What is an atom?
The smallest unit of matter that cannot be divided. Also smallest particle which retains properties of an element. Composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
What is atomic number?
The number of protons in the nucleus
What is atomic weight?
The number of protons and neutrons
What is an isotope?
The atom has a different number of neutrons. C12, C13, C14
What are the biological elements?
95% carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen
What is the molecular weight of a molecule?
The sum of the atomic weight of all the atoms
What is radioactivity?
Unstable number of protons and neutrons
What is ionic bonding?
An atom that gains or loses electrons
What is covalent bonding?
Electron sharing H:C
What is hydrogen bonding?
H polar (unequal) bonding to N, O, F
Which type of chemical reaction releases energy?
What is one mole?
The molecular weight in grams
Ex. water 2H=2x1=2 1O=16 the molecular weight of water is 18
What is condensation?
Water removal AKA dehydration
What is hydrolysis?
Breaking molecular bonds using water
What are the three laws of thermodynamics?
1. E cannot be created or destroyed.
2. Entropy - no energy transformation is 100%
3. Conservation of matter
Are exothermic or endothermic are more likely to occur?
Exothermic because they are more chaotic
What element is needed for an organic molecule?
Is water organic or inorganic?
What are four characteristics of water?
1. Polar molecule
2. A good solvent
3. Temperature buffering
4. Surface tension
What is the formula for pH?
pH = -log10 [H-]
What do acids and bases donate and accept?
Acids donate H+; accept OH-
Bases donate OH-; accept H+
What is an isomer?
Same chemistry, different structure
What is Vitamin C?
Made from glucose
Where is starch and glycogen made?
Starch is made by plants Glycogen is made by the liver
Where is cholesterol needed?
What is the difference between unsaturated and saturated molecules.
Unsaturated = more double bonds Saturated = fully saturated with hydrogen atoms
What is the characteristic of polyunsaturated molecules?
the more polyunsaturated, the lower the boiling point
What is a glycolipid?
sugar coated lipid
What is meant by amphoteric?
One side likes water, the other side does not
What is a peptide bond?
a covalent bond that holds an amino acid protein together