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Flashcards in chapter 1 vocab Deck (96)
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1

absorption

Movement of a drug from the site of administration to the circulatory system.

2

acute tolerance

Rapid tolerance formed during a single administration of a drug, as is the case with alcohol.

3

additive effects

Drug interactions characterized by the collective sum of the two individual drug effects.

4

affinity

Attraction between a molecule and a receptor.

5

area postrema

Area in the medulla of the brain stem that is not isolated from chemicals in the blood. It is responsible for inducing a vomiting response when a toxic substance is present in the blood.

6

astrocytes

Star-shaped cells of the nerve tissue that have numerous extensions and that modulate the chemical environment around neurons, metabolically assist neurons, and provide phagocytosis for cellular debris.

7

behavioral tolerance

The reduced effectiveness of a drug administered chronically that involves learning: either instrumental or classical conditioning.

8

bioavailability

Concentration of drug present in the blood that is free to bind to specific target sites.

9

biotransformation

Inactivation of a drug through a chemical change, usually by metabolic processes in the liver.

10

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning that protects against trauma.

11

classical conditioning

Repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a (conditioned) response that is similar to the original unconditioned response.

12

competitive antagonist

Drug that binds to a receptor but has little or no efficacy. When it competes with an agonist for receptor sites, it reduces the effect of the agonist.

13

concentration gradient

Difference in the amount or concentration of a substance on each side of a biological barrier, such as the cell membrane.

14

cross-tolerance

Tolerance to a specific drug can reduce the effectiveness of a another drug in the same class.

15

cytochrome P450 (CYP450)

Class of liver enzymes, in the microsomal enzyme group, responsible for both phase 1 and phase 2 biotransformation of psychoactive drugs.

16

depot binding

Type of drug interaction involving binding to an inactive site, such as to proteins in the plasma, to bone, or to fat.

17

dose-response curve

Graph used to display the amount of biological change in relation to a given drug dose.

18

double-blind experiment

Type of experiment in which neither the patient nor the observer knows the treatment received by the patient.

19

down-regulation

Decrease in the number of receptors, which may be a consequence of chronic agonist treatment.

20

drug action

Molecular changes associated with a drug binding to a particular target site or receptor.

21

drug competition

Interaction between two drugs that share a metabolic system and compete for the same metabolic enzymes. Bioavailability of one or both increases.

22

drug depots

Inactive sites where drugs accumulate. There is no biological effect from drugs binding at these sites, nor can they be metabolized.

23

drug disposition tolerance

metabolic tolerance

24

drug effects

Alterations in physiological or psychological functions associated with a specific drug.

25

efficacy

The extent to which a ligand-receptor binding initiates a biological action (e.g., the ability of an agonist to activate its receptor).

26

enteral

Drug administration by oral or rectal routes.

27

enzyme induction

Increase in liver drug-metabolizing enzymes associated with repeated drug use.

28

enzyme inhibition

Reduction in liver enzyme activity associated with a specific drug.

29

epidural

Method that involves administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord.

30

fenestrations

Large pores in endothelial cells allowing rapid exchange between blood vessels and tissue