Chapter 11: Opioids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Opioids Deck (128)
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1

abstinence syndrome

Condition characterized by unpleasant symptoms when an individual tries to cease drug use; AKA withdrawal

2

anesthetic

General anesthetics are substances that depress the CNS, decreasing all sensations in the body and causing unconsciousness. Local anesthetics do not cause unconsciousness, but prevent pain signals by blocking Na+ channels.

3

buprenorphine (buprenex)

An opioid partial agonist–antagonist used in opioid treatment programs that may be substituted for methadone and yields similar treatment results; high affinity but low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor as well as antagonist activity at the k-receptor, it has weaker opioid effects and is less likely to result in overdose; has a long duration; can lead to respiratory depression and death when combined with CNS depressants

4

clonidine

An α2-adrenergic agonist that stimulates NE autoreceptors and inhibits noradrenergic cell firing. It is used to reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal; reverses hyperexcitable state to relieve symptoms (chills, tearing, yawning, stomach cramps, sweating, muscle aches).

5

Cross-dependence

Withdrawal signs occurring in a dependent individual can be terminated by administering drugs in the same class.

6

cross-tolerance

Tolerance to a specific drug can reduce the effectiveness of a another drug in the same class.

7

δ-receptor

A type of opioid receptor primarily in the forebrain that may help regulate olfaction, motor integration, reinforcement, and cognitive function.

8

descending modulatory pathways

Bundles of nerve fibers originating at higher brain regions that influence lower brain or spinal cord function. One arises from the PAG in the the midbrain and influences pain signals carried by the spinal cord neurons.

9

detoxified

A drug user undergoing detoxification is considered to be detoxified when signs of the abstinence syndrome end.

10

endomorphins

Group of endogenous opioid peptides in the CNS that selectively bind to the opioid receptor, and eliminate pain.

11

endorphins

Group of endogneous peptides in the brain that stimulate mu and delta opioid receptors, reducing pain and enhancing one’s general mood.

12

k-receptor

An opioid receptor located in the striatum, amygdala, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland that may help regulate pain, perception, gut motility, dysphoria, water balance, hunger, temperature, and neuroendocrine function.

13

methadone

A long-acting opioid drug that may be substituted for other opioids in order to prevent withdrawal symptoms during detox; reduces symptoms to a comfortable level.

14

methadone maintenance program

Most effective treatment program for opioid addicts that involves the substitution of the opioid with methadone to prevent withdrawal symptoms and avoid a relapse.

15

μ-receptor

A subtype of opioid receptor located in the brain and spinal cord that has a high affinity for morphine and certain other opiate drugs.

16

multidimensional approach

Treatment that involves a combination of methods to prevent drug abuse relapse, including detoxification, pharmacological support, and counseling.

17

narcotic analgesics

Class of drugs originally derived from the opium poppy that reduce pain but do not cause unconsciousness. They create a feeling of relaxation and sleep in an individual, but in high doses can cause coma or death.

18

NOP-R

One of the four opioid receptors. It is widely distributed in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system and is activated by the neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ.

19

partial agonists

Drugs that bind to a receptor but have low efficacy, producing weaker biological effects than a full agonist. Hence they act as agonists at some receptors and antagonists at others, depending on the regional concentration of full agonist. These were previously called mixed agonist-antagonists.

20

physical dependence

Developed need for a drug, such as alcohol or opioids, by the body as a result of prolonged drug use. Termination of drug use will lead to withdrawal symptoms (abstinence).

21

primers

Drug-like effects caused by stress or drug-conditioned stimuli that reinstate drug use after abstinence.

22

pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)

One of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (endorphins) in the brain.

23

prodynorphin

One of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (dynorphins) in the brain.

24

proenkephalin

One of the four large opioid propeptide precursors that are broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (enkephalins) in the brain.

25

pronociceptin/ orphanin FQ

One of the four large opioid propeptide precursors, that is broken down by proteases to form smaller active opioids (nociceptin, orphanin FQ) in the brain.

26

pure antagonist

Drug that produces no pharmacological activity (i.e., no efficacy) and that can prevent or reverse the effects of a drug agonist by occupying the receptor site.

27

receptor cloning

Process used to produce large amounts of identical receptor proteins in a cell line.

28

sensitization

Enhanced response to a particular drug after repeated drug exposure.

29

spinal interneurons

Nerve cells with short axons within the spinal cord.

30

suraspinal

Located above the spinal cord or spine