Flashcards in Ch. 10 Alcohol Deck (126)
Partial antagonist at NMDA receptors used for the treatment of alcoholism; blocks glutamate increase during withdrawal
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)
Enzyme in the liver that metabolizes the acetaldehyde intermediate formed by alcohol oxidation into acetic acid.
Rapid tolerance formed during a single administration of a drug, as is the case with alcohol. ex. several of the subjective and behavioral drug effects are greater while the blood level is increasing, than decreasing even if BAC are equal
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
Enzyme in the liver and stomach that oxidizes alcohol into acetaldehyde; reduces the amount of available alcohol for absorption (first pass effect)
Toxic effects associated with the ingestion of excess alcohol, characterized by unconsciousness, vomiting, irregular breathing, and cold, clammy skin.
Condition seen in chronic alcohol abusers caused by accumulation of acetaldehyde in the liver that kills cells, stimulates scar tissue formation, and promotes cell death as scar tissue cuts off blood supplies; irreversible but can be slowed
Condition seen in chronic alcohol abusers caused by accumulation of acetaldehyde in the liver and characterized by inflammation of the liver, fever, jaundice, and pain.
A form of substance abuse characterized by compulsive alcohol seeking and use despite damaging social and health effects.
The reduced effectiveness of a drug administered chronically that involves learning: either instrumental or classical conditioning.
Consumption of five or more alcoholic drinks within a 2-hour period.
Amnesia directly associated with heavy alcohol consumption.
blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
The amount of alcohol in a given unit of blood, usually given as a percent representing milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood.
Technique used to identify genes associated with a disorder by comparing the genes of unrelated affected and unaffected people to determine if those who are affected are more likely to possess a particular allele.
A drug that binds to CRF1 receptors and produces little or no conformational change. In the presence of a CRF agonist, the agonist effect is reduced; reduces post withdrawal escalation of alcohol use, reduced binging; prevented stress-induced relapse.
Withdrawal signs occurring in a dependent individual can be terminated by administering drugs in the same class; ex. sedative hypnotics and barbiturates/ benzodiazepines
Tolerance to a specific drug can reduce the effectiveness of a another drug in the same class.
cytochrome P450 (CYP450)
Class of liver enzymes, in the microsomal enzyme group, responsible for both phase 1 and phase 2 biotransformation of psychoactive drugs; convert alcohol to acetaldehyde
Severe effects of alcohol withdrawal characterized by irritability, headaches, agitation, hallucinations, and confusion.
Characteristic of alcoholics who insist that alcohol is not the source of their problems.
Procedure used to treat addicted individuals in which the drug is stopped and withdrawal symptoms are treated until the abstinence syndrome has ended; e.g. substituting a benzodiazepine to prevent withdrawal until stabilized and then gradually is reduced
A drug used to treat alcoholism by causing the buildup of toxic metabolites producing illness after alcohol intoxication; ex. inhibits ALHD the enzyme that converts acetaldehyde to acetic acid
Friends and family members who assist an alcoholic, allowing the individual to continue to function in society without getting treatment.
Damaging effect of alcohol characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides inside liver cells. Liver typically metabolizes fatty acids but when alcohol is present it metabolizes that leaving the fat for storage; is reversible
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
The damaging developmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
Effect of heavy alcohol consumption that may be a sign of withdrawal, acute toxicity, residual acetaldehyde in the body, alcohol induced gastric irritation, rebound drop in blood sugar, excess fluid loss the previous night, toxic effects from congeners (fermentation by-products).
1. Increase in liver enzymes specific for drug metabolism in response to repeated drug use. (metabolic tolerance) 2. Process that establishes psychostimulant sensitization by activating glutamate NMDA receptors and, in some cases, D1 receptors.
Method used to locate genes responsible for a disorder, such as alcoholism or schizophrenia, by comparing similarities in the genetic loci of families with affected members.
Type of tolerance to a drug that is characterized by a reduced amount of drug available at the target tissue, often as a result of more-rapid drug metabolism. It is sometimes also called drug disposition tolerance.
microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)
The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP 2E1 that metabolizes ethanol and many other drugs; MEOS activity increases after chronic alcohol consumption; converts ethanol to acetaldehyde