Flashcards in Ch 03: Preventing Disease Transmission Deck (55):
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Gradual defeat of the immune system by the HIV Virus
Inhalation of infected droplets
Single celled organisms that can cause infection.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Harmful organisms in blood and body fluids
Community Associated MRSA
A superbug version of staph that exists outside of hospital settings.
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Staph bacteria that is resistant to many types of antibiotics. Occurs in groups of people who have recently been hospitalized.
Community Associated MRSA occurs in individuals who have not been recently in a hospital.
Direct Contact Transmission
Touching infected body fluids directly
Viral infection involving the liver
Viral infection causing eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Virus that disables the immune system, causing the condition AIDS.
The body's way of responding and fighting disease
Killed/weakened pathogens introduced to the body to build resistance.
Indirect contact transmission
Touching objects that have been exposed to infected fluids and tissues.
Condition caused by disease producing organisms
Highly transmittable disease
Air borne respiratory illness
Infection causing inflammation of the brain or spine
Disease causing agent
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Viral Respiratory Illness spread person to person through airborne infected droplets or by touching contaminated surfaces.
Bacterial respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Can be asymptomatic or active.
Vector Borne Transmission
Infected bite transmits disease into bloodstream
Pathogen needing another organism to live. Does not respond to anti-biotics.
A single celled or multi celled organism
A single celled organism that can only divide within a host organism.
A group of micro organisms that require other living cells for growth, use oxygen, have metabolic enzymes, cell walls and are susceptible to anti biotics.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
A disease causing organism that lives on or in, and derives its nourishment from its host.
Conditions caused by Parasitic Worms
Lymphatic vessel blockage
Lowered Antibody Response
The Three Types of Human Immunity
Natural barriers that our bodies have.
Skin and White Blood Cells
Built up resistance from exposure or immunization
Gained from external sources like breast milk
4 Needs of Disease Transmission
-Presence of Pathogen
-Quantity of Pathogen
-Susceptibility to Pathogen
-Route of Entry
4 Ways Pathogens Enter the Body
How is Hepatitis Spread
-Through food and water that has been contaminated by infected stool
-Through engaging in certain sexual activities
-Hep A Vaccination
-Wash hands thoroughly
-Do not drink the water when traveling internationally
-Symptoms are flu like or non existent
-Hep B vaccination
-May be severe or fatal
-Symptoms are flu like, with fever, joint pain, dark urine and clay colored feces.
-There is no vaccination and no treatment
-Symptoms are flu like with fever, joint pain, dark urine, clay colored feces, and jaundice
-Leading cause of liver transplants
-Relies on HBV to replicate
-Uncommon in Canada
-Transmitted through contact with infected blood
-Transmitted the fecal-oral route
Infections that attack people with weakened immune systems
Symptoms of Tuberculosis
-Bad cough lasting weeks or longer
-Pain in the chest
-Loss of Appetite
-Weakness / Fatigue
Symptoms of Meningitis
-Sensitivity to Light
-Nausea / Vomiting
Symptoms of SARS
Respiratory illness caused by human influenza A and B viruses.
Sudden onset including headache, fever, tiredness, dry cough, sore throat or runny / stuffy nose
Global outbreak of a sever form of human influenza A
Precautions to Avoid Disease Transmission
Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Maintain Personal Hygiene
Having Engineering and Work Practice Controls
Cleaning and Disinfecting Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment Precautions
-Handle all fluids as if infectious
-Handle situations in a way that limits exposure to fluids and air droplets
-Wear disposable single use gloves.
-Never touch soiled surfaces with your bare hand
-Avoid handling personal items when wearing soiled gloves
-Change gloves for each patient
-Cover any open or exposed skin with more PPE
-Use resuscitation masks with one way valves
Personal Hygiene Precautions
-Wash hands frequently
-Prevent contaminated materials from coming into and staying in contact with your body
Isolate or remove a hazard from a work place
Work Place Controls
Reduce the likelihood of exposure
Engineering and Work Place Control Precautions
-Ensure all response kits are fully stocked and readily available
-Maintain all PPE in clean and working condition
-Use dressings and equipment to minimize direct contact with fluids and wounds
-Never recap contaminated needles and avoid needle stick injuries
-Place sharps in a labelled container
-Perform procedures to cut down on production or splashing of fluids
-Remove soiled PPE as soon as possible
-Avoid putting anything in or around or touching your eyes, nose or mouth
-Handle all contaminated materials with great care, keeping them in labelled containers and plastic bags.
-Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly
-Disposable waste or soiled laundry should be stored in containers until they are disposed or laundered. They should be labelled with bio hazard and other warnings.
Equipment Cleaning and Disinfecting Precautions
-Clean and disinfect all surfaces and equipment
-Gloves are to be worn when cleaning
-Surfaces must first be cleaned with soap using disposable towels, then disinfected with bleach.
-Wash and dry PPE and uniforms
-All work areas are to be clean and sanitary
-Wear PPE when cleaning spills
-Clean them immediately
-Do not pick up any sharp objects, use tongs or a dust pan
-Dispose of all contaminated material in a labelled biohazard container
-Flood the area with disinfectant solution and let stand for 20 minutes
-Use paper towel to absorb solution and dispose in labelled biohazard container
The Exposure Control Plan
A system to protect people in an environment from infection. Should be placed where it can be used and updated every year.
Exposure Control Plan Elements
-Who will receive training, PPE and Vaccination
-Procedure for evaluating details of an exposure incident