Where was insulin made from and where is it made now?
From pituitaries from cadavers Animal insulin was not an exact match + toxins Human insulin gene now placed in a RNA promoter to make insulin
What is monoclonal antibody?
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells consisting of identical antibody molecules.
What is familial cholesterolemia?
A genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels and high LDL.
What is micropropagation?
The propagation of plants by growing plantlets in tissue culture and then planting them out. Root beer colored roses.
What is used to break down oil spills?
What is recombinant DNA?
Cutting and splicing DNA from one species bacteria to another
What is a plasmid? What is a characteristic of plasmids?
A small circular piece of DNA. Plasmids are self replicating.
What is blue-white screening?
The blue-white screen is a screening technique that allows for the rapid and convenient detection of recombinant bacteria in vector-based molecular cloning experiments. DNA of interest is ligated into a vector.
What is a DNA library?
A DNA library is a collection of DNA fragments that have been cut by restriction enzymes and cloned into vectors so that researchers can identify and isolate the DNA fragments that interest them for further study. There are basically two kinds of libraries: genomic DNA and cDNA libraries.
What is cDNA?
Complementary DNA (cDNA) is double-stranded DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. cDNA is often used to clone eukaryotic genes
What is PCR?
Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a laboratory technique used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA. PCR is very precise and can be used to amplify, or copy, a specific DNA target from a mixture of DNA molecules.
What are the three things needed for PCR? Which causes specificity?
Primer - provides specificity Nucleotides DNA polyermase
How quickly does PCR work?
Each cycle doubles the DNA
What is Southern Blot?
Used to compare/identify DNA Restriction enzyme yields thousands of fragments Molecular differences are seen Fragments separated by electrophoresis
What is DNA fingerprinting?
The analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals.
What is DNA sequencing?
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
How big is the human genome project?
3.2 billion base pairs
What is a restriction enzyme?
An enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at a specific sequence of bases.
Give some examples of biotech.
Insulin Cancer treatments Pest/pesticide resistant crops Vaccines Antibiotics Flowers Bacteria to treat oil spills
What is the likelihood for a successful gene transfer?
Less than 5%