Flashcards in Chapter 18: Anxiety Disorders Deck (142)
Fear of public places.
Ethyl alcohol is an organic compound that is a product of fermentation and belongs to the class of sedative–hypnotics.
Feeling of extreme worry over the possibility that a certain unpleasant event will occur in a particular, often public, situation.
Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that prevent or control seizures. They are used to treat epilepsy.
Drugs that alleviate feelings of anxiety in humans and that reduce anxiety-related behaviors in animals.
Technique used to treat phobias by introducing the fear-inducing stimulus in increments, allowing the patient to maintain a relaxed feeling in its presence.
Drug that stimulates 5-HT1A receptors. Symptoms include increased appetite, reduced anxiety, reduced alcohol cravings, and a lower body temperature. It is prescribed as an antianxiety medication.
Large category of drugs that inhibit nerve cell firing within the central nervous system. They include sedative–hypnotics and are used to induce sleep and to treat symptoms of anxiety; include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol (all reduce neuron excitability)
Repetitive tasks that an individual feels obligated to complete in an effort to quell the anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts.
general anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive worrying that does not have a specific cause.
Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that help a patient to fall asleep and stay asleep.
Drug that has low lipid solubility, taking more than an hour to reach the brain. Slow metabolism or presence of active metabolites allows for prolonged effects that persist for long periods.
Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that reduce muscle tension in a patient.
Worrying thoughts or ideas that an individual cannot easily ignore
obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
Psychiatric anxiety disorder characterized by persistent thoughts of contamination, violence, sex, or religion that the individual cannot easily ignore, and that cause the individual anxiety, guilt, or shame, etc. and may be accompanied by compulsive repetitive behaviors.
Feeling of extreme fear that was not preceded by a threatening stimulus.
Disease involving repeated attacks of extreme fear, occurring either without warning or in an environment similar to where previous panic attacks occurred.
Fears of specific objects or situations that are recognized as irrational.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Emotional disorder that develops in response to a traumatic event, leaving the individual feeling a sense of fear, helplessness, and terror. Symptoms include sleep disturbances, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, intrusive thoughts reliving the event, and a numbing of general emotional responses. An increase in suicidal thoughts has also been observed.
Class of drugs that depresses nervous system activity. They are used to produce relaxation, reduce anxiety, and induce sleep.
Drugs that are moderately lipid-soluble, reaching the brain within 20 to 40 minutes. The drugs lose effectiveness over time due to liver metabolism.
Drugs that are highly lipid-soluble, reaching the brain within seconds when administered intravenously. They lose effectiveness quickly, as they rapidly redistribute to inactive drug depots in fat, bone, and muscle.
structure deep within the temporal lobes; major component of several emotional processing circuits
components of emotional processing circuits
amygdala, limbic cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus
what do the emotional circuits do?
evaluate environmental stimuli, contextual cues and cognitions that have emotional relevance and initiate appropriate responses via the amygdala
where does the amygdala receive information from
sensory thalamus, sensory and association cortices, hippocampal formation
what does the central nucleus of the amygdala do?
orchestrates the components of fear: ANS activation, enhanced reflexes, increased vigilance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and others
why does the central nucleus of the amygdala have such widespread effects?
because it has connections with multiple brain areas; lateral hypothalamus- activates sympathetic nervous system; periaqueductal gray- causes freezing; locus coeruleus- initiates arousal and vigilance
what is the central nucleus of the amygdala essential for?
the fear response