What do fimbriae do?
Help cells latch
What is the functional advantage of a protein bound organelle?
What does pleomorphic mean?
Ability of bacteria to alter shape in response to the environment
Name the three arrangements of microbes
Name the three shape types
Coccus = oval
Bacillus = rods
Spiral = twist Vibrios - twisted rods
Spirilla - rigid helical
Spirochetes - flexible helical
What does taxis mean?
movement towards/away from stimului Chemotaxis Phototaxis
What does glycocalyx mean?
a glycoprotein-polysaccharide covering that surrounds the cell membranes
What are the characteristics of glycocalyx?
Outside cell membrane
Sticky layer - poorly organized
Capsule - neatly organized
Capsule prevents phagocytosis
What does flagella do?
Allows microbes to swim
What are the characteristics of flagella?
Outside of the cell wall
Made of chains of flagellin
Attached to a protein hook on Gram-negative cells
What are cells stimulated by?
What does virulence mean?
Ability to cause disease
What does extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) mean?
Sugar polymers that contribute to the slimy appearance of bacteria probably promote colonization of plant tissues and disease development in bacteria.
What is pili?
a hairlike appendage found on the surface of many bacteria
What is a basal body?
An organelle that forms the base of a flagellum or cilia
How do flagella move on prokaryotes and eukarotes?
Prokaryotes - rotates on long axis
Eukaryotes - wave like motion
What do endoflagella do?
Flagella that wrap around the cell instead of protruding into the environment, allowing corkscrew movement
What is the difference between fimbriae and pili?
Fimbriae - shorter, more common
Pili - longer,
Gram-negative cells, less common
What is peptidoglycan?
forms cell walls of short peptides
What are the names of the two monosaccarhides that make up peptidoglycan?
N-acetlyglucosamine (NAG) N-acetlymuramic acid (NAM)
Do eukaryotes have a cell wall?
Do animal cells have cell walls?
No, only plant cells have cell walls
What is the name of the arrangement of phospholipids and proteins called?
Fluid Mosaic Model
What are the names of some inclusions?
Hypertonic solutions do what?
Cause cells to lose water and shrink
Recall prokaryote ribosome math example
A small 30S ribosome plus a large 50S ribosome makes up a 70S ribosome. This because of nesting
What is Svedberg settling rate?
The sedimentation rate for a particle of a given size and shape measures how fast the particle 'settles', or sediments. It is often used to reflect the rate at which a molecule travels to the bottom of a test tube under the centrifugal force of a centrifuge. The Svedberg is technically a measure of time, and is defined as exactly 10−13 seconds.
What are endospsores?
Resting cells that survive exterme conditions
List the six steps to endospore sporultion
- DNA replicated
- Plasma membrane forms
- Forespore forms
- Peptidoglycan forms
- Spore coat forms
- Endospore breaks free
Draw the prokaryote and eukarote cells
draw them now
What does lysozymes do?
What does mitochondria do?
Eukaryotic cell that contain DNA and convert food to energy
What does centrosomes do?
A region in the eukaryotic cell involved with 9+0 array mitotic cell division
What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?
Sexual reproduction Asexual
Genetically different Identical
Chromosomal mixing No mixing
4 haploid cells 2 diploid
sketch the five cell shapes
Compare bacterial flagella vs. eukaryotic flagella
Rotary movement Bending movement
Proton driven ATP driven
What is peptidoglycan made of?
Disaccharide sugar (NAG + NAM) + polypeptides proteins (amino acids)
What are porins and which type of cell wall are they found?
Passages that allow molecules to enter Gram-negative cells
What is simple diffusion?
A substance passes through a membrane without assistance
What is osmosis?
When modelules pass through a membrane equalizing concentrations
What are mycoplasma?
Parasitic bacteria witout cell walls that cause disease
Compare prokdaryotic chromosome vs. eukaryotic chromosomes
Found in cytoplasm In nucleus
Made of DNA Chromatin + DNA
Divides immediately Mitosis
What is a plasmid?
A circular DNA that can replicate independently of the chromosome
What is a ribosome?
What does DNA mean?
deoxyribonucleic acid - carries genetic informaiton
What does RNA mean?
Ribonuleic acid - a messenger from DNA
What is the difference between capsule and slime layer?
Capsule does not wash off easily
Both are made of glycocalyx
Compare Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria
Thick layer of peptidoglycan Thin layer of peptidoglycan
No teichoic acid Teichoic acid present
Periplasm Lipoteichoic acid
Resitant to antiboitics Susceptible to antiboitics
Safranin red Crystal Violet
4 flagellar rings 2 flagellar rings
Name three atypical cell walls
Archaea lack peptidoglycan, have pseudomurein
Acid-fast cells walls
Where is chitin found?
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
Stores molecules for later use or sends them out
Creates lysosomes for cellualr digestion
What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
What is the difference between archaea vs bacteria?
What is the difference between bacteria vs protista?
What is the difference between fungi vs algae?
Draw phospholipid structure and bilayer wall of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
What does lophotrichous mean?
Having two or more flagella at one end of a bacterial cell.