Ch 1: Principles of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Pharmacology > Ch 1: Principles of Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 1: Principles of Pharmacology Deck (165)
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1

Neuropharmacology

concerned with drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system

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psychopharmacology

emphasizes drug induced changes in mood, thinking, and behavior

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neuropsychpharmacology

goal is to identify chemical substances that act on the nervous system to alter behavior that is disturbed because of injury, disease, or environmental factors

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drug action

specific molecular changes produced by a drug when it binds to a particular target site or receptor

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drug effects

alterations in physiological or psychological functions

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does a drug's effects occur just near its site of action?

no, the site of action may be very different from the site of drug effect

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therapeutic effects

drug-receptor interaction produces desired physical or behavioral changes

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side effects

vary in severity from mildly annoying to distressing and dangerous

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specific drug effects

based on the physical and biochemical interactions of a drug with a target site in living tissue

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nonspecific drug effects

those that are based not in the chemical activity of a drug-receptor interaction, but on certain unique characteristics of the individual

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placebo

a pharmacologically inert compound administered to an individual

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do placebos have effects?

yes, they can have both therapeutic and side effects

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why are placebos important?

they are essential in the design of experiments conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new medications because it eliminates the influence of expectation on the part of the subject

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double-blind experiment

neither the patient nor the observer knows what treatment the patient has received

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Four types of naming conventions for drugs

chemical name; generic name; brand name; slang/street name

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bioavailability

the amount of drug in the blood that is free to bind at specific target sites to elicit drug action

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Five parts that make up the pharmacokinetic component of drug action

1. routes of administration
2. absorption and distribution
3. binding
4. inactivation
5. excretion

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routes of administration

how/where a drug is administered

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absorption and distribution

drug passes through cersll membranes and enters the blood plasma where it travels around the body

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binding

with receptors or with depot binding

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inactivation

aka biotransformation occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the liver; influences both the intensity and the duration of drug effects

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excretion

liver metabolites are eliminated from the body with the urine or feces

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depot binding

binding to plasma proteins or may be stored temporarily in bone or fat, where it is inactive

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biotransformation

--

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enteral

methods of of administration use the GI tract; agents administered by these generally slow in onset and produce highly variable blood levels of drug

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most common method of enteral administration

oral

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parenteral

other routes of administration that aren't enteral; injection, pulmonary, topical administration

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oral administration (PO)

most popular; safe; economical

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what must happen for oral administration to be effective?

the drug must dissolve in stomach fluids and pass through the stomach wall to reach blood capillaries

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absorption

movement of the drug from the site of administration to the blood circulation