Chapter 18: Anxiety Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: Anxiety Disorders Deck (142)
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1

agoraphobia

Fear of public places.

2

alcohol

Ethyl alcohol is an organic compound that is a product of fermentation and belongs to the class of sedative–hypnotics.

3

anticipatory anxiety

Feeling of extreme worry over the possibility that a certain unpleasant event will occur in a particular, often public, situation.

4

anticonvulsants

Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that prevent or control seizures. They are used to treat epilepsy.

5

anxiolytics

Drugs that alleviate feelings of anxiety in humans and that reduce anxiety-related behaviors in animals.

6

behavioral desensitization

Technique used to treat phobias by introducing the fear-inducing stimulus in increments, allowing the patient to maintain a relaxed feeling in its presence.

7

buspirone (Buspar)

Drug that stimulates 5-HT1A receptors. Symptoms include increased appetite, reduced anxiety, reduced alcohol cravings, and a lower body temperature. It is prescribed as an antianxiety medication.

8

CNS depressants

Large category of drugs that inhibit nerve cell firing within the central nervous system. They include sedative–hypnotics and are used to induce sleep and to treat symptoms of anxiety; include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, alcohol (all reduce neuron excitability)

9

compulsions

Repetitive tasks that an individual feels obligated to complete in an effort to quell the anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts.

10

general anxiety disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive worrying that does not have a specific cause.

11

hypnotics

Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that help a patient to fall asleep and stay asleep.

12

long-acting drug

Drug that has low lipid solubility, taking more than an hour to reach the brain. Slow metabolism or presence of active metabolites allows for prolonged effects that persist for long periods.

13

muscle relaxants

Drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that reduce muscle tension in a patient.

14

obsessions

Worrying thoughts or ideas that an individual cannot easily ignore

15

obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)

Psychiatric anxiety disorder characterized by persistent thoughts of contamination, violence, sex, or religion that the individual cannot easily ignore, and that cause the individual anxiety, guilt, or shame, etc. and may be accompanied by compulsive repetitive behaviors.

16

panic attack

Feeling of extreme fear that was not preceded by a threatening stimulus.

17

panic disorder

Disease involving repeated attacks of extreme fear, occurring either without warning or in an environment similar to where previous panic attacks occurred.

18

phobias

Fears of specific objects or situations that are recognized as irrational.

19

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Emotional disorder that develops in response to a traumatic event, leaving the individual feeling a sense of fear, helplessness, and terror. Symptoms include sleep disturbances, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, intrusive thoughts reliving the event, and a numbing of general emotional responses. An increase in suicidal thoughts has also been observed.

20

sedative–hypnotics

Class of drugs that depresses nervous system activity. They are used to produce relaxation, reduce anxiety, and induce sleep.

21

short/intermediate-acting drugs

Drugs that are moderately lipid-soluble, reaching the brain within 20 to 40 minutes. The drugs lose effectiveness over time due to liver metabolism.

22

ultrashort-acting

Drugs that are highly lipid-soluble, reaching the brain within seconds when administered intravenously. They lose effectiveness quickly, as they rapidly redistribute to inactive drug depots in fat, bone, and muscle.

23

amygdaloid complex

structure deep within the temporal lobes; major component of several emotional processing circuits

24

components of emotional processing circuits

amygdala, limbic cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus

25

what do the emotional circuits do?

evaluate environmental stimuli, contextual cues and cognitions that have emotional relevance and initiate appropriate responses via the amygdala

26

where does the amygdala receive information from

sensory thalamus, sensory and association cortices, hippocampal formation

27

what does the central nucleus of the amygdala do?

orchestrates the components of fear: ANS activation, enhanced reflexes, increased vigilance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and others

28

why does the central nucleus of the amygdala have such widespread effects?

because it has connections with multiple brain areas; lateral hypothalamus- activates sympathetic nervous system; periaqueductal gray- causes freezing; locus coeruleus- initiates arousal and vigilance

29

what is the central nucleus of the amygdala essential for?

the fear response

30

what does the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) do?

called the extended amygdala; responsible for the behavioral responses in anxiety; projects to the same areas as the amygdala but acts differently