Ch 06: Respiratory Emergencies Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medical Responder > Ch 06: Respiratory Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 06: Respiratory Emergencies Deck (60):
1

Choking

Describes the condition of a blocked airway.

2

Anatomical Obstruction

Airway blocked by an object directly attached to and part of the body.

Ie: Epiglottitis

3

Mechanical Obstruction

Airway is blocked by a foreign object.

4

Partial Obstruction

Choking in which there is still some air movement.

5

Complete Obstruction

Choking in which there is severe blockage of the airway. Patient cannot speak, cry, breathe or cough.

6

Aspiration

Foreign matter entering the lungs or airway.

7

Care for a Conscious Choking Adult or Child

-Stand or kneel behind patient with one leg between theirs.
-Make a fist with one hand, placing the thumb side against the patients abdomen, just above the navel and well below the lower tip of the sternum.
-Grab this fist with your other hand and give abdominal thrusts until the object comes out or the patient becomes unconscious.

8

Abdominal Thrusts

The act of compressing the abdomen to increase pressure in the lungs and airway, stimulating a cough.

9

Care for an Unconscious Choking Adult or Child

-Begin with 30 chest compressions
-Open the airway with a head tilt chin lift (HTCL)
-Check for foreign matter and suction it out
-Attempt two ventilations, making adjustments to ensure proper airway maintenance.
-If air does not go in after adjustment and a second try, repeat the process.
-If air does go in, give a second set of ventilations
-Check patient for signs of circulation
-If there is no pulse, begin AED and CPR
-If there is circulation but no breathing, assist ventilations.
-Provide ongoing care
-Obtain advanced medical care

10

Chest Thrusts

A technique used in place of abdominal thrusts on larger or pregnant patients.

11

Choking Alone

If you are choking:
-Dial 9 1 1 and leave the phone on, this will tell dispatch to send help
-Unlock and open the door of access to house
-Get to a place where you can be noticed
-Using force, drop your abdomen onto an appropriate object to perform a modified abdominal thrust

12

Care for a Conscious Choking Infant / Baby

If the baby cannot breathe, cough, or cry:
-Sandwich the baby between your forearms, using your thumb and fingers to hold the baby's jaw open
-Turn the baby's face down along your forearm and rest your arm on your lap so that the baby's head is lower than its chest.
-Perform 5 firm back blows with the heel of your hand between the shoulder blades, maintaining support of the head and neck.
-Turn the baby over by sandwiching it between both forearms and transferring it face up to the opposite arm that supported the back blows.
-Tuck this arm in (like holding a heavy football), and rest it on your thigh.
-Place two fingers in the middle of the chest, just below the nipple line.
-Use the pads of those two fingers to compress the breastbone at least 4 cm, 5 times.
-Repeat until the object comes out or the baby goes unconscious

13

Care for an Unconscious Choking Infant / Baby

-Lay the baby on a firm surface, keeping mindful of its head and neck
-Begin with 30 chest compressions with two fingers
-Open the mouth to check for foreign matter, sweep out if you see any.
-Open the airway and attempt two ventilations, making sure to adjust the HTCL
-If the ventilation does not go in, repeat this process.
-If the ventilation goes in, give two more ventilations, check for signs of circulation and breathing.
-If no pulse, begin CPR
-If pulse but no breathing, assist ventilations
-Provide ongoing care
-Obtain advanced medical care

14

Signs and Symptoms of Breathing Emergencies

-Abnormal breathing
-Abnormal skin appearance
-Restlessness or anxiety
-Dizzy or lightheaded
-Chest pain
-Tingling of extremities
-Accessory muscle use or Tripod position

15

Dyspnea

Difficulty breathing

16

Anaphylaxis

Severe allergic reaction in which the air passages constrict.

17

Other Signs and Symptoms of Anaphylaxis

Hives
Itching
Rash
Weakness
Nausea
Vomiting
Dizziness
and Breathing Difficulty

18

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (C O P D)

Disease of the airway characterized by a loss of lung function.

Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis

19

C O P D - Signs and Symptoms

-Shortness of breath, gasping for breath
-Sudden onset
-Tripod Position
-Barrel Chested (Use of intercostal muscles)
-Coarse rattling sound in lungs
-Jugular Vein Distention
-Cyanosis
-Prolonged exhalation through pursed lips
-Oxygen tank in residence

20

Emphysema

Disease in which the alveoli lose their elasticity, become distended with air and stop functioning.

21

Emphysema Signs and Symptoms

-Use of intercostal muscles
-Shortness of breath
-Extreme difficulty exhaling
-Cyanosis
-Fever
-Restless
-Confusion
-Weakness
-Respiratory or cardiac arrest

22

Chronic Bronchitis

Disease causing excessive mucous secretion and inflammatory changes to the bronchi.

23

Chronic Bronchitis Signs and Symptoms

-Shortness of breath
-Productive Cough that has persisted 3 months in a given year and over two consecutive years
-Narrowing of the airway

24

Sputum

Mucous coughed up from the lower airways

25

Hypoxic Drive

When the body uses low levels of oxygen in the blood stream to determine the need to breathe.

26

Treatment of C O P D related illnesses

-Have the patient remain in the position of comfort
-Administer oxygen

If complications arise assist ventilations, perform CPR and get advanced medical care

27

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (A R D S)

Disease in which fluid builds up between the alveolar membrane and the pulmonary capillaries, causing a decrease in the amount of oxygen red blood cells can absorb.

Usually occurs after a lung illness or injury
Very life threatening

28

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

-Acute; within hours or days of incident
-Lungs will feel heavy and require more force for ventilations
-Tachypnea
-Shortness of breath
-Cyanosis
-Pulmonary edema
-History of illness of injury to lungs

29

Treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

-Administer oxygen
-Position of comfort
-Assist ventilations
-Rapid transport to advanced medical care

30

Asthma

A condition that narrows the air passages and makes breathing difficult.

During an asthma attack, air passages become constricted or narrowed by a spasm or swelling of the muscles lining the bronchi.

31

Signs and Symptoms of an Asthma Attack

-Patient is anxious or frightened
-Triggered by allergic reaction, emotional distress or physical activity
-Wheezing upon exhalation

32

Metered Dose Inhaler

Device prescribed to asthma patients to delivery medication during an asthma attack.

33

Nebulizer

Device that converts liquid medication to aerosol form by forcing oxygen through at high velocity.

34

Pneumonia

Term to describe a group of illnesses characterized by lung infection and fluid/pus filled alveoli.

35

Pneumonitis

Pneumonia caused by irritants or aspirated material

36

Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia

-Dyspnea
-Tachypnea
-Pleuritic chest pain, worse with breathing
-Productive cough
-Fever > 38 degrees Celsius
-Chills

-Nausea
-Vomiting
-Headache
-Tiredness
-Muscle aches

37

Treatment of Pneumonia

-Position of comfort
-Administer Oxygen
-Advanced medical care

38

Acute Pulmonary Edema

Lung or heart damage causing pressure and fluid to back up in the pulmonary vein, forcing fluid to leak into the alveoli.

39

Signs and Symptoms of Acute Pulmonary Edema

-Sudden onset
-Shortness of breath
-Rapid, laboured breathing
-Cyanosis
-Frothy sputum (advanced stage)
-Restlessness
-Anxiety
-Exhaustion
-Tachycardia
-Cool, clammy skin

40

Congestive Heart Failure

A condition in which the heart loses it's pumping ability, causing fluid buildup in the body; results in heart failure.

41

Tachypnea

Rapid breathing

42

Tachycardia

Rapid pulse

43

Treatment for Acute Pulmonary Edema

-Position of comfort
-Administer oxygen
-Assist ventilations
-Advanced medical care

44

Pulmonary Embolism

A common condition in which there is a blockage of a pulmonary artery by a thrombus or other foreign matter, which flows to the right side of the heart, obstructing blood flow to the lungs.

45

Pulmonary Embolism Signs and Symptoms

Varies depending on the size and location of the embolus.

-Shortness of breath
-Cough
-Pain
-Anxiety
-Syncope
-Hypotension
-Cool, clammy skin
-Tachycardia
-Fever
-Distended neck vein

46

Treatment for Pulmonary Embolism

-Position of comfort
-Oxygen
-Advanced medical care

47

Hypotension

Low blood pressure

48

Hypertension

High Blood Pressure

49

Syncope

Fainting

50

Hyperventilation

Breathing faster than normal

> 30 breaths per minute

51

Hypoventilation

Breathing slower than normal
< 8

52

Respiratory Arrest

A condition in which breathing stops

53

Rescue Breathing

Technique of breathing air into a patient to supply them with oxygen.

54

Percentage of oxygen in the air

21 %

55

Percentage of oxygen exhaled

16 %

56

What rate do you give ventilations?

1 breath every 5 to 6 seconds.
12 - 20 breaths per minute on an adult patient

57

When do you check signs of circulation?

Once before beginning respirations, and after two minutes of rescue breathing. If there is no pulse begin CPR.

58

When do you stop ventilations?

-The patient begins to breathe on their own
-You have to begin CPR
-Another responder with equal or higher training takes over
-You are too exhausted to continue
-The scene suddenly becomes unsafe

59

Gastric Distension

Air in the stomach

60

Emesis

Vomiting