Flashcards in Ch 04: Anatomy and Physiology Deck (112):
Organs and structures that carry out specific functions
The basic unit to all tissue
Cells grouped together to perform a task
Tissue grouped together to perform a task
Organs essential for life
An invisible line separating the right and left halves of the body.
Away from the midline horizontally
Toward the midline horizontally
Anterior - Ventral
Toward the front of the body
Posterior - Dorsal
Toward the back of the body
Superior - Cephalic
Toward the head on the body
Inferior - Caudal
Toward the Feet
Injuries to the extremities that are closer to the trunk of the body
Injuries to the extremities that are away from the trunk of the body
The Body's Four Quadrants
Name the Five Body Cavities
Located in the head and protected by the skull. Holds the brain.
Extended from the bottom of the skull to the lower back. Protected by the vertebrae.
Contains the Spinal Cord.
Chest Cavity; located in the trunk between the diaphragm and neck and is protected by the rib cage. Contains Heart and Lungs
Located in the trunk between the diaphragm and pelvis. Holds the Liver, Spleen, Stomach, Pancreas, Gallbladder, Kidneys, Large Intestine and Small Intestine.
Located in the Pelvis, the lowest part of the trunk. Protected by the pelvic bones and lower portion of the spine. Contains the reproductive organs and colon.
Name the Body Systems
Respiratory System - Parts
The part of the pharynx behind and above the soft palate, directly continuous with the nasal passages.
The part of the pharynx between the soft palate of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis before the esophagus.
A thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
The flap of tissue that covers the trachea to keep food and liquid out of the lungs.
The tube from the Larynx to the Bronchi that enables air passage; The wind pipe.
The tube that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus.
A part of the airway connecting the pharynx with the trachea; The 'voice box'.
The air passages that lead from the trachea to the lungs in a Y shape.
Small air sacs in the lungs where gases and waste are exchanged between the lungs and the blood.
A band of muscle dividing the thoracic and abdominal cavities; responsible for enabling the breathing process.
Respiratory System Primary Function
Supply the body with Oxygen.
The Breathing Process
The diaphragm contracts, creating a negative space in the lungs, drawing in air through the nose and mouth. Air passes through the pharynx, passed the epiglottis into the trachea, down to the bronchi and into the alveoli where gas exchange occurs with capillaries. When the diaphragm relaxes, it forces carbon dioxide in the opposing direction.
Illness (Epiglotitis, Pneumonia)
Conditions such as asthma and Emphysema
Heart attack or Heart Disease
Injury to the chest and lungs
Allergic Reactions (anaphylaxis)
The Minutes After Respiratory Arrest
0 minutes - Clinical Death: Breathing stops, heart will soon stop
4-6 Minutes: Brain damage possible
6-10 Minutes: Brain damage likely
10+ Minutes - Biological Death: irreversible brain damage certain
Transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removed waste products from the blood.
Circulatory System Components
Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
The pumping action of the heart, controlled by the hearts electrical system.
A fist sized muscular vital organ that is responsible for moving blood throughout the entire body
(Anatomic) upper right chamber of the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters through here from the inferior vena cava and passes to the right ventricle.
(Anatomic) lower right chamber of the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters from the right atrium and gets pumped to the lungs.
Anatomic) left upper chamber of the heart. Newly Oxygenated blood enters and then gets pumped to the left ventricle.
(Anatomic) lower left chamber of the heart where oxygenated blood enters from the left atrium and is forcefully pumped out of the aorta to the rest of the body.
Main trunk of the arterial system that feeds the entire system of arteries, blood vessels and capillaries with oxygenated blood.
A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart.
Carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
Tiny blood vessels linking arteries and veins, transfer oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove waste products.
Carry blood to the heart.
Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
The point of origin of the heart's electrical impulse; Pacemaker of the heart and generates normal sinus rhythm.
Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)
Part of the electrical control system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart. It electrically connects atrial and ventricular chambers.
The fluid that circulates in the circulatory system
The Heart's Electrical System
Begins with the Sinoatrial Node located in the upper part of the hearts right atrium. The current then passes to the Atrioventricular Node where it is delayed, allowing time for the blood in the atria to fill their respective ventricles. It then passes through the bundles of His, back up to the Purkinje fibres, leading to the contraction of the ventricles.
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
Begins at the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava. De-oxygenated blood is brought to the right atrium, where by electrical signals is pumped to the right ventricle, up through the pulmonary Artery where it goes to the lungs to be oxygenated. Then it gets pumped through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium, down to the left ventricle, forced up through the Aorta and pumped to the rest of the body.
A reading of the conduction of the electrical current through the heart's pathways.
The condition in which the heart stops beating and breathing stops.
The irreversible damage caused by the death of brain cells.
Normal Sinus Rhythm
The normal conduction of electrical impulses without any disturbances.
Superior Vena Cava
Short vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium
Inferior Vena Cava
Large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
Transmits messages to and from the brain
Nervous System Components
Control center of the nervous system. Brain cells do not regenerate.
Paths that brain signals travel. Regenerate extremely slowly, to the point where it is believed that they do not regenerate at all.
Large bundle of nerves in the spine, nerves extend from this to every part of the body
The series of vertebrae extending from the base of the spine to the tip of the tailbone.
Regions of the Spine
Cervical - 7 vertebrae
Thoracic - 12 vertebrae
Lumbar - 5 vertebrae
Sacrum - 5 vertebrae
Coccyx - 4 fused bones
The 33 bones of the spinal column separated by cushions of cartilage.
Why do we take serious precautions with spinal/head injuries?
Because the Spinal Cord is located between wing shaped bone structure of the vertebrae, and can easily be damaged, leaving the patient paralyzed.
Provides framework, protects organs, allows movements and provides heat and blood components.
Muskuloskeletal System Components
The tissue responsible for supporting and protecting various organs in the body. Also produce red (Erythrocytes) and white (Leukocytes) blood cells.
Function to provide force and motion. Primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.
Connect bone to bone.
Connect muscle to bone.
Flexible connective tissue that also functions as shock absorbers and structure for various parts of the body.
Basic Bones of the Body
A structure where two or more bones come together. Held by ligaments.
When bones become gradually and progressively weaker and less dense.
Major Muscles of the Body
Skeletal muscles that act under your conscious control. They also protect underlying structures such as bones, nerves and blood vessels.
Muscles automatically controlled by the brain. Ie: Heart and diaphragm.
Complete loss of muscle control, may also affect nerves and the ability to sense touch.
Inflammation of the joints
Protects the body by preventing infection and dehydration, assists in temperature regulation and production of certain vitamins.
Integumentary System Components
Layers of Skin
First layer of skin; Provides a barrier from bacteria.
The deeper layer of skin; Contains important structures like sweat and oil glands, and blood vessels.
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
Attaches skin to muscle and adds a layer of fat to insulate the body. Contains 50% of the body's fat cells.
Sweat Glands and Pores
Help regulate body tempurature by releasing sweat.
Keep the skin soft, supple and waterproof.
Secretes hormones and other substances into the blood to regulate certain body functions.
Endocrine System Components
Ovaries / Testes
Organs that release hormones and other substances into the blood or onto the skin to regulate some bodily functions.
Breaks down food into energy and removes solid waste products.
Gastrointestinal System Components
Large Intestine (Colon)
The corrosive acid in the stomach used for digestion.
The muscle movements that pushes food (Bolus) through the digestive tract.
Both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones and a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine.
Produces bile, which is used in digestion. Has a lot of other useful functions as a gland.
A small organ where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.
Where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.
Absorbs water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then passes useless waste material from the body.
Acts as a temporary storage site for feces.
An opening at the end of the digestive tract.
Two systems: Urinary and Reproductive.
Filters waste product from the bloodstream and enables sexual reproduction.
Genitourinary System Basic Components
Penis / Vagina and Uterus
Testes / Ovaries
They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes, which are diverted to the urinary bladder.
Can be easily damaged during back trauma, causing a patient to lose a lot of blood.
collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. Can be ruptured with trauma.