Ch 16 Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 16 Innate Immunity Deck (31):
1

What are the three types of immunity called?
Which are innate and adaptive immune systems?

First-line defenses-innate
Second-line defenses-innate
Third-line defenses-adaptive

2

What the the first-line defenses?

Skin
Mucous membranes

3

What are the second-line defenses?

Proteins that cause inflamation
Fever that enhances cytokine activity
Phagocytes
NK cells

4

What are the third-line defenses?

Lymphocytes
Memory component

5

List the lymphocytes belonging to innate, adaptive and both cellular responses.

INNATE
Mast cell
Eosinphil
Basopil
ADAPTIVE
Plasma
B and T cells
BOTH
Dendritic cell
Monocyte
Neutrophil 70% of WBC
Natural Killer cell

6

What does WBC indicate?

The number of leukocytes in the blood.
WBC are involved in counteracting foreign substances

7

What does an elevated and reduced WBC mean?

Elevated - bacterial infection
Reduced - viral infection or pheumonia

8

What can be said about innate and adaptive immune actions?

Innate - fast but nonspecific
Adaptive - slower by specific with memory component

9

What are toll-like receptors?

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes.

10

What are cytokines?

Proteins that regulate the intensity and duration of immune response. Activate B and T cells.

11

List the six steps of phagocytosis.

1. Chemotaxis
2. Ingestion
3. Formation of phagosome
4. Phagosome fuses w/ lysosome
5. Digestion by enzymes
6. Formation of indigestible materials
7. Discharge of waste

12

In blood, what are the formed elements and what is the liquid part?

Formed elements - serum
Liquid parts - plasma

13

What is CD4 and which immune cells is it found?

Cluster of Differentiation 4 found of T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.

14

What are NK cells?

A type of lymphocyte (WBC).

15

What is Lipid A?

A endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.

16

What is a leukocidin?

A type of cytotoxin created by some types of bacteria.

17

What is Membrane Attach Complex (MAC)?

The MAC creates a hole in the pathogen's cell membrane causing the extracellular fluid to enter.

18

What is lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?

A molecule containing both lipid and polysaccharide parts released from Gram-negative bacteria.

19

Compare innate vs. adaptive immunity.

INNATE........................................ADAPTIVE
Immediate response................slow response
Nonspecific.................................very specific
No memory.................................memory
Mast, Eosinphil, Basophil.........Plasma, T cells

20

Differentiate prebiotics from probiotics

Prebiotics: promote normal flora
Prebiotics: live cultures

21

What is lysozyme?

An antimicrobial enzyme that can breakdown cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria. Found in tears, mucus, urine.

22

What does pluripotent mean?

An immature cell capable of creating several cell types.

23

What is cytolysis?

When a toxin cell bursts and extracellular fluid flows in.

24

What is chemotaxis?

The chemical attraction of phagocytes to microbes.

25

What do kinins do?

Vasodilation, present in plasma.

26

What is diapedesis?

The passage of blood cells through capillary walls accompanying inflammation.

27

What is margination?

The adhesion of white blood cells to the walls of damaged blood vessels.

28

What is the complement system?

A system that complements the innate immune system in destroying microbes. It is not adaptable, and is part of the innate immune system.

29

What are the three outcomes of complement activation?

Cytolysis: creates channels ECF enters
Opsonization: phagocytosis
Inflammation: blood vessels become more permeable allowing more phagocytes to arrive

30

Describe with alpha interferon, beta, and gamma do.

alpha and beta interfere with viral multiplication
gamma produce nitric oxide to kill bacteria and inhibit ATP.

31

What are antimicrobial peptides (AMP)?

Broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities.
Inhibit cell wall synthesis
Forming pores
Destroying DNA/RNA