Flashcards in Ch 05 Microbial Metabolism Deck (84)
What does anabolism mean?
Building-up reactions requiring energy
What does catabolism mean?
Breaking-down reactions releasing energy
What is denaturation?
Loss of three dimensional structure. Remember ribbon unraveling illustration.
What is allosteric inhibition?
When an inhibitor binds to a site other than the substrate's binding site.
What do ribozymes do?
Cut and splice RNA and are involved in protein synthesis.
What is oxidation?
Removal of e that produces energy.
What is reduction?
Gain of elections.
How is ATP generated?
ADP + Energy > ATP
What is phosphorylation?
The transferring of inorganic phosphate from a donor to to a recipient.
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
C-C-C + P + ADP -> C-C-C + ATP
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
Electrons transferred from electron carriers to NAD and FAD. Occurs in the ETC.
What is photophosphorylation?
Conversion of light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADH. Occurs inthe ETC.
What is carbohydrate catabolism?
The breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy.
What are the two processes microbes produce energy from glucose?
Cellular respiration and fermentation.
What is another name for Glycolysis and what does it mean?
Embden-Meyerhof Pathway. Means splitting of sugar. Does not require oxygen.
Which pathway does bacteria uses for glycolysis?
What is decarboxylation?
A chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide.
What is glycolysis?
The process in cell metabolism by which carbohydrates and sugars, especially glucose, are broken down, producing ATP and pyruvic acid.
What is the Krebs cycle?
A cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed
What is the electron transport chain?
A series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
What is fermentation?
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to lactic acid or alcohol.
What is the definition of metabolism?
The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism that release or require energy.
Name two catabolism reactions.
Hydrolytic reaction - use water to break bonds
Exergonic reaction - produce energy
Name two anabolic reactions.
Dehydration - release water
Endergonic reaction - consume more energy than produced
When are enzymes necessary?
When temp or pressure too low for chem reaction to occur.
What do enzymes do?
Bring reactions together
Promotes proper orientation
Lowers activation energy
Increases turnover rate
What are enzymes made of?
Not used up
Only for specific molecules
How does an allosteric inhibitor work?
It changes the shape of the active site after a non-competitive inhibitor joins
How do you control enzymes?
Temp, pH, pressure