Ch 04 Prokaryotic and Eukarotic Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 04 Prokaryotic and Eukarotic Cells Deck (57)
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1

What do fimbriae do?

Help cells latch

2

What is the functional advantage of a protein bound organelle?

Protection

3

What does pleomorphic mean?

Ability of bacteria to alter shape in response to the environment

4

Name the three arrangements of microbes

Diplo-, pairs

Staph-, clusters

Strep-, chains

5

Name the three shape types

Coccus = oval

Bacillus = rods

Spiral = twist Vibrios - twisted rods

Spirilla - rigid helical

Spirochetes - flexible helical

6

What does taxis mean?

movement towards/away from stimului Chemotaxis Phototaxis

7

What does glycocalyx mean?

a glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds the cell membranes

8

What are the characteristics of glycocalyx?

Outside cell membrane

Sticky layer - poorly organized

Capsule - neatly organized

Capsule prevents phagocytosis

9

What does flagella do?

Allows microbes to swim

10

What are the characteristics of flagella?

Outside of the cell wall

Made of chains of flagellin

Attached to a protein hook on Gram-negative cells

11

What are cells stimulated by?

Food, light

12

What does virulence mean?

Ability to cause disease

13

What does extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) mean?

Sugar polymers that contribute to the slimy appearance of bacteria probably promote colonization of plant tissues and disease development in bacteria.

14

What is pili?

a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria

15

What is a basal body?

An organelle that forms the base of a flagellum or cilia

16

How do flagella move on prokaryotes and eukarotes?

Prokaryotes - rotates on long axis

Eukaryotes - wave like motion

17

What do endoflagella do?

Flagella that wrap around the cell instead of protruding into the environment, allowing corkscrew movement

18

What is the difference between fimbriae and pili?

Fimbriae - shorter, more common

Pili - longer,

Gram-negative cells, less common

19

What is peptidoglycan?

forms cell walls of short peptides

20

What are the names of the two monosaccarhides that make up peptidoglycan?

N-acetlyglucosamine (NAG) N-acetlymuramic acid (NAM)

21

Do eukaryotes have a cell wall?

Some do

22

Do animal cells have cell walls?

No, only plant cells have cell walls

23

What is the name of the arrangement of phospholipids and proteins called?

Fluid Mosaic Model

24

What are the names of some inclusions?

Metachromatic granules

Polysaccharides

Lipids

Sulfur granules

Carboxysomes

Gas vacuoles

Magnetosomes

25

Hypertonic solutions do what?

Cause cells to lose water and shrink

26

Recall prokaryote ribosome math example

A small 30S ribosome plus a large 50S ribosome makes up a 70S ribosome. This because of nesting

27

What is Svedberg settling rate?

The sedimentation rate for a particle of a given size and shape measures how fast the particle 'settles', or sediments. It is often used to reflect the rate at which a molecule travels to the bottom of a test tube under the centrifugal force of a centrifuge. The Svedberg is technically a measure of time, and is defined as exactly 10−13 seconds.

28

What are endospsores?

Resting cells that survive exterme conditions

29

List the six steps to endospore sporultion

  1. DNA replicated
  2. Plasma membrane forms 
  3. Forespore forms
  4. Peptidoglycan forms
  5. Spore coat forms
  6. Endospore breaks free

30

Draw the prokaryote and eukarote cells

draw them now