What do fimbriae do?
Help cells latch
What is the functional advantage of a protein bound organelle?
What does pleomorphic mean?
Ability of bacteria to alter shape in response to the environment
Name the three arrangements of microbes
Name the three shape types
Coccus = oval
Bacillus = rods
Spiral = twist Vibrios - twisted rods
Spirilla - rigid helical
Spirochetes - flexible helical
What does taxis mean?
movement towards/away from stimului Chemotaxis Phototaxis
What does glycocalyx mean?
a glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds the cell membranes
What are the characteristics of glycocalyx?
Outside cell membrane
Sticky layer - poorly organized
Capsule - neatly organized
Capsule prevents phagocytosis
What does flagella do?
Allows microbes to swim
What are the characteristics of flagella?
Outside of the cell wall
Made of chains of flagellin
Attached to a protein hook on Gram-negative cells
What are cells stimulated by?
What does virulence mean?
Ability to cause disease
What does extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) mean?
Sugar polymers that contribute to the slimy appearance of bacteria probably promote colonization of plant tissues and disease development in bacteria.
What is pili?
a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria
What is a basal body?
An organelle that forms the base of a flagellum or cilia
How do flagella move on prokaryotes and eukarotes?
Prokaryotes - rotates on long axis
Eukaryotes - wave like motion
What do endoflagella do?
Flagella that wrap around the cell instead of protruding into the environment, allowing corkscrew movement
What is the difference between fimbriae and pili?
Fimbriae - shorter, more common
Pili - longer,
Gram-negative cells, less common
What is peptidoglycan?
forms cell walls of short peptides
What are the names of the two monosaccarhides that make up peptidoglycan?
N-acetlyglucosamine (NAG) N-acetlymuramic acid (NAM)
Do eukaryotes have a cell wall?
Do animal cells have cell walls?
No, only plant cells have cell walls
What is the name of the arrangement of phospholipids and proteins called?
Fluid Mosaic Model
What are the names of some inclusions?
Hypertonic solutions do what?
Cause cells to lose water and shrink
Recall prokaryote ribosome math example
A small 30S ribosome plus a large 50S ribosome makes up a 70S ribosome. This because of nesting
What is Svedberg settling rate?
The sedimentation rate for a particle of a given size and shape measures how fast the particle 'settles', or sediments. It is often used to reflect the rate at which a molecule travels to the bottom of a test tube under the centrifugal force of a centrifuge. The Svedberg is technically a measure of time, and is defined as exactly 10−13 seconds.
What are endospsores?
Resting cells that survive exterme conditions
List the six steps to endospore sporultion
- DNA replicated
- Plasma membrane forms
- Forespore forms
- Peptidoglycan forms
- Spore coat forms
- Endospore breaks free
Draw the prokaryote and eukarote cells
draw them now