Ch 03: Preventing Disease Transmission Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 03: Preventing Disease Transmission Deck (55):
1

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Gradual defeat of the immune system by the HIV Virus

2

Airborne Transmission

Inhalation of infected droplets

3

Bacteria

Single celled organisms that can cause infection.

Examples:
Tetanus
Meningitis
Strep Throat
Tuberculosis
Diptheria
Food Poisoning
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Chlamydia

4

Blood-Borne Pathogen

Harmful organisms in blood and body fluids

5

Community Associated MRSA

A superbug version of staph that exists outside of hospital settings.

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Staph bacteria that is resistant to many types of antibiotics. Occurs in groups of people who have recently been hospitalized.

Community Associated MRSA occurs in individuals who have not been recently in a hospital.

6

Direct Contact Transmission

Touching infected body fluids directly

7

Hepatitis

Viral infection involving the liver

8

Herpes

Viral infection causing eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes

9

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Virus that disables the immune system, causing the condition AIDS.

10

Immune System

The body's way of responding and fighting disease

11

Immunization

Killed/weakened pathogens introduced to the body to build resistance.

12

Indirect contact transmission

Touching objects that have been exposed to infected fluids and tissues.

13

Infection

Condition caused by disease producing organisms

14

Infectious disease

Highly transmittable disease

15

Influenza

Air borne respiratory illness

16

Meningitis

Infection causing inflammation of the brain or spine

17

Pathogen

Disease causing agent

18

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

Viral Respiratory Illness spread person to person through airborne infected droplets or by touching contaminated surfaces.

19

Tuberculosis

Bacterial respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Can be asymptomatic or active.

20

Vector Borne Transmission

Infected bite transmits disease into bloodstream

21

Virus

Pathogen needing another organism to live. Does not respond to anti-biotics.

Examples:
Hepatitis
Measles
Mumps
Chicken Pox
Influenza
Warts
Herpes
HIV

22

Fungi

A single celled or multi celled organism

Athletes food
Ringworm

23

Protozoa

A single celled organism that can only divide within a host organism.

Examples:
Malaria
Dysentery

24

Rickettsia

A group of micro organisms that require other living cells for growth, use oxygen, have metabolic enzymes, cell walls and are susceptible to anti biotics.

Examples:
Typhus
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

25

Parasitic Worms

A disease causing organism that lives on or in, and derives its nourishment from its host.

26

Conditions caused by Parasitic Worms

Abdominal Pain
Anemia
Lymphatic vessel blockage
Lowered Antibody Response

27

The Three Types of Human Immunity

Innate
Adaptive
Passive

28

Innate Immunity

Natural barriers that our bodies have.

Skin and White Blood Cells

29

Adaptive Immunity

Built up resistance from exposure or immunization

30

Passive Immunity

Gained from external sources like breast milk

31

4 Needs of Disease Transmission

-Presence of Pathogen
-Quantity of Pathogen
-Susceptibility to Pathogen
-Route of Entry

32

4 Ways Pathogens Enter the Body

Direct Contact
Indirect Contact
Airborne
Vector borne

33

How is Hepatitis Spread

-Through food and water that has been contaminated by infected stool
-Through engaging in certain sexual activities

34

Hepatitis A

-Hep A Vaccination
-Wash hands thoroughly
-Do not drink the water when traveling internationally
-Symptoms are flu like or non existent

35

Hepatitis B

-Hep B vaccination
-May be severe or fatal
-Symptoms are flu like, with fever, joint pain, dark urine and clay colored feces.

36

Hepatitis C

-There is no vaccination and no treatment
-Symptoms are flu like with fever, joint pain, dark urine, clay colored feces, and jaundice
-Leading cause of liver transplants

37

Hepatitis D

-No vaccine
-Relies on HBV to replicate
-Uncommon in Canada
-Transmitted through contact with infected blood

38

Hepatitis E

-No Vaccine
-Transmitted the fecal-oral route

39

Opportunistic Infections

Infections that attack people with weakened immune systems

40

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

-Bad cough lasting weeks or longer
-Pain in the chest
-Weight Loss
-Loss of Appetite
-Bloody Sputum
-Weakness / Fatigue
-Night Sweats

41

Symptoms of Meningitis

-Stiff Neck
-High Fever
-Sensitivity to Light
-Confusion
-Headache
-Nausea / Vomiting

42

Symptoms of SARS

High Fever
Headache
Discomfort
Body Aches
Dry Cough
Pneumonia

43

Influenza

Respiratory illness caused by human influenza A and B viruses.

Sudden onset including headache, fever, tiredness, dry cough, sore throat or runny / stuffy nose

44

Pandemic Influenza

Global outbreak of a sever form of human influenza A

45

Precautions to Avoid Disease Transmission

Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Maintain Personal Hygiene
Having Engineering and Work Practice Controls
Cleaning and Disinfecting Equipment

46

Personal Protective Equipment Precautions

-Handle all fluids as if infectious
-Handle situations in a way that limits exposure to fluids and air droplets
-Wear disposable single use gloves.
-Never touch soiled surfaces with your bare hand
-Avoid handling personal items when wearing soiled gloves
-Change gloves for each patient
-Cover any open or exposed skin with more PPE
-Use resuscitation masks with one way valves

47

Personal Hygiene Precautions

-Wash hands frequently
-Prevent contaminated materials from coming into and staying in contact with your body

48

Engineering Controls

Isolate or remove a hazard from a work place

49

Work Place Controls

Reduce the likelihood of exposure

50

Engineering and Work Place Control Precautions

-Ensure all response kits are fully stocked and readily available
-Maintain all PPE in clean and working condition
-Use dressings and equipment to minimize direct contact with fluids and wounds
-Never recap contaminated needles and avoid needle stick injuries
-Place sharps in a labelled container
-Perform procedures to cut down on production or splashing of fluids
-Remove soiled PPE as soon as possible
-Avoid putting anything in or around or touching your eyes, nose or mouth
-Handle all contaminated materials with great care, keeping them in labelled containers and plastic bags.
-Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly
-Disposable waste or soiled laundry should be stored in containers until they are disposed or laundered. They should be labelled with bio hazard and other warnings.

51

Equipment Cleaning and Disinfecting Precautions

-Clean and disinfect all surfaces and equipment
-Gloves are to be worn when cleaning
-Surfaces must first be cleaned with soap using disposable towels, then disinfected with bleach.
-Wash and dry PPE and uniforms
-All work areas are to be clean and sanitary

52

Spill Management

-Wear PPE when cleaning spills
-Clean them immediately
-Do not pick up any sharp objects, use tongs or a dust pan
-Dispose of all contaminated material in a labelled biohazard container
-Flood the area with disinfectant solution and let stand for 20 minutes
-Use paper towel to absorb solution and dispose in labelled biohazard container

53

The Exposure Control Plan

A system to protect people in an environment from infection. Should be placed where it can be used and updated every year.

54

Exposure Control Plan Elements

-Exposure determination
-Who will receive training, PPE and Vaccination
-Procedure for evaluating details of an exposure incident

55

What to do When an Exposure Occurs

-Remove soiled equipment and immediately wash all areas that may have been exposed.
-Report the exposure
-Follow your exposure control protocols
-Receive medical evaluation, counseling and post exposure care
-See your physician