Flashcards in Ch 08: Circulatory Emergencies Deck (43):
An abnormal condition that affects the heart and blood vessels.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
A disease in which cholesterol and plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Also known as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
When the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed.
A fatty substance found in the body and in food.
Acute Myocardial Ischemia
Lack of blood flow to the heart.
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
A range of conditions that are caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle.
Chest pain due to ischemia.
Heart attack; occurs when coronary arteries become blocked and a great amount of tissue is deprived of oxygen and dies.
Irregular heart beat
When the heart ceases to function
Controllable Risk Factors of Heart Disease
Uncontrollable Risk Factors of Heart Disease
Signs and Symptoms of Angina Pectoris
-Constricting chest pain that radiates
-Known cases are prescribed medication
Care for Angina Pectoris
-Patient in comfortable position and resting
-Assist with their medication
-Maintain Body Temperature
Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack
-Persistent chest pain or discomfort described as pressure, squeezing, tightness, aching, constricting or heavy; localized in the center of the chest behind the sternum.
-Pain can radiate to the shoulder, arm, neck or jaw
-Pain is constant and not relieved with rest
-If the pain lasts longer than 10 minutes or presents with other signs of miocardial infarction, seek advanced medical care
-Mild, unfocused chest pain
-Pain that comes and goes or gets worse with activity or time
-Tachypnea / bradypnea
-Tachycardia / bradycardia
-Profuse Sweating (Hyperhydrosis)
-Nausea / Vomiting (Emesis)
Care for a Myocardial Infarction
-Patient must rest in a comfortable position
-S A M P L E, and O P Q R S T
-Assist with Nitroglycerin or give Acetylsalicylic Acid after consulting for contraindications.
-Obtain advanced medical care
-Be prepared to perform CPR
Congestive Heart Failure
When the heart loses it's pumping ability; the left ventricle doesnt pump as effectively due to chronic hypertension and blood backs up causing pulmonary edema.
Signs and Symptoms of Left Sided Heart Failure
-Dyspnea or a history of dyspnea at night
-Pale, Cool, Clammy Skin
-Panic, restlessness, agitation
-Confusion and disorientation
Right Sided Heart Failure
Usually occurs with left sided heart failure and causes blood to back up in the veins, resulting in swelling of the extremities.
Signs and Symptoms of Right Sided Heart Failure
-Jugular Vein Distention
When the heart stops beating or beats too irregularly or too weak to circulate blood effectively.
Signs and Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest
Care for Cardiac Arrest
-Advanced Medical Care
Normal Sinus Rhythm
The normal conduction of electrical impulses without any disturbances.
Arrhythmia of the heart in which the heart muscle contracts too quickly for adequate pumping
Arrhythmia in which the heart muscle quivers rather than pump
Absence of electrical activity in the heart. AED is unable to shock
Using an AED on hypothermic patient
Check the pulse for 45 seconds
Give only one shock
AED Pad Placement - Pacemakers and Implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillators
-Reposition electrodes at least 2.5 centimetres away
-Allow the ICD time to finish delivering a shock before delivering a shock from the AED
Pad Placement - Trauma
Place pads on the chest if the trauma does not interfere with placement.
-Remove jewelry before AED use
-Do not use or administer an AED in water, wet surfaces or in rain
CPR compression depth
Adult: At least 5cm
Child: At least 5cm or 1/3 - 1/2 chest depth
Infant: At least 4cm or 1/3 - 1/2 chest depth
CPR Compression : Breath Ratio
30:2 for all
Transient Ischemic Attack
(Angina for the brain) A temporary reduction of blood flow to part of the brain.
A Stoke; A disruption of blood flow to the brain that is sever enough to cause damage
The Types of Stroke
Embolism carried by the blood vessels becomes trapped
Thrombus carries by the blood vessels becomes trapped
Bleeding from a ruptured artery in the brain
A tumor or swelling can also lead to a stroke by compressing an artery
Signs and Symptoms of TIA and Stroke
-Blurred or Dimmed vision
-Unequal Pupil size
-Sudden, severe headache
-Changes in mood
-Ringing in the ears
F A S T
Facial numbness or weakness
Arm numbness or weakness
Speech is slurred or incomprehensible
Time to get advanced medical help
Have the patient show her teeth or smile, it will be abnormal for one side not to move
Have the patient close both eyes and hold her arms out straight for 10 seconds.
It will be abnormal for one arm to not move or to drift downward
Have the patient say "You can't teach an old dog new tricks"
Incorrect wording, slurring or unable to speak are abnormal signs