Flashcards in chapter 1 vocab Deck (96)
Movement of a drug from the site of administration to the circulatory system.
Rapid tolerance formed during a single administration of a drug, as is the case with alcohol.
Drug interactions characterized by the collective sum of the two individual drug effects.
Attraction between a molecule and a receptor.
Area in the medulla of the brain stem that is not isolated from chemicals in the blood. It is responsible for inducing a vomiting response when a toxic substance is present in the blood.
Star-shaped cells of the nerve tissue that have numerous extensions and that modulate the chemical environment around neurons, metabolically assist neurons, and provide phagocytosis for cellular debris.
The reduced effectiveness of a drug administered chronically that involves learning: either instrumental or classical conditioning.
Concentration of drug present in the blood that is free to bind to specific target sites.
Inactivation of a drug through a chemical change, usually by metabolic processes in the liver.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning that protects against trauma.
Repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a (conditioned) response that is similar to the original unconditioned response.
Drug that binds to a receptor but has little or no efficacy. When it competes with an agonist for receptor sites, it reduces the effect of the agonist.
Difference in the amount or concentration of a substance on each side of a biological barrier, such as the cell membrane.
Tolerance to a specific drug can reduce the effectiveness of a another drug in the same class.
cytochrome P450 (CYP450)
Class of liver enzymes, in the microsomal enzyme group, responsible for both phase 1 and phase 2 biotransformation of psychoactive drugs.
Type of drug interaction involving binding to an inactive site, such as to proteins in the plasma, to bone, or to fat.
Graph used to display the amount of biological change in relation to a given drug dose.
Type of experiment in which neither the patient nor the observer knows the treatment received by the patient.
Decrease in the number of receptors, which may be a consequence of chronic agonist treatment.
Molecular changes associated with a drug binding to a particular target site or receptor.
Interaction between two drugs that share a metabolic system and compete for the same metabolic enzymes. Bioavailability of one or both increases.
Inactive sites where drugs accumulate. There is no biological effect from drugs binding at these sites, nor can they be metabolized.
drug disposition tolerance
Alterations in physiological or psychological functions associated with a specific drug.
The extent to which a ligand-receptor binding initiates a biological action (e.g., the ability of an agonist to activate its receptor).
Drug administration by oral or rectal routes.
Increase in liver drug-metabolizing enzymes associated with repeated drug use.
Reduction in liver enzyme activity associated with a specific drug.
Method that involves administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord.