Ch 04 Prokaryotic and Eukarotic Cells Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Ch 04 Prokaryotic and Eukarotic Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 04 Prokaryotic and Eukarotic Cells Deck (57):
1

What do fimbriae do?

Help cells latch

2

What is the functional advantage of a protein bound organelle?

Protection

3

What does pleomorphic mean?

Ability of bacteria to alter shape in response to the environment

4

Name the three arrangements of microbes

Diplo-, pairs

Staph-, clusters

Strep-, chains

5

Name the three shape types

Coccus = oval

Bacillus = rods

Spiral = twist Vibrios - twisted rods

Spirilla - rigid helical

Spirochetes - flexible helical

6

What does taxis mean?

movement towards/away from stimului Chemotaxis Phototaxis

7

What does glycocalyx mean?

a glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds the cell membranes

8

What are the characteristics of glycocalyx?

Outside cell membrane

Sticky layer - poorly organized

Capsule - neatly organized

Capsule prevents phagocytosis

9

What does flagella do?

Allows microbes to swim

10

What are the characteristics of flagella?

Outside of the cell wall

Made of chains of flagellin

Attached to a protein hook on Gram-negative cells

11

What are cells stimulated by?

Food, light

12

What does virulence mean?

Ability to cause disease

13

What does extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) mean?

Sugar polymers that contribute to the slimy appearance of bacteria probably promote colonization of plant tissues and disease development in bacteria.

14

What is pili?

a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria

15

What is a basal body?

An organelle that forms the base of a flagellum or cilia

16

How do flagella move on prokaryotes and eukarotes?

Prokaryotes - rotates on long axis

Eukaryotes - wave like motion

17

What do endoflagella do?

Flagella that wrap around the cell instead of protruding into the environment, allowing corkscrew movement

18

What is the difference between fimbriae and pili?

Fimbriae - shorter, more common

Pili - longer,

Gram-negative cells, less common

19

What is peptidoglycan?

forms cell walls of short peptides

20

What are the names of the two monosaccarhides that make up peptidoglycan?

N-acetlyglucosamine (NAG) N-acetlymuramic acid (NAM)

21

Do eukaryotes have a cell wall?

Some do

22

Do animal cells have cell walls?

No, only plant cells have cell walls

23

What is the name of the arrangement of phospholipids and proteins called?

Fluid Mosaic Model

A image thumb
24

What are the names of some inclusions?

Metachromatic granules

Polysaccharides

Lipids

Sulfur granules

Carboxysomes

Gas vacuoles

Magnetosomes

25

Hypertonic solutions do what?

Cause cells to lose water and shrink

26

Recall prokaryote ribosome math example

A small 30S ribosome plus a large 50S ribosome makes up a 70S ribosome. This because of nesting

27

What is Svedberg settling rate?

The sedimentation rate for a particle of a given size and shape measures how fast the particle 'settles', or sediments. It is often used to reflect the rate at which a molecule travels to the bottom of a test tube under the centrifugal force of a centrifuge. The Svedberg is technically a measure of time, and is defined as exactly 10−13 seconds.

28

What are endospsores?

Resting cells that survive exterme conditions

29

List the six steps to endospore sporultion

  1. DNA replicated
  2. Plasma membrane forms 
  3. Forespore forms
  4. Peptidoglycan forms
  5. Spore coat forms
  6. Endospore breaks free

30

Draw the prokaryote and eukarote cells

draw them now

31

What does lysozymes do?

Intercellular digestion

32

What does mitochondria do?

Eukaryotic cell that contain DNA and convert food to energy

33

What does centrosomes do?

A region in the eukaryotic cell involved with 9+0 array mitotic cell division

34

What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?

Meiosis                                 Mitosis

Sexual reproduction            Asexual

Genetically different             Identical

Chromosomal mixing            No mixing

4 haploid cells                       2 diploid

 

 

35

sketch the five cell shapes

A image thumb
36

Compare bacterial flagella vs. eukaryotic flagella

Bacteria                                 Eukaryotic

Smaller                                   Larger

Rotary movement                  Bending movement

Proton driven                         ATP driven

37

What is peptidoglycan made of?

Disaccharide sugar (NAG + NAM) + polypeptides proteins (amino acids)

38

What are porins and which type of cell wall are they found?

Passages that allow molecules to enter Gram-negative cells

39

What is simple diffusion?

A substance passes through a membrane without assistance

40

What is osmosis?

When modelules pass through a membrane equalizing concentrations

41

What are mycoplasma?

Parasitic bacteria witout cell walls that cause disease

42

Compare prokdaryotic chromosome vs. eukaryotic chromosomes

Prokaryotic                            Eukaryotic

Found in cytoplasm               In nucleus

Circular                                   Linear

Single                                     Many

Made of DNA                         Chromatin + DNA

Divides immediately             Mitosis

43

What is a plasmid?

A circular DNA that can replicate independently of the chromosome

44

What is a ribosome?

RNA

45

What does DNA mean?

deoxyribonucleic acid - carries genetic informaiton

46

What does RNA mean?

Ribonuleic acid - a messenger from DNA

47

What is the difference between capsule and slime layer?

Capsule does not wash off easily

Both are made of glycocalyx

48

Compare Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-negative                                   Gram-Positive

Thick layer of peptidoglycan             Thin layer of peptidoglycan

No teichoic acid                                  Teichoic acid present

Periplasm                                             Lipoteichoic acid

Resitant to antiboitics                          Susceptible to antiboitics

Safranin red                                          Crystal Violet

4 flagellar rings                                   2 flagellar rings

49

Name three atypical cell walls

Mycoplasma

Archaea lack peptidoglycan, have pseudomurein

Acid-fast cells walls

50

Where is chitin found?

Fungi

51

What does the Golgi apparatus do?

Packages molecules

Stores molecules for later use or sends them out

Creates lysosomes for cellualr digestion

52

What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

A image thumb
53

What is the difference between archaea vs bacteria?

A image thumb
54

What is the difference between bacteria vs protista?

A image thumb
55

What is the difference between fungi vs algae?

A image thumb
56

Draw phospholipid structure and bilayer wall of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

A image thumb
57

What does lophotrichous mean?

Having two or more flagella at one end of a bacterial cell.