be lost from an unprotected head, neck, wrist, and ankles?
Which survival is perhaps the most difficult survival situation?
What are the 2 main ways to get attention or to communicate when signaling?
(Will depend on your situation and the material you available)
What 7 factors are considered concerning personal camouflage?
Shape and outline
Color and texture