Ch 13: Nicotine and Caffeine Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Pharmacology > Ch 13: Nicotine and Caffeine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 13: Nicotine and Caffeine Deck (66)
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1

adenosine

Blockade of receptors for this substance is responsible for caffeine’s stimulant effects; serves a neurotransmitter-like function in the brain

2

caffeinism

Syndrome caused by taking excessive amounts of caffeine and characterized by restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, and physiological disturbances.

3

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Disorder of the respiratory system characterized by shortness of breath, wheezing, chronic coughing, and chest tightness. Two main conditions comprise COPD, namely emphysema and bronchitis.

4

cotinine

Principal product of nicotine metabolism by the liver; 70-80% is transformed into this

5

cytochrome P450 2A6

Specific type of cytochrome P450 that metabolizes nicotine into cotinine.

6

deprivation reversal model

Theory that smoking is maintained by mood enhancement (alleviation of irritability, stress) and increased concentration that occur when nicotine withdrawal symptoms are alleviated; proposes that smoking increases overall stress which must be countered by repeated smoking

7

mecamylamine

Drug that is an antagonist for nicotinic receptors; blocks action of residual nicotine

8

nicotine replacement

Method to stop smoking that involves giving the smoker a safer nicotine source, thereby maintaining a level of nicotine in the body and reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms; chewing gum (nicotine polacrilex) is absorbed in the mouth

9

nicotine resource model

Theory that smoking is maintained due to positive effects of nicotine such as increased concentration and greater mood control.

10

nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs)

Family of ionotropic receptors that are activated by ACh and selectively stimulated by nicotine. They may also be called nicotinic receptors; ionotropic receptors comprising five separate protein units

11

osmotic minipump

Device placed just under the skin of an animal that allows a drug to be administered continuously over a set period of time.

12

tar

Mixture of hydrocarbons created by the vaporization of nicotine in tobacco. Tar is a major component of cigarette smoke.

13

nicotine

alkaloid found in tobacco leaves; large leaf (Nicotiana tabacum), small leaf (Nicotiana rustica); large leaf is what is used today; 5% of drug tobacco leaves

14

amount of nicotine in a typical cigarette

6 and 11 mg; no more than 1-3 mg actually reaches the blood stream; enters lungs via tar

15

entry of nicotine into the brain

reaches in about 7 seconds; smoking is the quickest and most efficient method of delivering nicotine to the brain; arterial nicotine rises more rapidly and reaches a greater peak than in venous blood

16

excretion of nicotine and related metabolites

urine

17

are there protective effects against cigarette smoking?

slow breakdown of nicotine (low CYP2A6 activity)

18

what does normal levels of CYP2A6 activity and variation in a gene cluster that codes for subunits of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor play a role in?

what contributes to smoking frequency, risk for lung cancer, and nicotine dependence

19

half life of nicotine

2 hours

20

which receptors are more sensitive to nicotine?

neuronal receptors containing two alpha4 or alpha3 subunits along with the beta subunits are much more sensitive to nicotine than those composed of five alpha7 subunits

21

where are nicotinic cholingeric receptors found?

cerebral cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, monoamine-containing nuclei (substantia nigra; ventral tegmental area; locus coeruleus; raphe nuclei)

22

cause of nicotine poisioning

high doses of nicotine lead to a persistent activation of nicotinic receptors and a continuous depolarization of the postsynaptic cell. this causes a depolarization block and the cell cant fire again until the nicotine is removed--biphasic effect

23

mood effects of nicotine

increase calmness and relaxation and reduction in negative affect in smokers (relief from nicotine withdrawal); tension, lightheadedness, dizziness, nausea (non smokers)

24

calming effect in smokers

little difference between nicotine-containing and denicotinized cigarettes in any of these conditions--> conditioned stimuli associated with smoking play a significant role in the calming effects of this behavior in regular smokers

25

nicotine and cognitive function

enhanced performance on many cognitive and motor tasks (attentional demands)--> alleviation of withdrawal effects; improvements in find motor performance, accuracy and response latency in certain types of attentional and memory tasks; animals (sustained attention/working memory)

26

use of 5-choice serial reaction time task and cognitive function in mice using nicotine

improved performance with either acute or chronic nicotine administration, but poorer performance during withdrawal from chronic nicotine

27

what nicotine receptors are important in enhanced cognitive function?

nicotinic receptors containing alpha7 subunits

28

mesolimbic dopamina pathway and nicotine's reinforcing effects

VTA to nucleus accumbens; high affinity nicotinic receptors located in the VTA stimulate the firing of DA neurons, which causes increased DA release in the nucleus accumbens; lesioning the dopaminergic innervation of this area with 6-hydroxydopamine (6 OHDA) significantly attenuated nicotine self-administration

29

what nicotine receptors play a role in its rewarding effect?

VTA nicotinic receptors containing alpha6 and beta2 subunits; receptors in the nucleus accumbens contribue to reinforcement by modulating DA release

30

what receptor reduces nicotine self-administration?

alpha5 receptors in the medial habenula (posterior dorsal thalamus)