Flashcards in Ch 05 Microbial Metabolism Deck (84):
What does anabolism mean?
Building-up reactions requiring energy
What does catabolism mean?
Breaking-down reactions releasing energy
What is denaturation?
Loss of three dimensional structure. Remember ribbon unraveling illustration.
What is allosteric inhibition?
When an inhibitor binds to a site other than the substrate's binding site.
What do ribozymes do?
Cut and splice RNA and are involved in protein synthesis.
What is oxidation?
Removal of e that produces energy.
What is reduction?
Gain of elections.
How is ATP generated?
ADP + Energy > ATP
What is phosphorylation?
The transferring of inorganic phosphate from a donor to to a recipient.
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
C-C-C + P + ADP -> C-C-C + ATP
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
Electrons transferred from electron carriers to NAD and FAD. Occurs in the ETC.
What is photophosphorylation?
Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADH. Occurs inthe ETC.
What is carbohydrate catabolism?
The breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy.
What are the two processes microbes produce energy from glucose?
Cellular respiration and fermentation.
What is another name for Glycolysis and what does it mean?
Embden-Meyerhof Pathway. Means splitting of sugar. Does not require oxygen.
Which pathway does bacteria uses for glycolysis?
What is decarboxylation?
A chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide.
What is glycolysis?
The process in cell metabolism by which carbohydrates and sugars, especially glucose, are broken down, producing ATP and pyruvic acid.
What is the Krebs cycle?
A cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed
What is the electron transport chain?
A series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
What is fermentation?
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to lactic acid or alcohol.
What is the definition of metabolism?
The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism that release or require energy.
Name two catabolism reactions.
Hydrolytic reaction - use water to break bonds
Exergonic reaction - produce energy
Name two anabolic reactions.
Dehydration - release water
Endergonic reaction - consume more energy than produced
When are enzymes necessary?
When temp or pressure too low for chem reaction to occur.
What do enzymes do?
Bring reactions together
Promotes proper orientation
Lowers activation energy
Increases turnover rate
What are enzymes made of?
Not used up
Only for specific molecules
How does an allosteric inhibitor work?
It changes the shape of the active site after a non-competitive inhibitor joins
How do you control enzymes?
Temp, pH, pressure
Finish C6H12O6 >
CO2 + H2O + ATP
What are the three ways to make ATP?
Substrate level phosphorylation
What is a holoenzyme?
An apoenzyme plus a cofactor.
What is a apoenzyme?
An enzyme needing a cofactor but doesn't have one
What is feedback inhibition?
Blocking the first step of a process that turns the process off.
What is the most common energy source?
Does glycolysis requires or releases energy?
Requires energy but releases more than it requires.
Name the two alternative metabolic energy producing pathways.
Pentose phosphate pathway
Where in the cell does glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm
What does the Pentose phosphate yeild?
per every glucose, 1 ATP and 2 NADH
What does the Entner-Dudoroff pathway yeild
per every glucose, 1 ATP and 1 NADH
What is the reaction for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
Does glycolysis require oxygen?
List four nucleotides.
Is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient to generate ATP from ADP.
Define substrate-level phosphorylation.
Forms ATP or GTP by the transfer of PO3 to ADP.
Where does electron transport chain take place?
In the mitochondria of eukaryatic cells
In the plasma membrane of prokaryatic cells
Does fermentation have a net charge?
What is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration and aerobic respiration?
Cellular: lactic acid or pyruvate
Aerobic: O2 forming H2O
Glycolysis oxidizes glucose into what?
2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate
What is pyruvate?
The end result of glycolysis and is a key intermediate in several metabolic pathways.
Name three carrier molecules of the ETC.
What is important about the electron transport system?
- Uses NADH and FADH2
- Creates the most ATP
- Oxidative phosphorylation
What are the final products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic: oxygen making water
Anaerobic: pyruvate making lactic acid
How many ATP are formed for each NADH and FADH2?
3 ATP for each NADH
2 ATP for each FADH2
What is a proton?
A H+ atom created by removing an e- from a H atom.
What can be used as a final electron acceptor?
O2 - water
What percentage is aerobic respiration efficient? Car efficeincy?
What are the final electron acceptor in anaerobic electron transport?
Hydrogen sulfate SO4-2
All yeild low energy
Why is aerobic respiration more efficient?
Because oxygen is more electronegative.
- Used in alcoholic beverages or acidic dairy
- Food spoilage
- Does not use Krebs or ETC
- Small ATP production
Name two types of fermentation.
What is the chemical formula for alcoholic fermentation?
water + pyruvate -> CO2 + acetaldehyde
What is beta-oxidation?
Beta-oxidation is a metabolic process whereby fatty acids are broken down into acetyl-CoA. Each of these molecules is then processed for energy. This process occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.
Differentiate homolactic vs. hetrolactic
In homolactic fermentation, one molecule of glucose is ultimately converted to two molecules of lactic acid. Heterolactic fermentation,yields carbon dioxide and ethanol in addition to lactic acid, in a process called the phosphoketolase pathway.
What breaks down peptide chains?
Where is glycogen stored in the body?
In the liver and muscles
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 +12H20 + LIGHT -> C6H12O6 + 6O2+ 6H20
Where does photosynthesis take place? At what best wavelength?
Sketch the nutritional classification organization chart
Draw Fig. 5.28 on Pg. 138
What is ribulose biphosphate, RuBP?
5-carbon phosphate necessary for photosynthesis.
What is Calvin-Benson cycle?
CO2 used to synthesize sugars
What are the final electron acceptors in aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation?
Anaerobic: NO3- and SO4-2
Fermentation: Organic compounds
What is the fate of pyruvate in aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic: lactic acid or ETOH
What are two alternative pathways for the oxidation of glucose?
Pentose phosphate pathway
What type of cells does the Entner-Doudoroff pathway work on?
Where does the ETC occur in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Pro: plasma membrane
What is chemiosmotic theory?
How ions move across a permeable membrane according to the electron chain gradient.
What does ATP synthase do?
Provides the electrons for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
How much energy is in on ATP molecule?
What is the mnemonic device to remember redox electron flow?
Oxidation is loss
Reduction is gain
How many ATP in anaerobic respiration?
How is energy released?
A electrons are moved from carrier to carrier in ETC energy is released.
What is proton motive force?
Proton motive force is generated by the ETC which acts as a proton pump, using the energy of electrons from an electron carrier pump across the membrane