Ch 10 Classification of Microorganisms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 Classification of Microorganisms Deck (32):
1

What are the classic and moderns approaches to microorganisms?

Classic - behavior approach
Modern - gene approach

2

What does taxa mean?

A similar taxonomic group of any rank, such as a species, family, or class.

3

What does a viral species mean?

A population with similar characteristics.

4

What does serology mean?

The study of blood serum, especially with regard to the immune response.

5

What does phage mean?

A virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it.

6

What are the two parameters that describe gel electrophoresis?

Smaller size travels farther
Brighter is higher concentration

7

How many different organisms are there?

1.5 million

8

What do all organisms have in common?

Cells surrounded by plasma membrane
Use ATP
Store genetic information as DNA

9

What is systematic phylogeny?

The study of evolutionary history of a group of organisms.

10

What are the three domains?

Eukarya-unicellular or multicelluar w nucleus
Bacteria-unicelluar wo nucleus
Archaea-unicellular wo nucleus

11

What are traits of archaea?

Prokaryotes
No peptidoglycan in cell walls
Live in extreme environments
Unusual metabolic processes

12

What are the traits of eukaryotes?

Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animala

13

What are the traits of viruses?

Not composed of cells
Use the host to multiply

14

What percentage of microorganisms have been discovered?

1%

15

What are serological tests?

Slide agglutination
Lance field
ELISA
Western Blot

16

What is phage typing?

Phage typing is a method used for detecting single strains of bacteria. It is used to trace the source of outbreaks of infections.

17

What is flow cytomerty?

Flow cytometry is a technology that is used to analyse the physical and chemical characteristics of particles in a fluid as it passes through at least one laser. Cell components are fluorescently labelled and then excited by the laser to emit light at varying wavelengths.

18

DNA base pair composition

Composition of guanine + cytosine.

19

What is special about fatty acid profile?

Consistent for a particular species

20

What is flow cytometry?

Flow cytometry is a technology that is used to analyse the physical and chemical characteristics of particles in a fluid as it passes through at least one laser. Cell components are fluorescently labelled and then excited by the laser to emit light at varying wavelengths.
Pseudomonas

21

What is meant by DNA fingerprints?

Restriction enzymes
Comparison of a number of size and fragments

22

What is taq polymerase?

Taq polymerase is an enzyme that copies DNA.

23

What does nucleic acid hybridization mean?

Ability of DNA strands from one organism to hybridize to others

24

What does taxonomy mean?

The branch of science concerned with classification of organisms.

25

What are the differences between taxonomy and phylogeny?

Taxonomy focuses more on characteristics the organisms have in common,

Phylogeny focuses more on evolutionary relationships

26

State Linnaeus's system of classification

Eight taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

27

State Woese's system of classification

Archaea
Bacteria
Eukarya

28

What is a bacterial strain?

A strain is a genetic variant

29

What is meant by PCR probe?

Probe: single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules of specific base sequence

30

What is a cladogram?

A branching diagram showing the relationship between species.

31

What is a dichotomous key?

A dichotomous key is a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world, such as trees, wildflowers, mammals, reptiles, rocks, and fish. Keys consist of a series of choices that lead the user to the correct name of a given item. "Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts".

32

What are the three major groups of archaea?

Methanogens
Halophiles
Thermophiles