Ch 05 Microbial Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Ch 05 Microbial Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 05 Microbial Metabolism Deck (84):
1

What does anabolism mean?

Building-up reactions requiring energy

2

What does catabolism mean?

Breaking-down reactions releasing energy

3

What is denaturation?

Loss of three dimensional structure. Remember ribbon unraveling illustration.

4

What is allosteric inhibition?

When an inhibitor binds to a site other than the substrate's binding site.

5

What do ribozymes do?

Cut and splice RNA and are involved in protein synthesis.

6

What is oxidation?

Removal of e that produces energy.

7

What is reduction?

Gain of elections.

8

How is ATP generated?

ADP + Energy > ATP

9

What is phosphorylation?

The transferring of inorganic phosphate from a donor to to a recipient.

10

What is substrate-level phosphorylation?

C-C-C + P + ADP -> C-C-C + ATP

11

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

Electrons transferred from electron carriers to NAD and FAD. Occurs in the ETC.

12

What is photophosphorylation?

Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADH. Occurs inthe ETC.

13

What is carbohydrate catabolism?

The breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy.

14

What are the two processes microbes produce energy from glucose?

Cellular respiration and fermentation.

15

What is another name for Glycolysis and what does it mean?

Embden-Meyerhof Pathway. Means splitting of sugar. Does not require oxygen.

16

Which pathway does bacteria uses for glycolysis?

Enter-Dudoroff Pathway

17

What is decarboxylation?

A chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide.

18

What is glycolysis?

The process in cell metabolism by which carbohydrates and sugars, especially glucose, are broken down, producing ATP and pyruvic acid.

19

What is the Krebs cycle?

A cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed

20

What is the electron transport chain?

A series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

21

What is fermentation?

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to lactic acid or alcohol.

22

What is the definition of metabolism?

The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism that release or require energy.

23

Name two catabolism reactions.

Hydrolytic reaction - use water to break bonds
Exergonic reaction - produce energy

24

Name two anabolic reactions.

Dehydration - release water
Endergonic reaction - consume more energy than produced

25

When are enzymes necessary?

When temp or pressure too low for chem reaction to occur.

26

What do enzymes do?

Bring reactions together
Promotes proper orientation
Lowers activation energy
Increases turnover rate

27

What are enzymes made of?

Proteins
Not used up
Only for specific molecules

28

How does an allosteric inhibitor work?

It changes the shape of the active site after a non-competitive inhibitor joins

29

How do you control enzymes?

Temp, pH, pressure

30

Finish C6H12O6 >

CO2 + H2O + ATP

31

What are the three ways to make ATP?

Substrate level phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation
Photophosphorlyation

32

What is a holoenzyme?

An apoenzyme plus a cofactor.

33

What is a apoenzyme?

An enzyme needing a cofactor but doesn't have one

34

What is feedback inhibition?

Blocking the first step of a process that turns the process off.

35

What is the most common energy source?

Glucose

36

Does glycolysis requires or releases energy?

Requires energy but releases more than it requires.

37

Name the two alternative metabolic energy producing pathways.

Pentose phosphate pathway
Entner-Dudorofff pathway

38

Where in the cell does glycolysis take place?

In the cytoplasm

39

What does the Pentose phosphate yeild?

per every glucose, 1 ATP and 2 NADH

40

What does the Entner-Dudoroff pathway yeild

per every glucose, 1 ATP and 1 NADH

41

What is the reaction for aerobic respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP

42

Does glycolysis require oxygen?

No

43

List four nucleotides.

ATP
CTP
GTP
TTP

44

Define chemiosmosis.

Is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient to generate ATP from ADP.

45

Define substrate-level phosphorylation.

Forms ATP or GTP by the transfer of PO3 to ADP.

46

Where does electron transport chain take place?

In the mitochondria of eukaryatic cells
In the plasma membrane of prokaryatic cells

47

Does fermentation have a net charge?

No

48

What is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration and aerobic respiration?

Cellular: lactic acid or pyruvate
Aerobic: O2 forming H2O

49

Glycolysis oxidizes glucose into what?

2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate

50

What is pyruvate?

The end result of glycolysis and is a key intermediate in several metabolic pathways.

51

Name three carrier molecules of the ETC.

Flavoprotein
Cytochromes
Coenzyme Q

52

What is important about the electron transport system?

- Uses NADH and FADH2
- Creates the most ATP
- Oxidative phosphorylation

53

What are the final products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Aerobic: oxygen making water
Anaerobic: pyruvate making lactic acid

54

How many ATP are formed for each NADH and FADH2?

3 ATP for each NADH
2 ATP for each FADH2

55

What is a proton?

A H+ atom created by removing an e- from a H atom.

56

What can be used as a final electron acceptor?

O2 - water
Organics
Sulfur
Carbonate
Nitrate

57

What percentage is aerobic respiration efficient? Car efficeincy?

40%
20%

58

What are the final electron acceptor in anaerobic electron transport?

Hydrogen sulfate SO4-2
Nitrate NO3-
Carbonate CO3-
All yeild low energy

59

Why is aerobic respiration more efficient?

Because oxygen is more electronegative.

60

Describe fermentation

- Used in alcoholic beverages or acidic dairy
- Anaerobic
- Food spoilage
- Does not use Krebs or ETC
- Small ATP production

61

Name two types of fermentation.

Lactate
ETOH

62

What is the chemical formula for alcoholic fermentation?

water + pyruvate -> CO2 + acetaldehyde

63

What is beta-oxidation?

Beta-oxidation is a metabolic process whereby fatty acids are broken down into acetyl-CoA. Each of these molecules is then processed for energy. This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.

64

Differentiate homolactic vs. hetrolactic

In homolactic fermentation, one molecule of glucose is ultimately converted to two molecules of lactic acid. Heterolactic fermentation,yields carbon dioxide and ethanol in addition to lactic acid, in a process called the phosphoketolase pathway.

65

What breaks down peptide chains?

Protease enzyme

66

Where is glycogen stored in the body?

In the liver and muscles

67

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

6CO2 +12H20 + LIGHT -> C6H12O6 + 6O2+ 6H20

68

Where does photosynthesis take place? At what best wavelength?

In chlorophyll
700 nm

69

Sketch the nutritional classification organization chart

Draw Fig. 5.28 on Pg. 138

70

What is ribulose biphosphate, RuBP?

5-carbon phosphate necessary for photosynthesis.

71

What is Calvin-Benson cycle?

Light-independent
CO2 used to synthesize sugars

72

What are the final electron acceptors in aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation?

Aerobic: O2
Anaerobic: NO3- and SO4-2
Fermentation: Organic compounds

73

What is the fate of pyruvate in aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Aerobic: CoA
Anaerobic: lactic acid or ETOH

74

What are two alternative pathways for the oxidation of glucose?

Pentose phosphate pathway
Entner-Doudoroff pathway

75

What type of cells does the Entner-Doudoroff pathway work on?

Gram negative

76

Where does the ETC occur in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Pro: plasma membrane
Euk: mitochondria

77

What is chemiosmotic theory?

How ions move across a permeable membrane according to the electron chain gradient.

78

What does ATP synthase do?

Provides the electrons for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.

79

How much energy is in on ATP molecule?

7.3 kcal

80

What is the mnemonic device to remember redox electron flow?

OIL RIG
Oxidation is loss
Reduction is gain

81

How many ATP in anaerobic respiration?

2 ATP

82

How is energy released?

A electrons are moved from carrier to carrier in ETC energy is released.

83

What is proton motive force?

Proton motive force is generated by the ETC which acts as a proton pump, using the energy of electrons from an electron carrier pump across the membrane

84

How do ions move across a permeable membrane?

According to electron chain gradient.