Flashcards in Ch 16 Innate Immunity Deck (31)
What are the three types of immunity called?
Which are innate and adaptive immune systems?
What the the first-line defenses?
What are the second-line defenses?
Proteins that cause inflamation
Fever that enhances cytokine activity
What are the third-line defenses?
List the lymphocytes belonging to innate, adaptive and both cellular responses.
B and T cells
Neutrophil 70% of WBC
Natural Killer cell
What does WBC indicate?
The number of leukocytes in the blood.
WBC are involved in counteracting foreign substances
What does an elevated and reduced WBC mean?
Elevated - bacterial infection
Reduced - viral infection or pheumonia
What can be said about innate and adaptive immune actions?
Innate - fast but nonspecific
Adaptive - slower by specific with memory component
What are toll-like receptors?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed in sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes.
What are cytokines?
Proteins that regulate the intensity and duration of immune response. Activate B and T cells.
List the six steps of phagocytosis.
3. Formation of phagosome
4. Phagosome fuses w/ lysosome
5. Digestion by enzymes
6. Formation of indigestible materials
7. Discharge of waste
In blood, what are the formed elements and what is the liquid part?
Formed elements - serum
Liquid parts - plasma
What is CD4 and which immune cells is it found?
Cluster of Differentiation 4 found of T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.
What are NK cells?
A type of lymphocyte (WBC).
What is Lipid A?
A endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.
What is a leukocidin?
A type of cytotoxin created by some types of bacteria.
What is Membrane Attach Complex (MAC)?
The MAC creates a hole in the pathogen's cell membrane causing the extracellular fluid to enter.
What is lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
A molecule containing both lipid and polysaccharide parts released from Gram-negative bacteria.
Compare innate vs. adaptive immunity.
Immediate response................slow response
Mast, Eosinphil, Basophil.........Plasma, T cells
Differentiate prebiotics from probiotics
Prebiotics: promote normal flora
Prebiotics: live cultures
What is lysozyme?
An antimicrobial enzyme that can breakdown cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria. Found in tears, mucus, urine.
What does pluripotent mean?
An immature cell capable of creating several cell types.
What is cytolysis?
When a toxin cell bursts and extracellular fluid flows in.
What is chemotaxis?
The chemical attraction of phagocytes to microbes.
What do kinins do?
Vasodilation, present in plasma.
What is diapedesis?
The passage of blood cells through capillary walls accompanying inflammation.
What is margination?
The adhesion of white blood cells to the walls of damaged blood vessels.
What is the complement system?
A system that complements the innate immune system in destroying microbes. It is not adaptable, and is part of the innate immune system.
What are the three outcomes of complement activation?
Cytolysis: creates channels ECF enters
Inflammation: blood vessels become more permeable allowing more phagocytes to arrive
Describe with alpha interferon, beta, and gamma do.
alpha and beta interfere with viral multiplication
gamma produce nitric oxide to kill bacteria and inhibit ATP.