Ch 08: Circulatory Emergencies Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Responder > Ch 08: Circulatory Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 08: Circulatory Emergencies Deck (43):
1

Cardiovascular Disease

An abnormal condition that affects the heart and blood vessels.

2

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

A disease in which cholesterol and plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also known as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

3

Atherosclerosis

When the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed.

4

Cholesterol

A fatty substance found in the body and in food.

5

Acute Myocardial Ischemia

Lack of blood flow to the heart.

6

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

A range of conditions that are caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle.

7

Angina Pectoris

Chest pain due to ischemia.

8

Myocardial Infarction

Heart attack; occurs when coronary arteries become blocked and a great amount of tissue is deprived of oxygen and dies.

9

Arrhythmia

Irregular heart beat

10

Cardiac Arrest

When the heart ceases to function

11

Controllable Risk Factors of Heart Disease

-Smoking
-Diet
-Blood Pressure
-Weight
-Exercise Level

12

Uncontrollable Risk Factors of Heart Disease

-Gender
-Family History
-Age

13

Signs and Symptoms of Angina Pectoris

-Constricting chest pain that radiates
-Known cases are prescribed medication

14

Care for Angina Pectoris

-Patient in comfortable position and resting
-Administer Oxygen
-Assist with their medication
-Maintain Body Temperature

15

Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack

Main Sign:
-Persistent chest pain or discomfort described as pressure, squeezing, tightness, aching, constricting or heavy; localized in the center of the chest behind the sternum.
-Pain can radiate to the shoulder, arm, neck or jaw
-Pain is constant and not relieved with rest
-If the pain lasts longer than 10 minutes or presents with other signs of miocardial infarction, seek advanced medical care

Soft Signs:
-Tiredness
-Gastric discomfort
-Flu
-Mild, unfocused chest pain
-Pain that comes and goes or gets worse with activity or time

Other Signs:
-Dyspnea
-Tachypnea / bradypnea
-Tachycardia / bradycardia
-Cyanosis
-Profuse Sweating (Hyperhydrosis)
-Nausea / Vomiting (Emesis)

16

Care for a Myocardial Infarction

-Patient must rest in a comfortable position
-S A M P L E, and O P Q R S T
-Assist with Nitroglycerin or give Acetylsalicylic Acid after consulting for contraindications.
-Obtain advanced medical care
-Be prepared to perform CPR

17

Congestive Heart Failure

When the heart loses it's pumping ability; the left ventricle doesnt pump as effectively due to chronic hypertension and blood backs up causing pulmonary edema.

18

Signs and Symptoms of Left Sided Heart Failure

-Dyspnea or a history of dyspnea at night
-Tachycardia
-Cyanosis
-Foamy Sputum
-Hyperventilation
-Wheezing
-Pale, Cool, Clammy Skin
-Panic, restlessness, agitation
-Hypertension
-Confusion and disorientation

19

Right Sided Heart Failure

Usually occurs with left sided heart failure and causes blood to back up in the veins, resulting in swelling of the extremities.

20

Signs and Symptoms of Right Sided Heart Failure

-Dyspnea
-Edema
-Frequent urination
-Jugular Vein Distention
-Heart Palpitations
-Irregular Tachycardia
-Weakness, fatigue
-Syncope

21

Cardiac Arrest

When the heart stops beating or beats too irregularly or too weak to circulate blood effectively.

22

Signs and Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest

-Unconscious
-No Breathing
-No Pulse

23

Care for Cardiac Arrest

-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
-Defibrillation
-Advanced Medical Care

24

Normal Sinus Rhythm

The normal conduction of electrical impulses without any disturbances.

25

Ventricular Tachycardia

Arrhythmia of the heart in which the heart muscle contracts too quickly for adequate pumping

26

Ventricular Fibrillation

Arrhythmia in which the heart muscle quivers rather than pump

27

Asystole

Absence of electrical activity in the heart. AED is unable to shock

28

Using an AED on hypothermic patient

Check the pulse for 45 seconds
Give only one shock

29

AED Pad Placement - Pacemakers and Implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillators

-Reposition electrodes at least 2.5 centimetres away
-Allow the ICD time to finish delivering a shock before delivering a shock from the AED

30

Pad Placement - Trauma

Place pads on the chest if the trauma does not interfere with placement.

31

AED precautions

-Remove jewelry before AED use
-Do not use or administer an AED in water, wet surfaces or in rain

32

CPR compression depth

Adult: At least 5cm
Child: At least 5cm or 1/3 - 1/2 chest depth
Infant: At least 4cm or 1/3 - 1/2 chest depth

33

CPR Compression : Breath Ratio

30:2 for all

34

Transient Ischemic Attack

(Angina for the brain) A temporary reduction of blood flow to part of the brain.

35

Cerebrovascular Accident

A Stoke; A disruption of blood flow to the brain that is sever enough to cause damage

36

The Types of Stroke

Embolic
Thrombolic
Hemhorrage

37

Embolic Stroke

Embolism carried by the blood vessels becomes trapped

38

Thrombolic Stroke

Thrombus carries by the blood vessels becomes trapped

39

Hemhorrage

Bleeding from a ruptured artery in the brain
A tumor or swelling can also lead to a stroke by compressing an artery

40

Signs and Symptoms of TIA and Stroke

-Sudden Weakness
-Difficulty Talking
-Blurred or Dimmed vision
-Unequal Pupil size
-Sudden, severe headache
-Dizziness
-Confusion
-Changes in mood
-Ringing in the ears
-Altered LOC
-Incontinence

41

F A S T

Facial numbness or weakness
Arm numbness or weakness
Speech is slurred or incomprehensible
Time to get advanced medical help

42

Assessing Stroke

Facial Droop
Have the patient show her teeth or smile, it will be abnormal for one side not to move

Arm Weakness
Have the patient close both eyes and hold her arms out straight for 10 seconds.
It will be abnormal for one arm to not move or to drift downward

Speech Abnormalities
Have the patient say "You can't teach an old dog new tricks"
Incorrect wording, slurring or unable to speak are abnormal signs


43

Care for TIA and Stroke

-Maintain and open airway and care for any life threats
-If unable to maintain airway, place them on their side to let fluids drain
-Patient in position of comfort and resting
-Administer oxygen
-Obtain advanced medical care