Ch 04: Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Responder > Ch 04: Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 04: Anatomy and Physiology Deck (112):
1

Body System

Organs and structures that carry out specific functions

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Cell

The basic unit to all tissue

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Tissue

Cells grouped together to perform a task

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Organ

Tissue grouped together to perform a task

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Vital Organs

Organs essential for life

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Midline

An invisible line separating the right and left halves of the body.

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Lateral

Away from the midline horizontally

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Medial

Toward the midline horizontally

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Anterior - Ventral

Toward the front of the body

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Posterior - Dorsal

Toward the back of the body

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Superior - Cephalic

Toward the head on the body

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Inferior - Caudal

Toward the Feet

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Proximal

Injuries to the extremities that are closer to the trunk of the body

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Distal

Injuries to the extremities that are away from the trunk of the body

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The Body's Four Quadrants

Upper Right
Upper Left
Lower Right
Lower Left

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Name the Five Body Cavities

Cranial
Spinal
Thoracic
Abdominal
Pelvic

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Cranial Cavity

Located in the head and protected by the skull. Holds the brain.

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Spinal Cavity

Extended from the bottom of the skull to the lower back. Protected by the vertebrae.
Contains the Spinal Cord.

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Thoracic Cavity

Chest Cavity; located in the trunk between the diaphragm and neck and is protected by the rib cage. Contains Heart and Lungs

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Abdominal Cavity

Located in the trunk between the diaphragm and pelvis. Holds the Liver, Spleen, Stomach, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Kidneys, Large Intestine and Small Intestine.

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Pelvic Cavity

Located in the Pelvis, the lowest part of the trunk. Protected by the pelvic bones and lower portion of the spine. Contains the reproductive organs and colon.

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Name the Body Systems

Respiratory
Circulatory
Nervous
Musculoskeletal
Integumentary
Endocrine
Digestive
Genitourinary

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Respiratory System - Parts

Nose
Mouth
Lungs
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Epiglottis
Trachea
Pharynx
Larynx
Bronchi
Alveoli

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Nasopharynx

The part of the pharynx behind and above the soft palate, directly continuous with the nasal passages.

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Oropharynx

The part of the pharynx between the soft palate of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis before the esophagus.

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Epiglottis

A thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.

The flap of tissue that covers the trachea to keep food and liquid out of the lungs.

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Trachea

The tube from the Larynx to the Bronchi that enables air passage; The wind pipe.

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Pharynx

The tube that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.

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Larynx

A part of the airway connecting the pharynx with the trachea; The 'voice box'.

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Bronchi

The air passages that lead from the trachea to the lungs in a Y shape.

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Alveoli

Small air sacs in the lungs where gases and waste are exchanged between the lungs and the blood.

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Diaphragm

A band of muscle dividing the thoracic and abdominal cavities; responsible for enabling the breathing process.

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Respiratory System Primary Function

Supply the body with Oxygen.

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The Breathing Process

The diaphragm contracts, creating a negative space in the lungs, drawing in air through the nose and mouth. Air passes through the pharynx, passed the epiglottis into the trachea, down to the bronchi and into the alveoli where gas exchange occurs with capillaries. When the diaphragm relaxes, it forces carbon dioxide in the opposing direction.

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Respiratory Emergencies

Choking
Illness (Epiglotitis, Pneumonia)
Conditions such as asthma and Emphysema
Electrocution
Shock
Drowning
Heart attack or Heart Disease
Injury to the chest and lungs
Allergic Reactions (anaphylaxis)
Drugs
Poisoning

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The Minutes After Respiratory Arrest

0 minutes - Clinical Death: Breathing stops, heart will soon stop

4-6 Minutes: Brain damage possible

6-10 Minutes: Brain damage likely

10+ Minutes - Biological Death: irreversible brain damage certain

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Circulatory System

Transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removed waste products from the blood.

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Circulatory System Components

Heart
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
Aorta
Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
SA Node
AV Node
Veins
Arteries
Capillaries
Pulmonary Veins
Pulmonary Arteries
Blood

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Contraction

The pumping action of the heart, controlled by the hearts electrical system.

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Heart

A fist sized muscular vital organ that is responsible for moving blood throughout the entire body

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Right Atrium

(Anatomic) upper right chamber of the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters through here from the inferior vena cava and passes to the right ventricle.

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Right Ventricle

(Anatomic) lower right chamber of the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters from the right atrium and gets pumped to the lungs.

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Left Atrium

Anatomic) left upper chamber of the heart. Newly Oxygenated blood enters and then gets pumped to the left ventricle.

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Left Ventricle

(Anatomic) lower left chamber of the heart where oxygenated blood enters from the left atrium and is forcefully pumped out of the aorta to the rest of the body.

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Aorta

Main trunk of the arterial system that feeds the entire system of arteries, blood vessels and capillaries with oxygenated blood.

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Arteries

A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart.

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Pulmonary Artery

Carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs

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Pulmonary Vein

Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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Capillaries

Tiny blood vessels linking arteries and veins, transfer oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove waste products.

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Veins

Carry blood to the heart.

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Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)

The point of origin of the heart's electrical impulse; Pacemaker of the heart and generates normal sinus rhythm.

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Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)

Part of the electrical control system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart. It electrically connects atrial and ventricular chambers.

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Blood

The fluid that circulates in the circulatory system

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The Heart's Electrical System

Begins with the Sinoatrial Node located in the upper part of the hearts right atrium. The current then passes to the Atrioventricular Node where it is delayed, allowing time for the blood in the atria to fill their respective ventricles. It then passes through the bundles of His, back up to the Purkinje fibres, leading to the contraction of the ventricles.

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Pathway of Blood Through the Heart

Begins at the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava. De-oxygenated blood is brought to the right atrium, where by electrical signals is pumped to the right ventricle, up through the pulmonary Artery where it goes to the lungs to be oxygenated. Then it gets pumped through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium, down to the left ventricle, forced up through the Aorta and pumped to the rest of the body.

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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A reading of the conduction of the electrical current through the heart's pathways.

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Clinical Death

The condition in which the heart stops beating and breathing stops.

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Biological Death

The irreversible damage caused by the death of brain cells.

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Normal Sinus Rhythm

The normal conduction of electrical impulses without any disturbances.

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Superior Vena Cava

Short vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium

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Inferior Vena Cava

Large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.

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Nervous System

Transmits messages to and from the brain

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Nervous System Components

Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves

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Brain

Control center of the nervous system. Brain cells do not regenerate.

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Nerves

Paths that brain signals travel. Regenerate extremely slowly, to the point where it is believed that they do not regenerate at all.

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Spinal Cord

Large bundle of nerves in the spine, nerves extend from this to every part of the body

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Spinal Column

The series of vertebrae extending from the base of the spine to the tip of the tailbone.

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Regions of the Spine

Cervical - 7 vertebrae
Thoracic - 12 vertebrae
Lumbar - 5 vertebrae
Sacrum - 5 vertebrae
Coccyx - 4 fused bones

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Vertebrae

The 33 bones of the spinal column separated by cushions of cartilage.

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Why do we take serious precautions with spinal/head injuries?

Because the Spinal Cord is located between wing shaped bone structure of the vertebrae, and can easily be damaged, leaving the patient paralyzed.

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Musculoskeletal System

Provides framework, protects organs, allows movements and provides heat and blood components.

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Muskuloskeletal System Components

Bones
Muscles
Ligaments
Tendons
Cartilage

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Bones

The tissue responsible for supporting and protecting various organs in the body. Also produce red (Erythrocytes) and white (Leukocytes) blood cells.

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Muscles

Function to provide force and motion. Primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

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Ligaments

Connect bone to bone.

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Tendons

Connect muscle to bone.

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Cartilage

Flexible connective tissue that also functions as shock absorbers and structure for various parts of the body.

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Basic Bones of the Body

Cranium
Clavical
Scapula
Ribs
Sternum
Vertebrae
Pelvis
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Metatarsal
Phalanges
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Metacarpal

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Joint

A structure where two or more bones come together. Held by ligaments.

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Osteoporosis

When bones become gradually and progressively weaker and less dense.

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Major Muscles of the Body

Face Muscles
Neck Muscles
Deltoid
Bicep
Tricep
Extensors
Chest muscles
Abdominal muscles
Groin muscles
Back muscles
Gluteus Maximus
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Calf Muscles
Archilles Tendon

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Voluntary Muscle

Skeletal muscles that act under your conscious control. They also protect underlying structures such as bones, nerves and blood vessels.

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Involuntary Muscle

Muscles automatically controlled by the brain. Ie: Heart and diaphragm.

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Paralysis

Complete loss of muscle control, may also affect nerves and the ability to sense touch.

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Osteoarthritis

Inflammation of the joints

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Integumentary System

Protects the body by preventing infection and dehydration, assists in temperature regulation and production of certain vitamins.

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Integumentary System Components

Skin
Hair
Nails

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Layers of Skin

Epidermis
Dermis
Fat (Hypodermis)

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Epidermis

First layer of skin; Provides a barrier from bacteria.

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Dermis

The deeper layer of skin; Contains important structures like sweat and oil glands, and blood vessels.

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Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)

Attaches skin to muscle and adds a layer of fat to insulate the body. Contains 50% of the body's fat cells.

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Sweat Glands and Pores

Help regulate body tempurature by releasing sweat.

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Oil Glands

Keep the skin soft, supple and waterproof.

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Endocrine System

Secretes hormones and other substances into the blood to regulate certain body functions.

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Endocrine System Components

Pineal Gland
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid
Adrenals
Ovaries / Testes

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Glands

Organs that release hormones and other substances into the blood or onto the skin to regulate some bodily functions.

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Gastrointestinal System

Breaks down food into energy and removes solid waste products.

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Gastrointestinal System Components

Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Liver
Pancreas
Gallbladder
Small Intestine
Large Intestine (Colon)
Rectum
Anus

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Hydrochloric Acid

The corrosive acid in the stomach used for digestion.

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Peristalsis

The muscle movements that pushes food (Bolus) through the digestive tract.

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Pancreas

Both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones and a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine.

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Liver

Produces bile, which is used in digestion. Has a lot of other useful functions as a gland.

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Gallbladder

A small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.

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Small Intestine

Where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.

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Large Intestine

Absorbs water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then passes useless waste material from the body.

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Rectum

Acts as a temporary storage site for feces.

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Anus

An opening at the end of the digestive tract.

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Genitourinary System

Two systems: Urinary and Reproductive.
Filters waste product from the bloodstream and enables sexual reproduction.

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Genitourinary System Basic Components

Kidneys
Urinary Bladder

Penis / Vagina and Uterus
Testes / Ovaries

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Kidneys

They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes, which are diverted to the urinary bladder.

Can be easily damaged during back trauma, causing a patient to lose a lot of blood.

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Bladder

collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. Can be ruptured with trauma.

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External Reproductive Organs

Genitalia; trauma can cause heavy bleeding but is rarely life threatening. Injuries to this area may be a result of sexual assault.