Flashcards in Ch 08 Microbial Genetics Deck (139)
What is a base substitution?
A single DNA pair is altered.
What is a frame shift mutation?
A DNA pair is removed causing a shift in the meaning.
What are the chain of events in the central dogma?
What is an inducible operon?
A gene in the off mode that is expressed, turning it on.
What is a repressible operon?
A gene that is in the ON expressed mode that is turned off, not expressed.
What causes diseases?
Presence of toxic proteins the damaged tissue.
What causes antibiotic resistance?
Mutations the bacterial genome.
What is a biofilm?
Growth on a surface caused by altered bacterial gene expression.
What is biotechnology?
The application of microbes to make a useful product.
What is a genome?
The total genetic information inside a cell including chromosomes and plasmids.
What are chromosomes?
Structures containing DNA that carry hereditary information
What are genes?
Segments of DNA and RNA.
What is DNA made up of?
Repeating nucleotides consisting of a nucleobase, A, T, C, G, a deoxyribose (pentose sugar), and a phosphate group.
How do the base pairs pair up?
What is the genetic code?
The rules determined how a nucleotide sequence is converted into an amino acid sequence.
What does it mean when a gene has been expressed?
When the gene codes for a protein have been produced.
What does a genotype mean?
The genetic make up including all its DNA.
What does a phenotype mean?
The expressed DNA properties.
What are the two types of proteins in a microbe?
Enzymatic that catalyze reactions or structural that support the membrane.
What are short tandem repeats?
What is vertical and horizontal gene transfer
Transfer from one generation to another.
Transfer among same generations.
What does semi conservative replication mean?
When the original DNA and a new strand come together
Which end of the DNA strand can new nucleotides attached to?
What is the name of the process that provides energy for adding a nucleotide to DNA?
Hydrolysis of the phosphate bonds.
What is transcription?
How are complementary strand from DNA forms RNA.
What does messenger RNA, mRNA, do?
Carries the information for making specific proteins from DNA to make RNA.
What are the two things that transcription requires
Where on the DNA strand does RNA transcription begin?
At the promoter.
What is genetics?
Heredity of cell replication, expression, and transfer from on generation to another.